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Patients (n=98, age 65+/-9 years, 37% women) were randomized to double-blind treatment with ramipril 5 mg. day(-1)(n=32), ramipril 1.25 mg. day(-1)(n=34), or placebo (n=32). Resting and post maximum exercise echocardiography/Doppler examinations were performed at baseline and after 6 months. Changes over 6 months in resting transmitral E-wave deceleration time (Edt) and Edt adjusted for heart rate (Edt/RR) differed between the ramipril 5 mg, ramipril 1.25 mg, and placebo groups: Edt 24+/-82, -1+/-69, and -29+/-64 ms, respectively, P=0. 012; Edt/RR 30+/-105, 2+/-61, and -28+/-69 ms, respectively, P=0.015. Changes in the difference between resting and post exercise Edt/RR also varied between groups: -53+/-137, -28+/-118, and 35+/-101 ms, respectively, P=0.029. No differences in E/A indices were noted. Resting atrioventricular plane displacement improved in the combined ramipril groups vs the placebo group: 0.2+/-0.8 vs -0.2+/-1.3 mm, P<0.05.Conclusion Six months ramipril treatment in patients with stable ischaemic heart disease and preserved left ventricular systolic function improved resting left ventricular function and reduced the exercise induced diastolic filling abnormalities usually seen in these patients.
One hundred and six patients were evaluable at the end of the study period and 21 different genotypes were observed among them. Seven of them were classified as responders after 8 weeks and at the end of 12 weeks, an additional 77 (72.64%) were deemed responders. 19/22 non-responders were treated with combination therapy and 7/19 (36.84%) showed a response to the same. There was a significant difference between the proportions of responders and non-responders among the genotypes of the ADD1 and β1-ADR genes (P=0.005 and 0.003, respectively). The best predictors of response to Ramipril 5 mg daily were the II/GG/SS, II/TG/SS, II/GG/SG, ID/GG/SS, ID/GG/SG and ID/TT/SS and DD/GG/SS; II/GG/GG, II/TT/SG, ID/TG/SG, ID/TT/SG, DD/GG/SG and DD/GG/GG were moderately predictive and II/TT/SS, II/TG/GG, ID/TG/GG, DD/TG/SG and DD/TG/GG were poorly predictive of response.
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Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and may play a role in cardiovascular disease. We examined adiponectin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who participated in the Telmisartan vs. Ramipril in Renal Endothelial Dysfunction (TRENDY) study.
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Secondary prevention patients were screened for eligibility and treated with ramipril for 6 month. Baseline and 6-month highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels were determined.
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We investigated the role of kinins in the acute depressor effect of captopril and ramiprilat in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Since the vasodepressor action of kinins may be linked to the generation of prostaglandins and endothelium-derived relaxing factors, we also investigated the role of prostaglandins and nitric oxide in the blood pressure reduction caused by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. To this end, we contrasted the hypotensive effects of captopril (10 mg/kg i.v.), ramiprilat (2 mg/kg i.v.), and the angiotensin II antagonist DuP 753 (30 mg/kg i.v.) in spontaneously hypertensive rats with and without pretreatment with a kinin antagonist (D-Arg-Arg-Pro-Hyp-Gly-Thi-Ser-D-Phe-Thi-Arg-trifluoroacetic acid) (200 micrograms/kg/min i.v.), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine) (15 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg/hr i.v.), or an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis (indomethacin) (10 mg/kg i.v.). The kinin antagonist did not affect blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats but did attenuate the hypotensive effect of captopril and ramiprilat; the kinin antagonist did not minimize the depressor action of DuP 753. The nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor increased blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats and attenuated the hypotensive effect of captopril, ramiprilat, and DuP 753, but it did not impede the hypotensive effect of sodium nitroprusside. Pretreatment of hypertensive rats with indomethacin did not modify the acute hypotensive effect of ramiprilat or captopril. These data suggest a contribution of endogenous kinins and nitric oxide to the acute antihypertensive effect of captopril and ramiprilat in spontaneously hypertensive rats and of nitric oxide to the hypotensive effect of DuP 753.
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ACE-Is have greater potential than ARBs to enhance L-arg effects in the kidney in uncomplicated Type 1 diabetes. Neither RAS inhibitor influenced the systemic effects of L-arg. The lack of changes in renal NO indicators parallelling the haemodynamic responses, suggests that the effects of ACE-I on L-arg-induced renal haemodynamic changes could be also attributable to NO-independent mechanisms.
On included 538 patients. On registred 54 drop out, with side effects (3.75/). Completed the study 484 (237 M, 247 F), 429 of them with Lercanidipine in monotherapy (88.6/). Mean age 60.9 +/- 10.7. Mean BMI 29.1 +/- 5. The grade of anxiety did not alter during the study passing from 4.6 +/- 1.7 at the beginning of the study to 4.5 +/- 1.7 at the end of the study (valuation in decatypes) (ns). The psychosomatic semiology changed favourably from 10.7 +/-4.2 to 12.5 +/- 3.7 (p<0.00005). The evolution according to sex is similar. The mean SBP decreased from 165.6 +/- 12.2 mm Hg to 137.9 +/- 10.4 mm Hg (p<0.00005) and the mean DBP decreased from 96.5 +/- 8.1 mm Hg to 81.0 +/- 6.1 mm Hg (p<0.00005). Clinical tolerance was very good. Biochemical parameters were modified substantially: initial cholesterolemia 227.7 mg/dl and final cholesterolemia 213.6 mg/dl (p<0.00005); initial glucose 108.4 mg/dl and final glucose 105.7 mg/dl (p<0.00005).
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These findings illustrate that bradykinin plays an important role for the beneficial effect of Ramipril in preventing (and potentially reversing) abnormal cardiovascular structure in uremic hypertensive rats.
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Fifty eight patients were treated with Ramipril and a subgroup received Pycnogenol in addition for six months. Colour Doppler duplex ultrasound was employed for cortical flow measurements.
To evaluate factors of action of ramipril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme, which may induce a decrease in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), 45 LVH patients aged 21-53 years with mild and moderate essential hypertension have underwent echo-CG determination of left ventricular mass and 24-h monitoring of arterial pressure (AP). Multiple regression was used to examine prognostic significance of such parameters as age, sex, height, weight, duration of the disease, mean 24-h AP, its variability and the degree of nocturnal fall. It was found that ramipril reduced LVH irrespective of the hypotensive effect.
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Changes induced by intense physical exercise on quantitative and qualitative proteinuria were evaluated in basal conditions and after 10 days of ramipril therapy in 10 patients with IgA nephropathy, normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria between 0.8 and 1.49 g/24 h, and "glomerular" microhematuria before and after the end of a maximal treadmill Bruce test (B-test). The basal study also was performed in 10 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers.
We used the single carotid ligation stroke model in the gerbil. Six groups of 50 gerbils were treated either with placebo, erythropoietin (intraperitoneally, 5000 IU/kg, 2 and 48 h after stroke), olmesartan (10 mg/kg per day in drinking water started 36 h after stroke), ramipril (2.5 mg/kg per day in drinking water started 36 h after stroke), erythropoietin + olmesartan, or erythropoietin + ramipril. Long-term (1 month) Kaplan-Meyer survival curves were obtained, and survivors were submitted at day 30 to immediate (object recognition test) and spatial (Morris water maze) memory function tests.
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The present observations show that inadequate metabolic control and refractory hypertension in type 2 diabetics accelerate progression of diabetic nephropathy, and may thus negate the nephroprotective effect of the converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril.
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Blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients prevents heart failure and recurrent thrombosis. Our aim was to compare the effects of ramipril and losartan upon the markers of heart failure, endogenous fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation in STEMI patients over the long term.
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In this typically elderly group of HF patients with normal LVEF, diuretic therapy significantly improved symptoms and neither irbesartan nor ramipril had a significant additional effect. However, diuretics in combination with irbesartan or ramipril marginally improved LV systolic and diastolic longitudinal LV function, and lowered NT-proBNP over 1 year.
Peer-reviewed clinical trials, review articles, and relevant treatment guidelines were identified from MEDLINE and Current Contents (both 1966 to August 31, 2011) using the search terms azilsartan, TAK-491, TAK-536, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacoeconomics, and cost-effectiveness. The FDA Web site and manufacturer prescribing information were also reviewed to identify other relevant information.
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Serum PTX3, hsCRP, and albumin levels and proteinuria were significantly decreased, and FMD levels were significantly increased, after ramipril treatment. FMD was negatively correlated with serum PTX3, 24-h proteinuria, and hsCRP levels and positively correlated to serum albumin both at baseline and after the 12-wk treatment period. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that PTX3 levels were independently related to FMD both before and after ramipril treatment.
By the end of the study significant regression of IMT (0.1(0.05-0.16) mm, F-value 10.2, P < 0.01) and left ventricular mass index had occurred (25(10.7-39.3) g/m2, F-value 9.7, P < 0.01). The reduction in IMT was significantly related to the reduction in mean arterial pressure, r = 0.55, P = 0.05).
Specific features of the 24 h-blood pressure (BP) pattern are linked to the progressive injury of target tissues and risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Studies have consistently shown an association between blunted asleep BP decline and increased incidence of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Thus, there is growing interest in how to achieve better BP control during nighttime sleep in addition to during daytime activity, according to the particular requirements of each hypertension patient. One approach takes into consideration the endogenous circadian rhythm-determinants of the 24-h BP pattern, especially, the prominent day-night variation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which activates during nighttime sleep. A series of clinical studies have demonstrated a different effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors benazepril, captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, spirapril, and trandolapril when routinely ingested in the morning vs. the evening. In most cases, the evening schedule exerts a more marked effect on the asleep than awake BP means. Similarly, a once-daily evening, in comparison to morning, ingestion schedule of the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) irbesartan, olmesartan, telmisartan, and valsartan exerts greater therapeutic effect on asleep BP, plus significant increase in the sleep-time relative BP decline, with normalization of the circadian BP profile toward a more dipping pattern, independent of drug terminal half-life. Chronotherapy, the timing of treatment to body rhythms, is a cost-effective means of both individualizing and optimizing the treatment of hypertension through normalization of the 24-h BP level and profile, and it may constitute an effective option to reduce cardiovascular risk.