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We conducted a cohort study using data prospectively collected by the French Pharmacovigilance Centres participating to the Terappel program and the Centre de Référence sur les Agents Tératogènes between 2004 and 2011. The exposed group consisted of pregnant women exposed to aripiprazole during embryogenesis, and the unexposed group consisted of pregnant women without exposure or exposed to non-teratogenic agents. Two unexposed patients, matched for age and gestational age at call, were randomly selected for each exposed patient.
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California, Missouri, and Oregon. Patients A total of 109 451 individuals receiving Medicaid who began taking SGA medication and a control cohort of 203 527 patients who began taking albuterol but did not receive antipsychotic medication.
A 45-year-old man with bipolar disease type I and post-traumatic frontal lobe lesions following a previous psychotic episode was hospitalised after having stopped taking aripiprazole (15 mg/day) and lithium (126 mg twice/daily). He presented with hypomania, psychosis, verbal unresponsiveness and disorientation. He engaged in compulsive onanism in public which resulted in the restriction of his freedom, suggesting impulse control disorder (ICD). Electroencephalogram showed no epileptiform activity. Brain CT-scan showed post-traumatic bifrontal and left occipital lesions. Viral and bacterial serologies were normal. Lithium was initially reinstated (same dose), but it was aripiprazole reinstatement at a lower dose (10 mg) that made his condition rapidly improve within 24-36 h. Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine D2-receptor antagonist that blocks dopamine at higher dopamine concentrations and augments/releases prefrontal cortex dopamine at lower concentrations. The rapid recovery suggests stabilisation of dopamine levels in the frontal lobes and that ICD may be modified by aripiprazole treatment.
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General practitioners will frequently be the initial source of assistance for patients with acute psychosis and their families. The patient with first episode psychosis may pose particular challenges, especially as insight about the need for treatment is often poor. The first step is to establish a therapeutic alliance, enabling history, examination and investigations. While it is necessary to establish the presence of psychosis, precise diagnosis is usually a secondary consideration. Risk assessment must be carried out to decide whether the patient can be managed in the community or needs inpatient care.
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A case series of 11 consecutive patients with TS (age range 7-50 years; M = 7) who were felt to require neuroleptic medication, were treated with aripiprazole, the majority of whom had been refractory to treatment with other neuroleptics, and in one case, Habit Reversal Training as well.
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Seven out of 18 participants (38.9%) randomized to the haloperidol group terminated the study ahead of schedule. In the reserpine and the haloperidol group, significantly higher levels of negative and positive symptoms (PANSS scale) were documented. Depressive symptoms predominantly occurred in the reserpine group. Among all participants experiencing the antidopaminergic intervention, the subgroup with positive family history among first and second-generation relatives developed more pronounced depressive symptoms. Concerning extrapyramidal motor symptoms, the haloperidol group had significantly more severe manifestations than all three other groups.
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On the basis of these 3 cases, aripiprazole can cause hypertriglyceridemia. Triglyceride levels should be carefully monitored in patients with mental disorders taking aripiprazole.
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To report a case of severe clozapine-induced hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia that resolved after therapy was switched to aripiprazole.
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To characterize associations between the combined warnings and recommendations and baseline metabolic testing and SGA drug selection.
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The literature search identified 13 scales used to assess the severity of agitation across multiple patient populations; only 3 of these reports involved the prediction of aggression/violence in patients with agitation, and 1 involved prediction of the need for medication. Thirty-one clinical trials of pharmacotherapy for agitation were identified by the literature search. Based on their results, orally administered olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine, haloperidol, and lorazepam; intramuscularly administered olanzapine, lorazepam, ziprasidone, haloperidol, aripiprazole, midazolam, and droperidol; and intravenously administered droperidol and lorazepam were effective for the treatment of agitation. The intramuscular route of administration was associated with a more rapid onset of action compared with the oral route (eg, for olanzapine, 30 minutes vs 1 hour, respectively).
We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) and ClinicalTrials.gov (February 2009).
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This is a post-hoc, pooled analysis of two trials of aripiprazole augmentation of standard antidepressants (ADT) in patients with major depression. Patients with an inadequate response to ADT received adjunctive aripiprazole (n=373) or placebo (n=368) for 6 weeks. Change on four subscales of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) that capture core depression symptoms was determined and change on individual HAM-D items also was assessed. The magnitude of within-group change for the subscales and individual items was expressed as effect size (ES) and between-group significance tested with ANCOVA. The magnitude of change was also examined comparing the response rates for aripiprazole and placebo on HAM-D17 and the four subscales. Change on three composite subscales - anxiety, insomnia and drive was also examined.
Sixty-five children aged 6-14 years old with tic disorders were randomly assigned to two groups: aripiprazole (2.5-10 mg/d) and tiapride treatment (25- 400 mg/d). After 12 weeks treatment, the clinical efficacy was assessed by the Yale Global Tie Severity Scale (YGTSS) score and the adverse reactions were observed.
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This analysis confirms clinical benefits in early treatment/assessment for subjects with bipolar mania and suggests that certain symptom factors in mixed or manic episodes may be most predictive of treatment response.
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The use of amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone in depression (both bipolar I and II) as well as in manic states has been evaluated. Preference was given to well designed randomized clinical trials. The effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotics in manic states has been shown. It is suggested that when an antipsychotic agent is needed, preference should be given to an atypical antipsychotic over the classic drug.
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to assess differences in the speed of onset of antimanic efficacy between haloperidol (as most studied first-generation antipsychotic) and second-generation antipsychotics.
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Of the patients with a maintenance phase in follow-up, adequate maintenance treatment was received by 75.3% for some time, but by only 61.0% throughout the maintenance phase and for 69.3% of the time (783/1129 patient months) indicated. Uninterrupted adequate maintenance treatment received was most strongly independently associated with having a clinical diagnosis of BD; other associations included inpatient treatment, rapid cycling and not having a personality disorder.
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In this study, there was no statistically significant difference between aripiprazole and placebo in time to relapse during maintenance therapy. However, the HR and NNT suggest some patients will benefit from maintenance treatment. Patients receiving aripiprazole should be periodically reassessed to determine the continued need for treatment.
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This was an open-label, flexible-dose study to evaluate the safety of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with a primary diagnosis of a chronic tic disorder with/without co-morbid disorder(s).
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After initial positive, short case reports and clinical trials, larger studies failed to show the effectiveness of AAPs combined with antidepressants for TRD. More recently, larger scale clinical trials have supported the effectiveness of at least some of these medications. While AAPs have gained in popularity for TRD, there are nagging concerns regarding risks such as metabolic syndrome and tardive dyskinesia.
We conducted this 6-week open-label trial to examine the effects of adjunctive aripiprazole in clozapine-treated subjects on weight, lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
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1. Two reviewers extracted data from included trials2. Data were pooled where possible, and analysed using appropriate statistical methods3. Analysis included patients treated with an atypical antipsychotic, compared with placebo
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Advances in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics require new competencies related to pharmaceutical prescribing. First, both physicians and pharmacists need to recognize the potential negative impact of nutrients and dietary supplements on the absorption, metabolism, and utilization of prescription drugs. Second, physicians, even more than pharmacists, need to recognize the potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals on the absorption, metabolism, and utilization of nutrients. This article discusses common drug-nutrient interactions and presents a case that illustrates how unrecognized nutrient disruption may negatively affect a patient's health and potentially result in unnecessary prescribing of medications. In presenting the case, we also provide a conceptual framework for assessing and treating this patient and a summary of current knowledge regarding drug-nutrient interactions.
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The administration of aripiprazole (ARI), a dopamine partial agonist, could provoke abrupt psychotic worsening in patients with schizophrenia. We explored the relationship between this psychotic worsening and dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP), which is a clinically vulnerable state. We conducted a retrospective investigation for 264 patients whose treatment medication was switched to ARI from other antipsychotics. We divided the patients into the DSP(+) group with a history of DSP episode(s) (N = 70) and the DSP(-) group without such a history (N = 194), and then compared the clinical factors relevant to the success or failure of the switch to ARI between them. The results revealed that patients in the DSP(+) group experienced psychotic worsening following the switch to ARI with a significant higher rate compared to the DSP(-) group (23% vs. 8%, P < 0.01). Moreover, the dosages of the drugs before the ARI introduction in the patients experiencing the psychotic worsening in the DSP (-) group were higher than those in other patients of the group. Our findings suggest that patients who receive high dosages of antipsychotic drugs form overt or covert DSP and such state is highly associated with psychotic worsening following ARI treatment.
Various atypical antipsychotics at geriatric doses yielded a positive treatment response in nearly two-thirds of VLOSLP patients. Patients with less chronic, more severe symptoms responded at a higher rate. Prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with representative subject samples are needed to validate these preliminary findings.
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Of the 22,622 patients with ADHD identified to have used AAPs after a stimulant, 15,664 (69%) patients did not have a psychiatric diagnosis for which AAPs were FDA-indicated or commonly used. Among the 84,558 patients using non-antipsychotics after a stimulant, 81,397 (96%) did not have such psychiatric diagnoses. A total of 2,127 children in the AAP cohort and 16,508 children in the non-antipsychotic cohort met all of the study inclusion criteria. After propensity score matching, 1,857 children (358 switchers and 1,499 augmenters) were included in each of the matched cohorts. The baseline characteristics were well balanced between the matched cohorts. In the 12 months post-index date, children treated with AAPs were more likely to experience switching (KM: 17.2% vs. 10.4% at 12 months; HR = 1.75) and augmentation (KM: 43.4% vs. 22.4% at 12 months; HR = 2.62) than the non-antipsychotic group (both P less than 0.001). Rates of discontinuation were similar between groups (KM: 71.8% vs. 71.7% at 12 months; HR = 0.98, P = 0.600). The AAP cohort also had higher mean numbers of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and outpatient visits (0.08 vs. 0.03, 0.34 vs. 0.25, 14.1 vs. 12.7 per patient, respectively; event rate ratios = 2.61, 1.33, and 1.11, respectively; all P less than 0.001). The AAP group also incurred higher all-cause mean medical, prescription drug, and total health care costs compared with the non-antipsychotic group ($3,090 vs. $2,238; $3,844 vs. $2,509; $6,934 vs. $4,748, respectively; all P less than 0.001). Patients in the AAP group also incurred higher mean total, medical, and drug costs related to mental health ($5,057 vs. $2,859; $1,555 vs. $964; $3,502 vs. $1,895, respectively; all P less than 0.001).