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A 67-year-old woman with a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and 6 years of evolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with fever, purulent sputum and right chest pain. She was on treatment with metformin 850 mg/bid, glimepiride 4 mg/day, candesartan 16 mg/day, atorvastatin 10mg/day and acetylsalicylic acid 100mg/day. Standing out in the physical examination was blood pressure 90/50 mmHg, temperature 38.6 °C, pulse 112/min, respirations 24/min, weight 8 5 kg, height 1.68 m. She had crackling rales in the right lung-base and edema in lower limbs. The blood analysis showed leukocytosis, glucose 348 mg/dl, urea 70 mg/dl, creatinine 1.5mg/dl and HbA1c 8.4%. A chest x-ray revealed condensation in the lower lobe of the right lung. Antibiotic treatment was begun, maintaining an oral diet from admission. What is the best strategy regarding the treatment of this patient's hyperglycemia, its management and what evidence is there on this subject?
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Treatment with HEF (at different doses), glimepiride, and HEF + glimepiride increased body weight and glucose uptake, reduced plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, liver glucose transport, pro-inflammatory cytokines, pancreatic enzymes and restored depleted glycogen (muscle, liver) and total protein significantly (p < 0.01) and dose dependently, including prevention of lipid peroxidation and restoration of GSH and SOD (liver and pancreas). Treatment with HEF + glimepiride potentiated hypoglycemic activity of glimepiride. Histoarchitecture of liver and pancreas showed marked improvement.
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Estimation of kidney function (eGFR) is essential in monitoring of patients with kidney disease. Estimates of kidney function based on serum creatinine are derived from cross-sectional studies. If body weight (BW) changes, this might affect creatinine and eGFR. The Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation includes creatinine and BW, whereas the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations only include creatinine.
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Glucokinase activators increase insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells and hepatic glucose utilization by modifying the activity of glucokinase, a key enzyme in glucose-sensing and glycemic regulation. Sulfonylureas are antihyperglycemic agents that stimulate insulin secretion via a glucose-independent mechanism that is vulnerable to secondary failure through beta-cell desensitization. The present study determined whether glucokinase activator treatment retains its glucose-lowering efficacy in male, adult, non-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats desensitized to sulfonylurea treatment and whether glucose-lowering during chronic glucokinase activator treatment is subject to secondary failure. Animals were given food containing either glimepiride (a sulfonylurea), Compound B (3-[(1S)-2-hydroxy-1-methylethoxy]-5-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenoxy]-N-1,3-thiazol-2-ylbenzamide, an experimental glucokinase activator), or no drug for up to 5 weeks. Food containing 0.04% of either drug produced acute (within 4-8 h) and significant (P<0.05) reductions in blood glucose to approximately 50% of control levels. Chronic treatment with either 0.01% or 0.04% glimepiride resulted in complete failure of glucose-lowering efficacy within 3 days whereas the efficacy of Compound B was sustained throughout the entire study. Glipizide, also a sulfonylurea, had no glucose-lowering effect when given by gavage (3mg/kg) to glimepiride-desensitized animals whereas Compound B retained full glucose-lowering efficacy in glimepiride-desensitized animals. Oral glucose tolerance was significantly impaired, compared with controls, in animals treated with glimepiride for two weeks but was enhanced to a small extent in animals treated with Compound B. Compound B also significantly increased pancreatic insulin content, compared with controls. These findings suggest that Compound B has sustained glucose-lowering effects in a rat model of sulfonylurea failure.
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Initiating insulin treatment by adding basal insulin glargine once daily to glimepiride plus metformin treatment was safer and more effective than beginning twice-daily injections of 70/30 and discontinuing OADs in type 2 diabetic patients inadequately controlled with OADs.
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Progressive deterioration of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often requires treatment intensification. Dapagliflozin increases urinary glucose excretion by selective inhibition of renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2). We assessed the efficacy, safety and tolerability of dapagliflozin added to glimepiride in patients with uncontrolled T2DM.
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Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of fragility fractures; the cause is unclear but is likely multifactorial. Some diabetes treatments induce bone loss, accentuating underlying skeletal fragility and increasing fracture risk. This subgroup analysis aimed to compare long-term effects of liraglutide and glimepiride on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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The risk of hypoglycaemia may differ among sulphonylureas (SUs), but evidence from head-to-head comparisons is sparse. Performing a network meta-analysis to use indirect evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we compared the relative risk of hypoglycaemia with newer generation SUs when added to metformin.
Sitagliptin, the first of a new class of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4)-inhibitory oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OHDs), was introduced in Japan in December 2009. In April 2010 a safety alert was issued regarding the risk of serious hypoglycaemic events, and prescribers were recommended to reduce the dose of sulfonylurea (i.e. glimepiride, glibenclamide [glyburide] or gliclazide) in patients receiving a combination of sulfonylurea and sitagliptin.
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With use of the CORE Diabetes Model and data from the LEAD-3 trial, long-term projected survival, diabetes complications, and costs favored liraglutide 1.2- and 1.8-mg monotherapies compared with glimepiride in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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Primary osteoblasts were isolated and cultured. Then, the cells were placed in an osteogenic medium containing two glucose concentrations (5.5 and 16.5 mmol X L(-1)), with or without glimepiride (10 micromol x L(-1)). Glucose uptake was determined by employing 18F-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the cells, and GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 expression levels were evaluated by Western blot analysis.
167 type 2 diabetic patients, not adequately controlled by metformin, were randomized to vildagliptin 50 mg twice a day or glimepiride 2 mg three times a day for 6 months, in a double blind, randomized clinical trial. We evaluated: body mass index (BMI), glycemic control, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma proinsulin (FPPr), glucagon, lipid profile, resistin, retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), visfatin and vaspin. Furthermore, at the randomization and at the end of the study all patients underwent an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate M value and an oral fat load.
Rosiglitazone (ROZ) and glimepiride (GLM) are antidiabetic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A survey of the literature reveals that only one spectrophotometric method has been reported for the simultaneous determination of ROS and GLM in pharmaceutical preparations. However the reported method suffers from the low sensitivity, for this reason, our target was to develop a simple sensitive HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of ROZ and GLM in their combined dosage forms and plasma.
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All Danish residents >20 years, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals): 1.32 (1.24-1.40), glibenclamide: 1.19 (1.11-1.28), glipizide: 1.27 (1.17-1.38), and tolbutamide: 1.28 (1.17-1.39) were associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients without previous MI. The corresponding results for patients with previous MI were as follows: glimepiride: 1.30 (1.11-1.44), glibenclamide: 1.47 (1.22-1.76), glipizide: 1.53 (1.23-1.89), and tolbutamide: 1.47 (1.17-1.84). Results for gliclazide [1.05 (0.94-1.16) and 0.90 (0.68-1.20)] and repaglinide and [0.97 (0.81-1.15) and 1.29 (0.86-1.94)] were not statistically different from metformin in both patients without and with previous MI, respectively. Results were similar for cardiovascular mortality and for the composite endpoint.
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Both neutrophil adhesion and ICAM-1 expression enhanced by high insulin (100 microU/ml, 48 h) were attenuated by gliclazide (20 microM), but not by other K(ATP) channel blockers (glibenclamide, nateglinide, and glimepiride). In addition, both neutrophil adhesion and ICAM-1 expression which were increased by a MAP kinase activator, anisomycin (1 microM), or a PKC activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (10 nM) were also attenuated by gliclazide. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors did not affect these effects of gliclazide.
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Partial inhibition of insulin secretion results in impairment of glucose tolerance after a mixed meal and after glimepiride administration in the absence of a difference in glucagon secretion. They underscore the primary glucoregulatory role of insulin and support the evidence that β-cell secretion is not the only regulator of α-cell glucagon secretion.
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To optimize and use of glimepiride (GMD)-loaded self-nanoemulsifying delivery systems (SNEDs) for the preparation of transdermal patches.
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An increasing array of anti-diabetic drugs are available today, yet Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) - remains a life threatening disease, causing high mortality and morbidity in developing and developed countries. As of now, no effective therapy is available for the complete eradication/cure of diabetes and its associated complications. Therefore, it is time to re-think and revisit molecular pathways and targets of each existing drug in order to identify multiple targets from different signaling pathways that may be manipulated simultaneously to treat or manage T2DM effectively. Bearing this goal in mind, the article reviews the mechanisms of action of available anti-diabetic drugs with in-depth mechanistic analysis of each therapy. The conventional and herbal strategies are analysed and compared for their benefits and the associated possible side effects. This critical information is necessary not only for the development of better, novel and potent anti-diabetic therapy in future but also for best possible combinational therapies and strategies with the available drugs.
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The disposition of glimepiride was best described with a two-compartment model with a Weibull-type absorption and first-order elimination. The visual predictive check indicated that the pharmacokinetic profile of glimepiride was adequately described by the proposed PPK model. The CYP2C9 genotypes as covariate significantly (P < 0.001) influenced the apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of glimepiride. The estimated CL/F of glimepiride was higher (1.60-fold) in CYP2C9*1/*1 subjects than in CYP2C9*1/*3 subjects.
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In T2DM patients for whom metformin was inappropriate, linagliptin improved glycaemic control and was well tolerated, with less hypoglycaemia and relative weight loss compared with glimepiride.
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Treatment groups were balanced at baseline (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA(1c)], 7.9%; fasting plasma glucose, 163.8 mg/dL). During treatment HbA(1c) decreased progressively with vildagliptin, but remained unchanged with placebo. The adjusted mean change (AMDelta) at endpoint was -1.0+/-0.1 and -0.1+/-0.1% in vildagliptin- and placebo-treated patients (between-group Delta=-1.0+/-0.1%, P<0.001). A greater proportion of vildagliptin-treated patients had HbA(1c)
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Glimepiride is a third generation oral antidiabetic sulphonylurea drug frequently prescribed to patients of type 2 diabetes. However, its oral therapy is encountered with bioavailability problems due to its poor solubility leading to irreproducible clinical response, in addition to adverse effects like dizziness and gastric disturbances. As a potential for convenient, safe and effective antidiabetic therapy, the rationale of this study was to develop a transdermal delivery system for glimepiride. Chitosan polymer was utilized in developing transdermal films for glimepiride. Chitosan has film forming ability, bioadhesive and absorption enhancing properties. Aiming at optimizing the drug delivery and circumventing the skin barrier function, inclusion complexation of glimepiride with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD) as well as the use of several conventional penetration enhancers were monitored for augmenting the drug flux. The physical and mechanical properties of the prepared films were investigated using tensile testing, IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Release studies revealed adequate release rates from chitosan films. Permeation studies through full thickness rat abdominal skin were conducted. High flux values were obtained from films comprising a combination of the drug with limonene and ethanol as well as from films containing glimepiride-beta-CyD complex. In vivo studies on diabetic rats for selected formulae revealed a marked therapeutic efficacy sustained for about 48 hours. The above-mentioned results shed light on feasibility of utilizing chitosan as an effective, safe transdermal delivery system for glimepiride characterized by increased patient compliance and better control of the disease.
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Glimepiride administration caused a decrease of peroxides and malondialdehyde levels and increase in activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in rats, after streptozotocin had been administered.
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We randomly assigned 515 patients to the exenatide group and 514 to the glimepiride group, of whom 490 versus 487 were the intention-to-treat population. 203 (41%) patients had treatment failure in the exenatide group compared with 262 (54%) in the glimepiride group (risk difference 12·4 [95% CI 6·2-18·6], hazard ratio 0·748 [0·623-0·899]; p=0·002). 218 (44%) of 490 patients in the exenatide group, and 150 (31%) of 487 in the glimepiride group achieved an HbA(1c) concentration of less than 7% (p<0·0001), and 140 (29%) versus 87 (18%) achieved concentrations of 6·5% and less (p=0·0001). We noted a significantly greater decrease in bodyweight in patients given exenatide than in those given glimepiride (p<0·0001). Five patients in each treatment group died from causes unrelated to treatment. Significantly fewer patients in the exenatide group than in the glimepiride group reported documented symptomatic (p<0·0001), nocturnal (p=0·007), and non-nocturnal (p<0·0001) hypoglycaemia. Discontinuation because of adverse events (mainly gastrointestinal) was significantly higher (p=0·0005) in the exenatide group than in the glimepiride group in the first 6 months of treatment, but not thereafter.
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Two review authors read all abstracts and full-text articles/records, assessed quality and extracted outcome data independently. One review author extracted data which were checked by a second review author. We resolved discrepancies by consensus or the involvement of a third review author. For meta-analyses we used a random-effects model with investigation of risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes, using 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for effect estimates. We carried out trial sequential analyses (TSAs) for all outcomes that could be meta-analysed. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence by using the GRADE instrument.
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Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly reduced in both groups (alogliptin, 7.2±0.6% to 6.6±0.5%, p=0.034; control, 6.9±0.4% to 6.4±0.3%, p=0.008). However, CFR and LVEF significantly improved only in the alogliptin group (alogliptin: CFR, 2.15±0.61 to 2.85±0.80, p=0.042; LVEF, 59.4±6.3% to 68.0±8.6%, p=0.03; control: CFR, 2.17±0.37 to 2.38±0.32, p=0.19; LVEF, 58.2±9.1 to 60.3±8.8%, p=0.61). The % increases in CFR and in LVEF positively correlated (R=0.47 by Spearman's correlation coefficient; p=0.036).
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A-3309, Abobotulinumtoxin A, Adalimumab, AIDSVAX gp120 B/E, ALVAC E120TMG, Atorvastatin calcium; Bepridil, Bevacizumab; Candesartan cilexetil, Capecitabine, Cetuximab, Clopidogrel; Dapagliflozin, Dasatinib, Denosumab, Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride, Diacetylmorphine, Diannexin, Docetaxel, Dutasteride; Entecavir, Eplerenone, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Fesoterodine fumarate, Flagellin.HuM2e, Fluzone; Glimepiride/rosiglitazone maleate; Hyaluronic acid-paclitaxel bioconjugate; IDX-184, Imatinib mesylate, Infliximab, Insulin glargine, Irbesartan; JX-594; Landiolol, Latrunculin B, Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, Liraglutide, Lyprinol; Metformin, Metronidazole/tetracycline hydrochloride/bismuth biskalcitrate, Mipomersen sodium, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Nalfurafine hydrochloride, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel poliglumex, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Perospirone hydrochloride, Pimavanserin tartrate, Pirfenidone, Pitavastatin calcium, Prasterone, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranibizumab, Remimazolam, Risedronate, Rosuvastatin calcium; Silodosin, Silybin phosphatidylcholine complex, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Tamsulosin hydrochloride, Technosphere/insulin, Telmisartan, Temsirolimus, Teriparatide, Thymalfasin, Ticagrelor, Toltedorine-XR, Tramadol-XR, Triphosadenine, Trospium-XR; Val8-GLP-1(7-37)OH, Valsartan, Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, Varenicline tartrate, Velaglucerase alfa; Zoledronic acid monohydrate.
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Continuing glimepiride (sulfonylureas) allows a better glycaemic control with less insulin daily dose compared with discontinuing glimepride.
The study included 16,490 subjects. From baseline to follow-up, MPR decreased for both the Mono/FDCT cohort and the Mono/Dual cohort, but the magnitude of this decrease was less for the Mono/FDCT cohort (-0.02 vs -0.10; p < 0.001). Mean MPR significantly improved for the Dual/FDCT cohort compared with the Dual/Dual cohort (+0.10 vs +0.05; p < 0.001). The mean absolute A1C reduction did not differ significantly between the Mono/FDCT cohort (-1.08%) and the Mono/Dual cohort (-0.77%). Compared with the Dual/Dual cohort, the Dual/FDCT cohort experienced a greater absolute reduction in A1C (-0.06% vs -0.51%; p = 0.004). The results remained statistically significant in the multivariate model.
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This was a prospective observational study. All the relevant data were collected and drug utilization pattern of AHA was determined. Direct cost associated with the use of antihyperglycemic medicines was calculated and consumption of the antihyperglycemic medicines was measured as defined daily dose (DDD)/100 bed-days. The adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to anti-diabetic medicines were monitored.