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Antabuse (Disulfiram)

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Generic Antabuse is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of alcoholism. Generic Antabuse acts by blocking the breakdown of alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects (eg, vomiting, upset stomach) when even a small amount of alcohol is consumed. It is an alcohol-abuse deterrent.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Camprall, Naltrexone, Vivitrol


Also known as:  Disulfiram.


Generic Antabuse is a perfect remedy in struggle against alcoholism.

Generic Antabuse acts by blocking the breakdown of alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects (eg, vomiting, upset stomach) when even a small amount of alcohol is consumed. It is an alcohol-abuse deterrent.

Antabuse is also known as Disulfiram, Antabus.

Generic name of Generic Antabuse is Disulfiram.

Brand name of Generic Antabuse is Antabuse.


Do not take the first dose of Generic Antabuse for at least 12 hours after drinking alcohol.

Take Generic Antabuse orally with or without food.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Antabuse suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Antabuse and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep in a tight light resistant container. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Antabuse are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Antabuse if you are allergic to Generic Antabuse components.

Do not take Generic Antabuse if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Notify your doctor immediately if you experience yellowing of the skin or eyes, dark urine, weakness, tiredness, loss of appetite, or nausea and vomiting. These may be signs of a liver problem.

Before you have any medical or dental treatments, emergency care, or surgery, tell the health care provider or dentist that you are using Generic Antabuse.

Use Generic Antabuse with extreme caution in children.

Avoid all alcohol including alcohol found in sauces, vinegar, mouthwash, liquid medicines, lotions, after shave, or backrub products.

Avoid machine driving.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Antabuse taking suddenly.

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We have previously reported a method for visualizing the mucosal surface of fixed unsectioned rodent colons at the crypt level and have identified lesions, termed aberrant crypt foci (ACF), in the colons of carcinogen-treated rodents. We hypothesized that ACF represent the precursor lesions (PL) of colon cancer. In the present study, the effect of feeding disulfiram (DSF) added to a semi-synthetic diet (0.5% or 1% by wt) on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and azoxymethane (AOM) induced ACF was investigated. DSF has been shown to inhibit DMH and AOM-induced colon cancer. Therefore, it was reasoned that if ACF represent PL then their induction and growth should also be inhibited by DSF. CF1 female mice were randomly divided into three groups of 30 each. Group 1 was fed a diet containing 1% DSF for 9 days prior to and 1 day after receiving a single i.p. injection of either DMH, AOM or saline. Group 2 was fed a diet containing 1% DSF for 9 days prior to and 14 days after receiving a single i.p. injection of DMH, AOM or saline, whereas group 3 received control diet throughout the experimental duration. All animals were killed 5 weeks after receiving the injections. It was observed that feeding DSF, for 9 days prior to and for either 1 day or 14 days after the administration of a single injection of DMH, resulted in a complete inhibition of ACF. DSF feeding for 9 days prior to and 1 day after AOM injection resulted in a significantly greater number of ACF compared to the control group (12 +/- 2.3 vs 7.2 +/- 1.2); whereas DSF feeding for a longer duration (i.e. 9 days prior to and 14 days after AOM treatment) was associated with a significantly lower number of ACF compared to those fed DSF for only one day after AOM treatment (4.1 +/- 0.6 vs 12.4 +/- 2.3) and a lower number compared to the control group (4.1 +/- 0.6 vs 7.2 +/- 1.2).

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In clinical settings, veteran patients were likely to be dispensed either disulfiram or naltrexone for only several months or less. The contexts and reasons for these predominantly short-term treatment episodes or the benefits derived were not known and merit further study.

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208 patients were randomized to disulfiram (250 mg/day), naltrexone (100 mg/day), the combination, or placebo for 11 weeks. Outcomes were in-trial abstinence from cocaine and/or alcohol.

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A number of nutrients and chemicals have now been identified as consistent inducers of tibia dyschondroplasia (TD). Thiram, Antabuse, and fusarochromanone induce TD when fed at 30 to 75 ppm. Cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, and histidine induced TD when fed at .5 to 3% of the diet. Cation: anion imbalances resulting in acidotic diets also induced TD. Even though prevention of TD induced by these chemicals and nutrients has been established, reversal of the spontaneous TD lesion has not been clearly demonstrated. Thus, the etiology of the spontaneous lesion awaits elucidation. These model systems all suggest that TD is the result of decreased growth plate cartilage degradation. Recent work has shown that increased collagen cross-links in the accumulated cartilage, which makes collagen less susceptible to degradation. Cysteine-induced TD seems to decrease growth plate collagenase activity and production. A role of growth plate macrophages in paracrine signaling of collagenase production by chondrocytes has been presented.

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To obtain and evaluate evidence about the supposed disulfiram-like interaction between metronidazole and ethanol.

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Diphenylhydantoin (DPH) and tolbutamide serum levels were studied in ten volunteers before and after 4 days of disulfiram treatment. The mean DPH half life increased significantly from 11.0 +/- a.2 h to 19.0 +/- 3.3 h, and the mean DPH metabolic clearance rate decreased significantly from 51.2 +/- 17.2 ml/min to 33.9 +/- 12.0 ml/min during medication. No significant changes in the half life or metabolic clearance rate of tolbutamide was observed.

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20-Hydroxyleukotriene B4 was converted by rat liver homogenates in the presence of NAD+ to a more polar product on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The product was identified as 20-carboxyleukotriene B4 by straight-phase high performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The oxidative activity of the homogenates was located in the cytosol with an optimal pH of 8.0. The activity was dependent on NAD+, and NADP+ could not substitute for NAD+. 1 mol of 20-carboxyleukotriene B4 was formed with the reduction of 2 mol of NAD+. The reaction was inhibited by pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole, inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase, and by various alcohols, such as ethanol, 12-hydroxylaurate, and 20-hydroxyprostaglandin E1. Disulfiram, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, also inhibited the activity. These results suggest that two discrete steps catalyzed by different enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, are involved in the oxidation of 20-hydroxyleukotriene B4 in rat liver cytosol. The enzyme system seems to be different from that of human neutrophils.

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The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate methods to prevent the development of the immediate and delayed tissue damage in the injured spinal cord by early drug (disulfiram) interference with the molecular mechanism of tissue injury. The edematous inflammation as well as change in the levels and distribution of metallic ions like calcium following spinal cord contusion is known to contribute to the destructive process. A contusion model was applied in the spinal cord of rabbits using a pneumatic impactor. The effect of the systemically administered drug, disulfiram, in the traumatized spinal cord was determined by assaying the tissue water and Ca2+ contents at different locations of the spinal cord. A significant increase in the levels of the assayed parameters at the injured site of the spinal cord is markedly reduced by the pretreatment with disulfiram.

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We have studied the effect of disulfiram (DSF) solution containing 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (DSF eye drops) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in experimentally induced ocular hypertension in rabbits. In both in vitro and in vivo transcorneal penetration experiments using rabbit corneas, only diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) was detected in the aqueous humor, while DSF was not detected. The amount of DDC penetration for 0.25% DSF eye drops was about 4-fold that for 0.1% DSF eye drops in in vivo transcorneal penetration experiments. The elevation in IOP was induced by the rapid infusion of 5% glucose solution (15 ml/kg of body weight) through the marginal ear vein, and IOP was measured with an electronic tonometer. The induced elevation in IOP was reduced by the instillation of 0.1-0.5% DSF eye drops, and the IOP-reducing effect increased with the increase in DSF concentration in the drops. Nitric oxide (NO) levels increased in the aqueous humor following the infusion of the 5% glucose solution, and this increase was also suppressed by the instillation of DSF eye drops. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the instillation of DSF eye drops has an IOP-reducing effect in rabbits with experimentally induced ocular hypertension, probably caused by the suppression of NO production.

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We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who developed disorganized speech, diminished communication, a decrease in appetite, and thoughts of suicide 10 days after she began taking disulfiram (250 mg/day), to which she added 1 glass of alcoholic beverage for 2 days. Delirium developed in association with an interaction between disulfiram and alcohol. The patient met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and delirium.

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An experimentally validated computational model for hDBH, built in our lab, was used for structure-based, rational drug-design. The three-dimensional model was used for virtual-screening against small molecule databases from NCI, USA and elsewhere. Identified top hits were then tested in vitro against DBH with known inhibitors nepicastat and disulfiram as controls. Binding of the inhibitors to DBH were validated using fluorescence and CD spectroscopy as well as ITC. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed computationally. Cyto- and hemo-toxicities of the lead compounds were assessed ex vivo. Finally. their anti-hypertensive efficacies were evaluated in L-NAME induced hypertensive rat model.

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In combination with a low concentration (1 μM) of Cu2+, DS induced cytotoxicity in Raji cells with an IC50 of 0.085 ± 0.015 μM and in Molt4 cells with an IC50 of 0.435 ± 0.109 μM. The results of our animal experiments also showed that the mean tumor volume in DS/Cu-treated mice was significantly smaller than that in DS or control group, indicating that DS/Cu inhibits the proliferation of Raji cells in vivo. DS/Cu also induced apoptosis in 2 lymphoid malignant cell lines. After exposure to DS (3.3 μM)/Cu (1 μM) for 24 hours, apoptosis was detected in 81.03 ± 7.91% of Raji cells. DS/Cu induced significant apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest apoptotic proportion (DS/Cu: 89.867 ± 4.69%) at a concentration of 2 μM in Molt4 cells. After 24 h exposure, DS/Cu inhibits Nrf2 expression. Flow cytometric analysis shows that DS/Cu induced ROS generation. DS/Cu induced phosphorylation of JNK and inhibits p65 expression as well as Nrf2 expression both in vitro and in vivo. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, can partially attenuate DS/Cu complex-induced apoptosis and block JNK activation in vitro. In addition, NAC is able to restore Nrf2 nuclear translocation and p65 expression.

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Factorial randomized double blind (for medication condition) clinical trial where CBT served as the platform and was delivered in weekly individual sessions in a community-based outpatient clinic. 99 outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for current cocaine dependence were assigned to receive either disulfiram or placebo, and either CM or no CM. Cocaine and other substance use was assessed via a daily calendar with thrice weekly urine sample testing for 12 weeks with a one-year follow-up (80% interviewed at one year).

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Previous studies suggested that a relative dopamine (DA) deficiency may explain the altered LH secretory dynamics that occur in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO). These studies included findings of decreased urinary excretion of homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of DA, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), the major brain metabolite of norepinephrine. To further explore the role of DA in these patients, disulfiram (250 mg) was administered daily for 2 weeks to alter the conversion of DA to norepinephrine and to increase both peripheral and central DA in patients with PCO and in normal women. LH pulse frequency and amplitude and the serum LH response to GnRH were assessed before and during disulfiram administration. A dopaminergic effect during disulfiram administration was evidenced by a decrease in serum PRL in the PCO patients and an increase in urinary HVA excretion and a decrease in the ratio of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol to HVA in urine in both groups (all P less than 0.05). This increase in DA did not significantly alter the serum estrogen level, the mean serum LH level, LH pulse amplitude, or serum LH responses to GnRH in either the PCO patients or the normal women. These data suggest that increasing endogenous DA does not correct the inappropriate gonadotropin secretion characteristic of PCO and places further doubt on the importance of DA in explaining the altered LH secretory dynamics in these patients.

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The aliphatic alcohol 1,4-butanediol in converted into gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) via two enzymatic steps: first, it is oxidised by alcohol dehydrogenase in gamma-hydroxybutyraldehyde; second, the latter is transformed, likely by aldehyde dehydrogenase, into GHB. Initially, the present study compared the sedative/hypnotic effect of GHB and 1,4-butanediol, measured as loss of righting reflex. 1,4-Butanediol was more potent than GHB, presumably because of a more rapid penetration of the blood brain barrier. Further alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors, 4-methylpyrazole and ethanol, totally prevented the sedative/hypnotic effect of 1,4-butanediol; the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram partially blocked the sedative/hypnotic effect of 1,4-butanediol. Finally, the sedative/hypnotic effect of 1,4-butanediol was antagonised by the GABA(B) receptor antagonists, SCH 50911 [(2S)(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid] and CGP 46381 [(3-aminopropyl)(cyclohexylmethyl)phosphinic acid], but not by the putative GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylideneacetic acid), indicating that it is mediated by GABA(B) but not GHB receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that the sedative/hypnotic effect of 1,4-butanediol is mediated by its conversion in vivo into GHB which, in turn, binds to GABA(B) receptors. Accordingly 1,4-butanediol, unlike GHB, failed to displace [(3)H]GHB and [(3)H]baclofen in brain membranes.

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The method used for CDTanalysis was IEF-PAGE. Sera of 49 males and 11 females aged 14-87 years, average age 46.85+/-18.53, were used in this study. Control group consisted of five patients who died after medical treatment that lasted longer than 15 days, and five patients who started Disulfiram therapy in controlled hospital environment.

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Disulfiram (DSF), used since the 1950s in the treatment of alcoholism, is reductively activated to diethyldithiocarbamate and both compounds are thiol-reactive and readily complex copper. More recently DSF and copper-DSF (Cu-DSF) have been found to exhibit potent anticancer activity. We have previously shown that the anti-diabetic drug metformin is anti-proliferative and induces an intracellular reducing environment in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. Based on these observations, we investigated the effects of Cu-DSF and DSF, with and without metformin, in this present study. We found that Cu-DSF and DSF caused considerable cytotoxicity across a panel of OSCC cells, and metformin significantly enhanced the effects of DSF. Elevated copper transport contributes to DSF and metformin-DSF-induced cytotoxicity since the cell-impermeable copper chelator, bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, partially reversed the cytotoxic effects of these drugs, and interestingly, metformin-treated OSCC cells contained higher intracellular copper levels. Furthermore, DSF may target cancer cells preferentially due to their high dependence on protein degradation/turnover pathways, and we found that metformin further enhances the role of DSF as a proteasome inhibitor. We hypothesized that the lysosome could be an additional, novel, target of DSF. Indeed, this acid-labile compound decreased lysosomal acidification, and DSF-metformin co-treatment interfered with the progression of autophagy in these cells. In summary, this is the first such report identifying the lysosome as a target of DSF and based on the considerable cytotoxic effects of DSF either alone or in the presence of metformin, in vitro, and we propose these as novel potential chemotherapeutic approaches for OSCC.

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Hep3B, Huh7 and HepG2 hepatoma cells were incubated under normoxic (20% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) conditions for 16 h. The expression and activity of HIF-1α and HIF-2α proteins were evaluated using immunoblotting and luciferase reporter assay, respectively. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze HIF-mediated gene expression. Endothelial tubule formation assay was used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect.

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222 patients with chronic alcoholism (the second step of the disease) at the state of abstination and in the period of alcohol consumption were studied. In the course of treatment the patients received about 0.5 g of teturam per day within 4 months. In blood serum of the patients content of ethanol, malonic dialdehyde and activity of ethanol-oxidizing system (EOS) were estimated. In practically healthy persons, consuming no ethanol, no activity of EOS was noted as a rule. But in the patients with chronic alcoholism activity of EOS was 100-fold increased with simultaneous elevation in ethanol and malonic dialdehyde content in blood serum. After treatment with teturam content of ethanol, malonic dialdehyde and, especially, activity of the EOS were decreased in blood of the patients. After the treatment during 4 months activity of EOS was still distinctly higher in the patients than in healthy persons.

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The present study describes the NADPH-dependent, regioselective oxidation of diethyldithiocarbamate methyl ester (DDTC-Me), a dithiocarbamate ester containing both a thionosulfur (C = S) and a thioether (S-CH3) group, to two novel S-oxidized metabolites. DDTC-Me is a key metabolite in the overall bioactivation pathway for the clinically used alcohol deterrent, disulfiram. Incubation of DDTC-Me with rat liver microsomes resulted in the formation of two major metabolites. These metabolites were identified as DDTC-Me sulfoxide [S(O)CH3] and DDTC-Me sulfine (C = S+-O-) based on their NMR spectra and by MS. The formation of DDTC-Me sulfoxide was completely inhibited by the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors, emulgen 911 and 1-benzylimidazole, but only partially inhibited by heat inactivation of the flavin-containing moonooxygenases (FMO). This suggested that DDTC-Me sulfoxide formation is primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 with a minor contribution from FMO. In contrast, the formation of DDTC-Me sulfine was inhibited from 60 to 80% in the presence of emulgen 911 and 1-benzylimidazole and 30 to 50% by heat inactivation of FMO, suggesting a partial role of FMO in the formation of DDTC-Me sulfine. DDTC-Me sulfoxide is a new class of dithiocarbamates that has not been previously described, whereas, DDTC-Me sulfine belongs to a class of thionosulfur sulfines that have been implicated in a number of toxicological processes.

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The study population consisted of 60 doctors from the Free State Province, involved in the follow-up of alcoholics across various work settings.

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This paper presents a method for the analysis of drugs in dosage form. It is based on galvanostatic generation of oxidation agent from a suitable precursor on one segment of interdigitated microelectrode array (IDA) and its consecutive amperometric detection on second segment. High collection efficiency of this process in comparison to rotational ring disc electrode (RRDE) is a unique feature of IDA system. The transfer of oxidation agent can be influenced by addition of species, which reacts with oxidant. This influence can be used for its determination. Evaluation of generator-collector current dependence (diffusion layer titration curve) reveals the value of generator current I(genE) of the end-point of titration. I(genE) is proportional to the bulk phase concentration of determined species. The method was applied to the analysis of pharmaceuticals Antabus (Disulfiram Alpharma NOR, tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TETD)), a popular drug for alcoholism treatment, and Celaskon (vitamin C, Léciva CZE, ascorbic acid (AA)). From model samples analysis rather low detection limits, 9x10(-7) mol dm(-3), respectively, 4x10(-6) mol dm(-3), were estimated which enables trace content analysis of the drugs. A small size of IDA sensor also makes it suitable for microanalytical improvement.

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1. Subcellular fractionation of rat, guinea pig and human livers showed that aldehyde dehydrogenase metabolizing gamma-aminobutyraldehyde was exclusively localized in the cytoplasmic fraction in all three mammalian species. 2. Total gamma-aminobutyraldehyde activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase was found to be ca 0.41, 0.3 and 0.24 mumol NADH min-1 g-1 tissue, respectively in rat, guinea pig and human liver, with more than 95% of activity in the cytoplasm. 3. Partially purified cytoplasmic isozyme from rat liver showed similar chromatographic behavior and kinetic properties to the E3 isozyme isolated from human liver. 4. The rat isozyme was insensitive to disulfiram (40 microM) and to magnesium (160 microM) and had Km values of 5 microM (pH 7.4) for gamma-aminobutyraldehyde, 7.5 microM (pH 9.0) for propionaldehyde and 4 microM (pH 7.4) for NAD.

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Retinoic acid and its isoforms are considered to be endogenous compounds which regulate embryonic development. In the work reported here we have determined which retinoids are present in zebrafish embryos and how their levels change throughout development and into adulthood. All-trans-RA is present and its level does not change significantly during embryogenesis. We failed to detect other retinoic acid isomers such as 9-cis-RA and 4-oxo-RA, but we did observe a rapid rise in the level of didehydroretinol after gastrulation. The most striking result is that the zebrafish embryo, like Xenopus and tunicates, contains a vast excess of t-retinal whereas the embryos of higher vertebrates have an excess of t-retinol. However, as the zebrafish grows, the levels of t-retinol rise so that by adulthood t-retinol and t-retinal concentrations are more equivalent, indicating a changing pattern of retinoid metabolism with growth. To examine the significance of the use of t-retinal as a precursor of t-RA we treated embryos with disulphiram, an inhibitor of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase. This resulted in embryos with an undulating notochord and correspondingly abnormal somites and ventral floor plate. In contrast to this effect, 4-methylpyrazole, which inhibits alcohol dehydrogenases, had no effect on development. This effect of disulphiram suggests that t-RA may be involved in the establishment of the anteroposterior axis of the embryo.

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Women, compared with men, had poorer treatment outcomes on multiple measures of cocaine use during treatment and at post-treatment follow-up. These results appear to be primarily accounted for by disulfiram being less effective in women compared with men. There was no evidence of meaningful gender differences in outcome as a function of the behavioral therapies evaluated.

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Methyltetrazolethiol (1-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole, MTT) is a heterocyclic substituent of the cephalosporin antibiotics, cefamandole, cefoperazone, and moxalactam. Pretreatment of rats with MTT has been reported to increase blood acetaldehyde concentration after ethanol administration. The time course of MTT-induced inhibition of hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) was determined in adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with the hepatic ALDH inhibition induced by calcium carbimide (calcium cyanamide, CC) and disulfiram (D). The apparent onset of maximal inhibition of hepatic low Km ALDH occurred at 2 h for 50 mg/kg MTT (subcutaneous, s.c.) and 7 mg/kg CC (oral) and at 24 h for 300 mg/kg D (oral). The relative magnitude of maximal inhibition of low Km ALDH was CC greater than D greater than MTT. The relative duration of enzyme inhibition was D greater than MTT greater than CC. High Km ALDH was only inhibited by CC. Hepatic low Km ALDH was selectively inhibited by s.c. and oral administration of 125 mg/kg MTT. For s.c. administration of 125 mg/kg MTT, the magnitude of maximal enzyme inhibition and the duration of inhibition were greater than for the 50 mg/kg dose. Oral administration of 125 mg/kg MTT produced similar inhibition of hepatic low Km ALDH compared with s.c. administration of the same dose. The time course of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations was determined for the intravenous infusion of two 0.3-g/kg doses of ethanol to rats that were pretreated orally with saline (1 h), MTT (125 mg/kg, 2 h), or CC (7 mg/kg, 1 h). The relative increase in blood acetaldehyde concentration compared with saline pretreatment was CC greater than MTT. The elimination of ethanol from blood was slower in the MTT- and CC-pretreated animals, and this effect was more pronounced for CC pretreatment. Overall, the data demonstrate that the characteristics of hepatic ALDH inhibition for MTT are different from those of the known ALDH inhibitors, CC and D.

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The effects of lithium and disulfiram on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system and hexobarbital (HX)-induced hypnosis were studied. Treatment with lithium significantly prolonged HX hypnosis. Disulfiram, a potent inhibitor of brain aldehyde dehydrogenase, also produced a prolongation of HX hypnosis. A combination of lithium treatment for 3 days with disulfiram synergistically potentiated the HX hypnosis and reduced the brain HX levels on awakening. Furthermore, L-tryptophan loading significantly increased the HX sleeping time and reduced the brain HX level on awakening in lithium-pretreated rats, whereas it had not effect on HX hypnosis in controls rats. L-Tryptophan also potentiated HX hypnosis in disulfiram-treated rats. The combination of L-tryptophan, lithium and disulfiram caused the greatest prolongation of HX hypnosis. However, no synergism between lithium and disulfiram was observed in animals treated with lithium for 5 days. after 3 days of lithium treatment, the rate of synthesis of 5-HT was elevated, whereas it had returned to the control level after 5 days of lithium treatment. Tryptophan loading increased the rate of synthesis of 5-HT more than 2-fold in control animals. The increase in the rate of 5-HT synthesis caused by lithium was further potentiated by tryptophan loading. These results suggest that lithium and disulfiram exert their synergistic effect on HX hypnosis by acting on the 5-HT system and that an accumulation of 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde, an active metabolite of 5-HT, may be responsible for the increase in the brain sensitivity to barbiturates caused by these drugs.

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antabuse benzyl alcohol 2015-10-14

Disulfiram, an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inhibitor, induces a flushing reaction upon the ingestion of ethanol, exerting aversion against alcohol that has been used in the treatment of alcoholism. This unpleasant response has been associated with an accumulation of acetaldehyde, and more recently, with an increase in vascular prostacyclin (PGI2) production. To evaluate the possibility of evoking the flushing reaction with buy antabuse drugs less toxic than disulfiram, we studied the effects of propranolol and dipyridamole on ALDH and PGI2. Acetaldehyde oxidation rate was assessed by gas chromatography in mitochondria from rats treated with these drugs for seven days. Prostacyclin generation was determined in rat aortic rings incubated in Krebs-Ringer with these drugs separately and associated to acetaldehyde, and measured by radioimmunoassay of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Propranolol inhibited acetaldehyde oxidation rate whereas dipyridamole did not. Furthermore, propranolol increased blood acetaldehyde levels without affecting ethanol elimination rate. Both drugs stimulated prostacyclin synthesis but only dipyridamole enhanced the stimulatory effect of acetaldehyde on vascular prostacyclin production. These results strongly suggest the possibility of producing a deterrent effect on the consumption of alcohol by using propranolol or dipyridamole. In contrast to disulfiram, these drugs could potentially induce the flushing reaction in humans in the presence of low acetaldehyde concentrations; this new therapeutic approach might have an important clinical and toxicological relevance.

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Prescribed since 1948 to control chronic buy antabuse alcoholism, disulfiram may present severe toxicity for optic nerve as reported by the authors. The neuropathy usually recovers completely in 1-5 months after stopping treatment.

antabuse online uk 2015-08-03

The level of O6-methylguanine (O6MeGua) in the colonic DNA of rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine was determined. The effect of various tumorigenesis inhibitors on the formation of this modified base was also studied. Rats were given a single s.c. injection of 1,2-[14C]dimethylhydrazine. Six hr later, they were killed, and colonic DNA was extracted and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The inhibitors tested were disulfiram (DSF), pyrazole, sodium selenite, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, potassium ascorbate, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. The level of O6MeGua in control rats was 29.9 [(O6MeGua X 10(6)/guanine)]. When rats were fed 0.25% (w/w) DSF, this value was reduced to 10.2, and at 0.5% DSF there was no detectable O6MeGua formed. Injection of pyrazole (40 mg/kg i.p.) 2 hr prior to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine treatment reduced the O6MeGua level to 2.4. All the other tumorigenesis inhibitors had no effect on either O6MeGua levels or the cpm/mg DNA in treated rats. With O6MeGua as a measure of the extent of initiation, these results confirm that DSF and pyrazole inhibit the initiation phase of carcinogenesis. This is to be expected as both have been buy antabuse shown to block the metabolism of azoxymethane, which is a crucial metabolite in the activation of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. The other substances, all known tumorigenesis inhibitors, may act on the promotional phase of carcinogenesis and are worthy of further study for the role in cancer prevention.

antabuse alcohol 2015-03-04

The role of cytochrome P4502E1 in metabolism of substances, polymorphism, ways of the expression regulation, change of activity in pathological condition is considered in the review. Cytochrome P4502E1 catalyzed first two reactions of acetone transformation in the lactic acid, ethanol oxidation, metabolism of fatty acids and their hydroperoxides. Cytochrome P4502E1 dependent metabolism of xenobiotics in many cases results in formation of toxic intermediates and radicals of oxygen. Regulation of cytochrome P4502E1 expression includes transcriptional mechanisms and substrate stabilization of its molecule. The enzyme activity grows in alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, obesity, steatohepatitis, administration of acetone, alcohols and is connected with intensification of toxicity of paracetamol, halothane, benzene, tetrachlororomethane and others xenobiotics. Such inhibitors of cytochrome P4502E1 as dialyl sulphide, disulfiram buy antabuse have hepatoprotective action.

antabuse drinking alcohol 2016-11-09

Astrocytes play a critical neurotrophic and neuroprotective role in the brain, and improper function of these cells may contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. Because astrocytes are known to be enriched with Cu chaperone proteins, it is important to understand the factors that may lead to cytotoxic effects of Cu on astrocytes. In this report, we demonstrated a dramatic potentiating effect of neocuproine (NCP), a membrane permeable metal chelator, on Cu, but not Fe or Pb, in inducing apoptosis of cultured astrocytes. It was estimated that individually, CuCl2 and NCP only weakly exhibited cytotoxic effects on astrocytes, with EC50 of 180 and 600 microM, respectively. However, NCP at a nontoxic concentration of 10 microM markedly reduced EC50 of buy antabuse Cu to 0.35 microM (physiological concentration) and Cu (10 microM) reduced EC50 of NCP down to 0.06 microM. The mechanisms underlying these dramatic potentiation effects are elucidated. NCP increased the intracellular concentration of Cu in astrocytes and a nonpermeable Cu chelator, bathocuproine disulfonate was able to abolish all of the apoptotic signaling. Cell death was determined to be via apoptosis due to increased reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial dysfunction, depletion of glutathione and adenosine triphosphate, cytochrome c release, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and caspase-3 activation, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase degradation. This finding, coupled with our previous reports, suggests that metal chelators (NCP, dithiocarbamate and disulfiram) should be cautiously used as they may potentiate a cytotoxic effect of endogenous Cu on astrocytes. Their clinical implications in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases deserve further investigation.

antabuse half dose 2016-05-02

The literature pertaining to the use buy antabuse of implanted disulfiram as a therapeutic modality in the treatment of alcoholism is reviewed.

antabuse buy online 2017-02-20

The kinetics of caffeine elimination were investigated in 10 normal male subjects and in 11 recovering alcoholics before and during disulfiram dosing. In normal subjects the total body clearance of caffeine declined 30% (142 to 99 ml/min) at the maintenance dose of disulfiram, 250 mg/day, and 29% (161 to 114 ml/min) at the loading dose of 500 mg/day. In recovering alcoholics, the total body clearance decreased from 333 to buy antabuse 253 ml/min, a 24% change. The mean caffeine t1/2 increased 39% and 34% in normal subjects after 250 and 500 mg disulfiram, respectively, and 29% in recovering alcoholics. The inhibition of caffeine elimination was moderate in most subjects. However, the clearance of caffeine decreased by greater than or equal to 50% after disulfiram in three of the 11 recovering alcoholics. These patients may have an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebral excitation associated with higher concentrations of caffeine, which could complicate withdrawal from alcohol.

antabuse 400mg tablets 2015-11-11

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a common malignancy that remains refractory to all available therapies, including the gold standard drug gemcitabine (GEM). We investigated the effect of the combination of GEM and each of the ionophore compounds pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and disulfiram [DSF; 1-(diethylthiocarbamoyldisulfanyl)-N,N-diethylmethanethioamide] on p53(-/-) pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell growth. PDTC or DSF synergistically inhibited cell proliferation when used in combination with GEM by inducing apoptotic cell death. This effect was associated with an increased mitochondrial O(2)(•-) production and was further enhanced by zinc ions. Basal levels of mitochondrial O(2)(•-) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) strictly correlated with the IC(50) for GEM or the percentage buy antabuse of synergism. Thus, the most relevant values of the antiproliferative synergism were obtained in GEM-resistant pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. Interestingly, the GEM-sensitive T3M4 cells transfected with MnSOD expression vector showed mitochondrial O(2)(•-) and IC(50) for GEM similar to those of resistant cell lines. In vivo experiments performed on nude mice xenotransplanted with the GEM-resistant PaCa44 cell line showed that only the combined treatment with GEM and DSF/Zn completely inhibited the growth of the tumoral masses. These results and the consideration that DSF is already used in clinics strongly support the GEM and DSF/Zn combination as a new approach to overcoming pancreatic cancer resistance to standard chemotherapy.

antabuse 250 mg 2015-04-01

Clinical studies have demonstrated that pharmacotherapies may improve alcoholism treatment, when combined with traditional psychosocial therapies. Recently, the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, has been approved as an adjunct in alcoholism treatment, and several other pharmacotherapies for alcoholism are under development. Because of the abstinence orientation of many patients, we assessed attitudes regarding medications, and explored whether alcoholic patients would consider taking medication as part of their alcoholism treatment. Active patients (n = 127) in three alcohol treatment settings were surveyed with an anonymous questionnaire which asked demographics, personal alcoholism history and questions about medication use. They were asked whether they felt disulfiram and naltrexone were helpful for alcoholics and whether they would take the medications. The findings indicate buy antabuse that the patients were divided about the use of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of alcoholism. The strongest predictor of willingness to take medication was a belief that the medication would be helpful.

antabuse dose 2015-04-16

We developed methods for evaluating the ntial inhibition of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2 C9, CYP2 C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). The CYP inhibition assay used substrate cocktail sets [set A: phenacetin for CYP1A2, coumarin for CYP2A6, (S)-(+)-mephenytoin for CYP2C19, dextromethorphan for CYP2D6 and midazolam for CYP3A4; set B: bupropion for CYP2B6, tolbutamide for CYP2C9, chlorzoxazone for CYP2E1, and testosterone for CYP3A4] with quantitation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A direct inhibition assay was performed with the substrate cocktails without β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pre-incubation, and a metabolism-dependent inhibition buy antabuse (MDI) assay was performed after 30 min of pre-incubation with NADPH in HLMs. MDI was identified based on the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) shifts. The IC(50) values of the direct inhibitors determined using the probe substrate cocktails were in good agreement with previously reported values. Eight metabolism-dependent inhibitors including furafylline, 8-methoxypsoralen, tienilic acid, ticlopidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, disulfiram and verapamil against CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, respectively, resulted in significant IC(50) shifts (≥2.5-fold) after pre-incubation. Thus, these CYP inhibition assays are considered to be useful tools for evaluating both direct inhibition and MDI at an early stage of the drug discovery and development process.

antabuse online australia 2017-06-22

The authors describe the clinical symptoms of a disulfiram overdose in a male patient and present the plasma concentrations of disulfiram and its buy antabuse metabolites 4 and 7 days after the overdose.

antabuse drug classification 2016-01-18

The interaction between the buy antabuse alcohol assumption and industrial chemicals may be toxicokinetic or toxicodynamic. Alcohol can interfere in the processes of biotransformation of xenobiotics and modify the doses and the effect indicators used for the biological monitoring, causing wrong interpretations of the results. The metabolism of ethanol can be altered by the exposures to toxic industrial materials, creating some clinical pictures of alcohol intolerance, like an "antabuse syndrome" or an "degreaser flush syndrome". Professional exposure to carbon sulfide or to dimethylformamides, trichloroethylene as well as to nitroglycerin and nitroglycole ethylenic can produce similar syndromes. Interactions are reported between alcohol and solvents: on toxicokinetic bases for methanol, isopropanol, glycol ether, trichloroethylene, methyl ethyl ketone and toluene; and on toxicodynamic bases for CNS. Also between alcohol and metals there can occur toxicokinetic interactions, like in the case of lead and mercury. Alcohol can also interfere with the biological monitoring of solvents, producing an over-estimation of the exposure.

antabuse overdose 2015-12-19

Alcoholism can be understood as a self-treatment for existential pain. A 5-day treatment was designed to relieve this psychological pain and existential anxiety, and thereby diminish the need for self-treatment with alcohol. The basic principle behind the treatment was holistic, restoring the quality of life (QOL) and relationship with self, which according to the life mission theory happens when life-denying views are corrected and inner emotional conflicts are solved. The method in this treatment was a course with teachings in philosophy of life, psychotherapy, and body therapy. The synergy attained was considerable and the outcome demonstrates that in the course of 1 week, people have time to revise essential life-denying views and to integrate important, unfinished life events involving negative feelings. This was demonstrated by an improved QOL and a decrease in their dependency and need for alcohol abuse. In the week before, after the 5-day course, and again after 1 and 3 months, the 16 participants completed the SEQOL questionnaire on QOL and health. This was a pilot study based on a pre-experimental design, without a control group and without clinical control. Common for the group were a low QOL, numerous health problems, and alcohol dependency in spite of treatment with Antabus (disulfiram). The study showed an increase in QOL from 57.6% before the course to 69.4% 3 months after the course, or an improvement in QOL of 11.8%. There was a 24.0% improvement in self-perceived mental health, and satisfaction with health in general was improved Norvasc Max Dose by 11.1%. The total sum of health symptoms in the group was reduced from 59% of maximum to 33%. It is concluded that for this small and motivated group with alcohol problems, it was possible to improve QOL and health in only 5 days with a holistic treatment that combined philosophy of life, psychotherapy, and body therapy, but the results are not final. Further research is needed.

antabuse online pharmacy 2016-01-30

4-Methylpyrazole (4-MP), a potent competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase activity, has potential usefulness as a treatment means for methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning as well as severe disulfiram-ethanol interactions. Further study of the safety and metabolism of 4-MP in human subjects is needed before it can be used in such therapies. An HPLC assay has been developed to measure 4-MP levels in plasma and urine samples. The method was sensitive enough to quantitate 4-MP in an amount as low as 0.1 nmol. Recovery of 4- Sinequan Pill MP from spiked urine and plasma samples was greater than 90%. 4-MP levels in the plasma and urine of rats injected with an oral dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight were determined; the detectability limit in these samples was about 3 microM. The method is easy to perform and thus has practical application for research laboratories dealing with ethanol metabolism and clinical laboratories desiring to monitor 4-MP levels.

antabuse dosing 2016-11-06

To evaluate drug therapy for alcohol Cleocin T Gel dependence in the 12 months after first diagnosis in UK primary care.

antabuse recommended dosage 2015-02-20

The validity of self-report in alcoholism treatment research is controversial. Our recently completed Veterans Administration Cooperative Study evaluating the efficacy of disulfiram treatment for alcoholism provided an opportunity to assess the validity of self-report. To assess treatment response, patients and household contacts were interviewed at seven scheduled points during the 1 year of follow-up. Blood specimens also were obtained from the patients at these times and were analyzed for ethanol. Eighty-eight percent of the Arcoxia Tablets patient and/or collateral interviews were obtained at 6 months and 90% at 1 year. The mean number of blood and urine specimens collected per patient was 4.3 and 14.4, respectively. Outcome criteria included continuous abstinence during the year and total number of drinking days. Continuous abstinence: If we had had only the patients' self reports, we would have significantly underestimated the percentage of men who drank. By self-report 58.7% (355/605) relapsed whereas the combination of self report, collaterals' reports, and laboratory tests indicated that 72.4% (438/605) drank (p less than 0.001). Using Bayes' theorem, the conditional probability that a patient is continuously abstinent for 1 year when he so claims is 65%. Total drinking days: Of the 213 patient-collateral pairs each of whom provided all seven scheduled interviews, 46.9% (100/213) agreed on the total number of drinking days during the year.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

antabuse loading dose 2016-06-02

N-Butyl-N-(3-carboxypropyl)nitrosamine (BCPN) is a proximate carcinogenic metabolite of the bladder specific carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BHBN). The objective of this study was Allegra Dosage to determine if disulfiram would inhibit the induction of bladder cancer in rats given BCPN, as reported for BHBN (Cancer Res., 39, 3040, 1979). Two groups of 30 male Wistar rats were given 1.5 mM BCPN (0.028%) in the drinking water for 12 weeks. The total dose of BCPN/rat was 5 mmol (0.95 g). During administration of the BCPN, one group of rats was fed a diet containing 0.5% disulfiram, while the other group was maintained on control diet. At the end of 12 weeks, the animals were maintained on control diet without BCPN for an additional 18 weeks, at which time the animals were sacrificed. It was found that 0.5% disulfiram significantly reduced the incidence of bladder cancer, decreasing from 30/30 (100%) in the group receiving BCPN alone to 3/30 (10%) in the group fed the disulfiram diet. The inhibition of BHBN-induced bladder cancer by disulfiram, previously reported, was also confirmed in these experiments.

antabuse drug interactions 2015-09-03

Ethanol-induced emesis were investigated using Suncus murinus and the emetogenic mechanisms of ethanol were compared with those of cisplatin. Intraperitoneal injection of ethanol caused dose-dependent emesis with ED50 value of 22.3% (v/v) when injection volume was adjusted to 4 ml/kg. Intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection of acetaldehyde also caused dose-dependent emesis (ED50 = 3.5% (v/v) with an extremely shorter latency (6% i.p.: 1.0 +/- 0.3 min cf. 40% ethanol: 13.0 +/- 1.9 min). Neither ethanol nor acetaldehyde caused emetic responses when injected intracerebroventricularly. Pretreatment with disulfiram, an inhibitor of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase, potentiated the emetogenic effects of ethanol. Surgical abdominal vagotomy, which blocks cisplatin-induced emesis completely, did not prevent ethanol-induced emesis. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, which also cause complete inhibition of cisplatin Famvir Drug -induced emesis, did not affect the responses. However, ethanol-induced emesis was prevented by the pretreatment with 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetrarin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (MPG) dose-dependently. The tackykinin NK1 receptor antagonist (+)-(2S, 3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzylamino)-2-phenyl-piperidine (CP-99,994) also attenuated ethanol-induced emesis. Taken together, these results suggest that 1) acetaldehyde is probably responsible for ethanol-induced emesis, 2) active site for ethanol maybe peripheral, 3) ethanol-induced emesis is mediated by free radicals, and 4) mechanism of ethanol-induced emesis and that caused by cisplatin are different in many respects, although in some they are similar and that the precise pathways remain to be identified. Therefore, the tolerance to emetogenic effects of cisplatin in alcoholic patients cannot be explained as a simple cross desensitization of the pathway.

antabuse medication uses 2015-05-20

Disulfiram has shown promise in several clinical trials for cocaine addiction, but its potential utility in the treatment of amphetamine addiction has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of disulfiram on acute physiological and subjective responses to dextroamphetamine in healthy volunteers. Five male and 5 female subjects participated in an outpatient double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of disulfiram (250 mg/day) or placebo treatments each lasting for 4 days. Day four of each treatment period was the experimental session, in which subjects orally ingested a single dose of dextroamphetamine (20 mg/70 kg). Outcome measures included heart rate, blood pressure, plasma cortisol and prolactin, subjective and performance on the Sustained Flomax Capsule Open Attention to Response Test (SART). Disulfiram did not affect dextroamphetamine-induced increases in heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, or prolactin. Disulfiram did enhance some of the subjective effects of dextroamphetamine including ratings of "high," "anxious," "bad drug effects," "want more drug" and "drug liking" and was also associated with decreased performance in the SART test. How these enhanced subjective amphetamine responses affect cocaine use behavior remains to be determined in future clinical trials.

antabuse 200 mg 2017-06-21

Homovanillamine is a biogenic amine that it is catalyzed to homovanillyl aldehyde by monoamine oxidase A Protonix Brand Name and B, but the oxidation of its aldehyde to the acid derivative is usually ascribed to aldehyde dehydrogenase and a potential contribution of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase is usually ignored.

antabuse 50 mg 2015-12-24

Two chronically alcohol-addicted patients, a 37-year old woman and a 22-year old man, developed a severe polyneuropathy after being treated with very high doses of disulfiram. In the first case there was a high-grade proximal tetraparesis, especially of the legs; in the other there was a similar largely motor, but predominantly distal, neuropathy. Electrophysiological tests established a pattern of axonal damage. Guillain-Barré syndrome was excluded by analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Over a period of observation of 6 months and 2 1/2 years, respectively, the paresis continued even after disulfiram had been discontinued. 2 1/2 years later the electrophysiological changes were still present. As disulfiram treatment may cause severe side effects it is recommended that the lowest possible dosage by employed.

antabuse tablets images 2015-06-22

The role of brain catecholamine activity in the neuroendocrine regulation of the dopamine-PRL system in idiopathic hyperprolactinemia was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector. We measured urinary dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and total 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol levels in 12 women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia before and during either peripheral dopa-decarboxylase blockade, by carbidopa, or dopamine beta-hydroxylase blockade, by disulfiram. Homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations were significantly lower (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.005, respectively) in patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia compared with those in 12 control subjects in the early follicular phase, whereas they were similar to those in the control subjects in the pre-ovulatory phase. Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, vanillylmandelic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol concentrations were similar to those of the control subjects in both phases of the cycle. During carbidopa administration the levels of all urinary catecholamines and metabolites were unchanged, except that of dopamine which dropped remarkably (p less than 0.001). During disulfiram administration dopamine, homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations increased (p less than 0.05, p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.005, respectively) and those of norepinephrine, vanillylmandelic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol decreased (p less than 0.05, p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.005, respectively), whereas epinephrine levels remained unaltered. These data support the existence of a quantitatively reduced brain dopamine activity in idiopathic hyperprolactinemia.

antabuse buy 2016-11-03

Chloralose-anesthetized rats, spinalized at C1, were used to investigate the effects of spinal infusion of dopamine on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). A subarachnoid spinal superfusion technique was used to localize dopamine in the spinal cord while renal sympathetic nerve activity was recorded from the left renal nerve. Dopamine (25-200 pmol) produced dose-dependent increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (35 +/- 5% - 77 +/- 6%) and mean arterial blood pressure (25 +/- 5 mmHg - 38 +/- 2 mmHg). This increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity was potentiated by pretreatment with disulfiram (0.67 mmol/kg, interscapularly). Superfusion of equivalent doses of norepinephrine (NE) (25-50 pmol) had no effect or (100 pmol NE) inconsistent effect on renal sympathetic nerve activity. Intravenous injection of dopamine (25-200 pmol) produced no changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity and small increases of (5-7 mmHg) in mean blood pressure. Spinally superfused haloperidol (3 nmol) inhibited the dopamine-induced excitation of renal sympathetic nerve activity, but superfused phentolamine (3 nmol) potentiated the response. The magnitude of renal nerve excitation (RNE), elicited by electrical stimulation of points between lamina four and seven and the adjacent white matter of the cervical cord, was reduced to 60% of control by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (0.25 mumol, spinally) and was restored to 85% of control by dopamine (25 pmol) but not by NE (25 pmol). However, the magnitude of renal nerve excitation, elicited by stimulation of the same cervical area, was unaffected by pretreatment with disulfiram interscapularly. Therefore, it is concluded that dopamine itself may be an important neurotransmitter of a spinal system modulating renal sympathetic nerve activity.

antabuse generic name 2015-03-20

It has been shown in compensatory hypertrophy of the thyroid gland of male rats weighing 180--240 g that of 18 compounds tested five drugs (cyclic AMP, theophylline, phenformin, tryptophan and disulfiram) reduce an inhibitory effect of thyroxin and are likely to raise the threshold of homeostatic inhibition in the hypothalamohypophyseal and thyroid system.

antabuse implant cost 2017-08-22

Glyburide is an improved drug for the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is at least as effective as the first-generation oral hypoglycemics and is effective in doses that are considerably less than those needed with first-generation sulfonyl-ureas. While its mode of action is similar to that of other agents, glyburide has the unique feature of prolonged activity despite a short half-life and short duration in the body. Side effects are minimal, and toxic reactions have not been reported. While hypoglycemic episodes can occur, as with any blood glucose-lowering agent, they can be prevented by being alert to patients who may be more sensitive to oral agents. Unlike older sulfonylureas, about 50% of glyburide is excreted through the feces. In 14 years of worldwide experience, glyburide has rarely shown disulfiram-like effects and has not shown antidiuretic effects. While glyburide produces an insulin release response to glucose that parallels a normal physiological response, it appears to also decrease resistance to insulin and sensitize the receptors while utilizing the patient's available endogenous insulin. There are two major metabolites, but they are inert and are rapidly excreted, having no hypoglycemic effect. Considering the safety of glyburide and the large worldwide population that uses this agent, it is expected that this new second-generation hypoglycemic agent will greatly increase the therapeutic spectrum for NIDDM. Not only is it possible for more patients with diabetes to be treated, but many already being treated orally can achieve better regulation with this effective new oral agent.

antabuse dosage 2015-01-07

This study examined the patient case mix and program determinants of 6-month readmission rates and early treatment dropout for 7,711 VA inpatients with both substance abuse and major psychiatric disorders treated in one of 104 substance abuse programs. Patients were treated in one of three types of inpatient programs: explicitly designed dual diagnosis specialty programs, substance abuse programs with a dual diagnosis psychotherapy group or standard substance abuse programs. Dual diagnosis specialty programs differed from regular substance abuse programs in that they had a more severe case mix, a higher 180-day readmission rate, greater dual diagnosis treatment orientation, used more psychotropic medication, had longer lengths of stay, had greater tolerance of relapse and medication noncompliance, and a higher rate of psychiatric aftercare in the 30 days after discharged. Programs with less severe case mix, longer intended and actual length of stay, lower 7-day dropout rates, greater tolerance of problem behavior, 12-step groups, and higher immediate postdischarge utilization of outpatient mental health treatment lower 180-day readmission rates. Programs with less severe patient case mix, more use of psychotropic medications but less of methadone and antabuse, less varied and diverse treatment activities, and low use of patient-led groups had lower dropout rates.

antabuse online canada 2016-08-18

A case of fatal disulfiram-alcohol reaction due to ingestion of ethanol and antabuse is presented. Unusual autopsy findings and toxicological results are described. This case represents a report of corrosion lesion in the lower oesophagus and stomach due to a violent chemical reaction in situ and also the highest blood concentration of acetaldehyde (41 mg/l) ever recorded.

antabuse cost australia 2015-10-17

Reversible acute organic brain syndrome is described in a patient receiving disulfiram, 250 mg daily. Slowing of the electroencephalogram (3 to 4 cycles per second) in the occipital region resolved ten days after discontinuation of disulfiram. Acute organic brain syndrome induced by disulfiram is not rare but is often not correlated, and it should always be considered a possibility in patients receiving disulfiram therapy.

antabuse missed dose 2016-09-14

Shock is a common reason for medical intensive care unit admission, with septic and cardiogenic accounting for most of the etiologies. However, the potential severity of adverse side effects of drugs indicates that any medication should be carefully scrutinized for potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions that may result. We herein report the case of a life-threatening shock mimicking successively anaphylactic, cardiogenic, and septic shock, which was finally related to disulfiram ethanol reaction. Indeed, disulfiram ethanol reaction is known to provoke unpleasant symptoms through vasodilatation in various organs. However, extreme manifestations of vasodilatory shock may lead to circulatory failure and lactic acidosis. Because of large prevalence of alcoholism and disulfiram medication, emergency physicians and medical specialists should be aware of this life-threatening condition, with its misleading presentation.

antabuse order 2017-11-12

Overt disulfiram-induced hepatitis is rare; it has a high mortality rate, especially when the etiology is non suspected and when the treatment is not promptly discontinued. The Authors describe a case of disulfiram-induced acute hepatitis and emphasize close clinical and biochemical monitoring.