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Artane (Trihexyphenidyl)

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Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.

Other names for this medication:

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Sinemet, Levodopa, Carbidopa, Selegiline, Kemadrin, Benadryl, Cogentin, Banophen, Akineton, Allermax


Also known as:  Trihexyphenidyl.


Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.

name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.

Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.

Brand name of Artane is Artane.


Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.

If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.


If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Artane are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.

Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.

Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.

artane medication class

Tardive laryngeal dystonia, a rare form of dystonic syndrome, was only reported to be induced by typical antipsychotics. Here, we report one case of ziprasidone-induced tardive laryngeal dystonia in a schizophrenic female patient, who showed dysphonia, hoarseness and dyspnea after taking ziprasidone 120 mg/day for 8 months. These symptoms were significantly improved after discontinuing ziprasidone and increasing the dose of trihexyphenidyl for 1 week. Although atypical antipsychotics are associated with a lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms, caution should be taken for any tardive dystonic movement when using these medications.

artane 20 mg

1. The pA2 anti-acetylcholine activity in vitro for benapryzine was 6.55 compared with 9.02 for benzhexol.2. In vivo, the anti-acetylcholine activity of benapryzine relative to benzhexol was 0.038 as assessed by the mydriatic response of mice after subcutaneous administration. The relative activity assessed by the inhibition of pilocarpine-induced salivation was 0.13 after oral administration and 0.056 following subcutaneous administration of the drugs.3. Benapryzine had the same order of activity as benzhexol in inhibiting oxotremorine-induced tremors in mice.4. Benapryzine had anticonvulsant properties but no analgesic activity, whilst in high doses it antagonized the extrapyramidal symptoms induced by perphenazine in rats.5. In patients benapryzine was effective in reducing the symptoms of Parkinson's disease without overt anti-cholinergic effects or central hallucinogenic actions.6. Benapryzine abolished the excess tremor and reduced the rigidity and akinesia induced by physostigmine in Parkinsonian subjects.

artane drugs

Extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) are clinically relevant side effects of metoclopramide which are often not anticipated.

artane medication trihexyphenidyl

A new neuroleptic drug, Timiperone, is able to exert an antiapomorphine effect at doses smaller than cataleptogenic doses. Nineteen patients with urologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy with cisplatin in combination with other agents were studied for the antiemetic efficacy of Timiperone. Six of 8 patients over 46 years old treated with Timiperone 6 mg/day p.o. from the day before undergoing DDP therapy to the last day of the therapy had no episode of vomiting and 2 patients had a few episodes of emesis (one and two episodes during 5 days of undergoing DDP, respectively). Five patients under 45 years old given Timiperone 6 mg/day by the same method had few episodes of vomiting, but suffered from extrapyramidal symptoms. Finally 6 patients undergoing DDP with Timiperone in combination with trihexyphenidyl suffered no symptoms of catalepsy but sometimes had mild vomiting episodes (1-4 times a day). We would like to propose that in antiemetic therapy with Timiperone for cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting, a dose of 4.5 mg/day be given from two days before undergoing chemotherapy because of the cumulative effect of Timiperone.

artane drug class

The cataleptic state induced by the depot-type preparations of fluphenazine (FZ) was investigated in mice. Intramuscular injections of FZ-enanthate or FZ-decanoate produced a marked and long-lasting catalepsy, which was antagonized by trihexyphenidyl, biperiden and promethazine but not by l-dopa. These anticataleptic effects disappeared after several hours and catalepsy occurred again. The cataleptic effects of FZ-enanthate and FZ-decanoate were increased by (D-Ala2, MePhe4, Met(0)5-ol)-enkephalin, aminooxyacetic acid and haloperidol. The results indicate that the cataleptic effects of FZ-enanthate and FZ-decanoate correspond with their long duration of antipsychotic effects and that the catalepsy may involve enkephalinergic, GABAergic and cholinergic as well as dopaminergic neuron activity.

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Alterations in complex I activity, one of the enzymatic units of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, have been demonstrated in different tissues from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Subsequently, we showed that the chronic administration of levodopa can cause alterations in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in rats, which suggests that the observed deficit in complex I activity in PD might be, at least in part, related to chronic levodopa therapy. Our study assessed the in vitro effects of different antiparkinsonian agents on complex I activity in rat brain. As previously reported, both levodopa and dopamine inhibit complex I activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the two major metabolites of dopamine, homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as well as 3-O-methyl-dopa, had little or no effect on complex I activities. Bromocriptine, pergolide, trihexyphenidyl, molindone, and clozapine were all without significant inhibitory effects on mitochondrial function. Although vitamin C and deprenyl did not alter complex I activity, they did prevent the inhibitory effect of both levodopa and dopamine on complex I activity. This work indicates that among the different and usual antiparkinsonian agents, only levodopa and dopamine induced reductions in complex I activity. It also indicates that vitamin C and deprenyl are both effective in preventing the levodopa-induced complex I inhibition. This latter finding provides further support to the use of antioxidants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors as therapeutic strategies in attempts to slow the progression of PD.

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In patients with cranial dystonia, we compared the effects of central anticholinergic, peripheral anticholinergic, and placebo treatments in a double-blind crossover study. One of the nine patients who completed the study improved markedly with central anticholinergic therapy. The three treatments were indistinguishable in the other eight patients except for the higher incidence of central and peripheral anticholinergic side effects with trihexyphenidyl.

artane reviews

1. Contractions of the isolated taenia of the guinea-pig caecum produced by acetylcholine and TMA were examined in the presence of various antagonists and anticholinesterases.2. Hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) (50-400 mug/ml) inhibited contractions or relaxations produced by TMA but not contractions produced by acetylcholine. The inhibition was rapid in onset and readily reversible. Contractions produced by transmural stimulation were unaffected by HC-3 but responses produced by nicotine were inhibited.3. Low concentrations of hyoscine and benzhexol inhibited responses to acetylcholine to a greater extent than those to TMA.4. Morphine, raised concentrations of Mg(++) or reduced concentrations of Ca(++) inhibited contractions produced by TMA and by acetylcholine to a similar extent.5. Edrophonium, in concentrations which preferentially inhibit acetylcholinesterase, increased contractions produced by acetylcholine and converted responses to nicotine or transmural stimulation into contractions or biphasic responses with a marked contraction phase but did not increase contractions produced by TMA.6. Iso-OMPA, in concentrations which preferentially inhibit butyrylcholinesterase, had no effect on responses to acetylcholine, nicotine, transmural stimulation or TMA.7. HC-3 inhibited contractions produced by TMA in the presence of anticholinesterases but had little effect on contractions produced by acetylcholine.8. These results suggest that TMA produces contractions by acting directly on receptors of the smooth muscle. An analysis of possible reasons for HC-3 (in the concentrations used) acting as an antagonist of TMA but not of acetylcholine indicates that the findings do not necessarily contradict the interpretation that both agonists act on the same receptor.

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We report 2 uncomplicated pregnancies in 1 woman with early-onset, sporadic, primary generalized dystonia (DYT1 negative) treated with high dosage trihexyphenidyl and review the literature on antidystonic agents and pregnancy.

parkinson drug artane

The study of psychiatric disorders co-occurring with rare genetic syndromes has important therapeutic and pathophysiological implications. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in schizophrenia with comorbid Marfan syndrome is challenging in view of multiorgan involvement. We report successful use of ECT in a patient who presented to us with catatonia and Marfan syndrome. The report highlights the importance of careful evaluation of patients with schizophrenia and Marfan syndrome before ECT in liaison with other specialties.

artane drug action

Several neuroleptics recurrently failed to ameliorate psychosis in three schizophrenic patients. Failures were caused by recurrent intractable akathisia, unresponsive to diazepam and trihexyphenidyl. Lacking this extrapyramidal side effect, lithium carbonate was tried and proved an effective antipsychotic. It is suggested that in schizophrenic psychosis lithium is a rational therapeutic option in cases of neuroleptic intolerance and failures due to akathisia.

artane tablets

Selecting the appropriate treatment for dystonia begins with proper classification of disease based on age, distribution, and underlying etiology. The therapies available for dystonia include oral medications, botulinum toxin, and surgical procedures. Oral medications are generally reserved for generalized and segmental dystonia. Botulinum toxin revolutionized the treatment of focal dystonia when it was introduced for therapeutic purposes in the 1980s. Surgical procedures are available for medication-refractory dystonia, markedly affecting an individual's quality of life.

artane medication classification

To describe data the epidemiological features, etiology, and treatment of retrospectively reviewed data of all patients with SJS and TEN.

artane medication dosage

Intermittent high-frequency electrical stimulation of the caudate nucleus induces contralateralhead-turning in rats. The anti-Parkinson drugs, L-dopa, amantadine and apomorphine, raise the threshold for or completely inhibit head-turning. There was a high correlation between the predicted clinical potency and these drugs based on inhibition of head-turning and their respective clinical anti-Parkinson potency. The centrally acting anticholinergic drugs also antagonized head-turning but there was not a good correlation between the predicted and acutal anti-Parkinson doses used in man. In order to determine if these drugs blocked head-turning by acting on the caudate nucleus, a combination cannula and stimulating electrode was used to administer drugs directly into the same area of the caudate nucleus being stimulated electrically. Dopamine, amantadine and apomorphine each antagonized head-turning when infused into the same site, at doses which did not produce concurrent overt sterotyped behavior. Time- and dose-response data with all three drugs suggest a direct inhibitory action on the caudate nucleus consistent with their proposed mechanism for treatment of Parkinson symptomatology. Head-turning appears to be a useful animal model for the development of new, specific anti-Parkinson drugs and for the study of possible mechanism(s) of action of existing drugs.

artane drug wikipedia

Tardive Tourette syndrome is an extrapyramidal symptom which appears after long-term neuroleptic use. We report two cases of this syndrome and review case reports to introduce this extrapyramidal symptom. The first case is a 40-year-old male with schizophrenia. After 6 years of neuroleptic therapy, he began to have barking and grunting vocalizations and show neck and shoulderjerking. The second case is a 53-year-old male with alcoholism. Sulpride was prescribed for three years to treat mood symptoms. Oral dyskinesia appeared after sulpride was stopped. About five weeks after amantadine and trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride was started, he began to have grunting vocalizations and show neck jerking. The involuntary movement disappeared quickly after intraveneous administration of haloperidol. Including our two cases, there are 17 case reports of tardive Tourette syndrome. Twelve cases were schizophrenic patients. In addition to typical movements, patients had coplolalia in 6 cases, and oral dyskinesia in 9 cases. In 8 cases, tardive Tourette syndrome appeared during neuroleptic treatment, and in 9 cases the syndrome appeared after neuroleptics were stopped. Our two cases and previous case reports showed that tardive Tourette syndrome appeared after long-term neuroleptic therapy, it was improved transiently by an increase of neuroleptics and exacerbated by their decrease, it was exacerbated by dopaminergic and anticholinergic drugs, and tardive dyskinesia was often seen concomitantly, indicating that tardive Tourette syndrome has a similar pathophysiology to tardive dyskinesia. Tardive Tourette syndrome should not be misdiagnosed as an exacerbation of schizophrenic symptoms responsive to an increase of neuroleptics. This side effect should be recognized widely and treated properly.

artane user reviews

We evaluated prospectively 100 patients, the largest reported series, with blepharospasm and orofacial-cervical dystonia, or Meige syndrome. The mean age at onset was 51.7 years, and 81% presented between the ages of 40 and 70. Women outnumbered men three to two. Blepharospasm was the initial symptom in 58 patients, but only 23 had involuntary movements localized to the orbicularis oculi. Sixty-one patients had the complete syndrome, blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia, and 60 had neck or generalized dystonia in addition to the orofacial movements. Twenty-one patients with spasmodic dysphonia were included; in 12 of these patients, spasmodic dysphonia was part of the complete (Meige) syndrome, and 16 of these patients had neck or generalized dystonia or essential tremor. An organic cause of Meige syndrome is supported by a high correlation with essential tremor and other movement disorders and by positive family history in some patients. Response to medication was inconsistent, but 69% of patient trials resulted in some improvement; in 22% the benefit was marked and persistent. Tetrabenazine, lithium, and trihexyphenidyl were most useful for the treatment of oromandibular dystonia, and clonazepam was useful in some patients with blepharospasm.

artane and alcohol

Eight of the ten genetically defined types of NBIA are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Exceptions are: beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), caused by a de novo pathogenic variant in WDR45, which is inherited in an X-linked dominant manner with suspected male lethality; and neuroferritinopathy, caused by a pathogenic variant in FTL, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. If the family-specific pathogenic variant(s) are known, carrier testing for family members at risk for the autosomal recessive types and the X-linked type is possible, and prenatal testing for most types is possible.

artane 2mg tablet

Trihexyphenidyl (Tri) inhibited the contraction of rabbit basilar artery due to high K+ (45.6 mmol/L). IC50 was 2.9 +/- 0.7 mumol/L. The contractions of basilar and mesenteric arteries due to calcium and those of basilar artery and saphenous vein due to serotonin were noncompetitively. Tri inhibited myogenic activities of the portal vein strips of rats and increased the normal cerebral blood flow of rats to 19 +/- 7 ml/(min.100 g).

artane drug abuse

Sixty-four patients completed the study, 32 in each group. Mean dose of BTA was 292 mouse units (first session) and 262 mouse units (second session). Mean dose of trihexyphenidyl was 16.25 mg. The changes on the Disability section of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-Disability) (primary outcome), Tsui Scale, and the General Health Perception Subscale were significantly in favor of BTA. More patients treated with BTA had an improvement of at least three points on the TWSTRS-Disability (14 versus 6) and on the Tsui Scale (23 versus 12). Adverse effects were significantly less frequent in the BTA group.

artane medication uses

Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist clonidine and related drugs can offer significant protection against both the acute and chronic toxicity to soman administration in rats and mice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether addition of clonidine to a standard pretreatment protective regimen against soman toxicity could offer added protection or benefit. The standard regimen employed was a mixture of physostigmine salicylate (150 micrograms/kg) and artane (trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride 2 mg/kg). Rats were randomly assigned to one of 4 experimental groups: (1) those receiving i.m. sterile saline injection followed 30 min later by s.c. saline injection (normal controls); (2) saline, i.m. followed 30 min later by one of several doses (60-110 micrograms/kg of soman, s.c.; (3) saline, i.m., followed 10 min later by the standard pretreatment regimen i.m., followed by one of several doses of soman (160-300 micrograms/kg), s.c.; and (4) clonidine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg) i.m., followed 10 min later by the pretreatment regimen, followed 30 min later by soman. All animals were examined acutely and survivors were examined over a 3-week period following soman administration. The following observations were made: (1) Addition of clonidine to the standard pretreatment regimen did not enhance survival rate over the standard regimen alone (unless the clonidine was administered after the regimen). (2) Of the acutely toxic behavioral signs promoted by soman, clonidine addition to the standard regimen was of benefit only in reducing soman-induced tremor. (3) Addition of clonidine to the standard regimen appeared to hasten the return to normal motor behavior after soman; however, all groups exhibited normal motor behavior in 9 days. (4) Despite apparent normal motor behavior, soman-treated animals exhibited a marked performance deficit in the passive avoidance parameter 3 weeks after injection. The standard regimen partially preserved this effect; addition of clonidine to the standard regimen completely reversed the effect. These results indicate that clonidine provides a measure of protection against chronic behavioral deficits caused by soman intoxication.

artane pediatric dosage

MDs are clinically important neurological disorders which are often caused by drugs and interestingly drugs used for its management are also associated with high incidence of ADRs. Hence these ADRs should be carefully monitored.

artane drug classification

Groups of patients with Parkinson's disease, either medicated, or unmedicated and early in the course, together with age- and IQ-matched control subjects were tested in two paradigms measuring different aspects of selective attention. The first set of tests compared visual discrimination learning following intra- and extra-dimensional shifts, using a "total change" design in which each shift was made in the presence of novel exemplars of the compound stimuli used as discriminanda. The second test consisted of a visual search task in which the number of alternatives was varied. The results of the first experiment showed a selective deficit in both groups of Parkinsonian subjects in their ability to perform an extra-dimensional shift. In the visual search task, the patients were less accurate, but responded with equivalent choice reaction times to those of controls. The results are discussed in terms of the nature of the attentional dysfunction that occurs in Parkinson's disease.

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artane generic name 2015-06-04

Trihexyphenidyl, a synthetic anticholinergic, used to control extrapyramidal symptoms arising from neuroleptic drug therapy has been a subject of controversy regarding the need for continuous antiparkinsonian therapy. In a group of 22 psychiatric patients receiving long-term antipsychotic medication concurrently with trihexyphenidyl the effects of trihexyphenidyl withdrawal were studied double-blind and placebo controlled. Anxiety, psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms and salivary flow were monitored. Blood pressure, pulse, sleep duration, weight and body temperature were recorded daily. The result buy artane was a recognizable withdrawal syndrome indicated by an increase in anxiety with various physical complaints, as well as evidence of orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. A temporary deterioration was noted in psychotic symptomatology and extrapyramidal symptoms. The majority of the parameters regained baseline values, indicating the symptoms were related to the discontinuation of trihexyphenidyl and supporting the existence of a withdrawal syndrome.

artane drugs 2016-04-18

We enrolled 46 patients in the study. The treatment with oral trihexyphenidyl was indicated in 46, obtaining good result in 15 (32.6%), three with temporary effect and the rest with lasting effect. Three patients presented side effects (6.5%). Four out buy artane of 11 (36.36%) patients treated with scopolamine patch had beneficial effects. One was withdrawn due to lack of efficacy and six due to side effects. Twenty-five patients were infiltrated with botulinum toxin, with a significant decrease of drooling in 16 patients (64%) after the first injection. We observed no significant changes in nine patients. Only one out of 25 showed side effects (mild dysphagia).

artane drug abuse 2017-09-05

Task specific tremors buy artane in musicians have been mainly described as primary bowing tremor in string instrumentalists in relatively small sample sizes. Our aim was to describe epidemiology, risk factors, phenomenology and treatment options of this disorder in 23 musicians of different instruments.

artane pediatric dose 2015-06-02

Blepharospasm is a relatively frequent cranial dystonia which may be seen either alone or related to orofacial-mandibular dystonia (Meige's syndrome). In its maximum degree it can cause functional blindness.Twelve patients with blepharospasm (4 essential and 8 Meige's syndrome) who had been previously treated unsuccessfully with drugs (trihexyphenidyl, biperiden, carbamazepine, lithium, baclofen, lisuride, imipramine, clonazepam and butyrophenones) were treated for 12 months with periocular injections of botulinum toxin (BOTOX). A "low" dose of 12,5 U per eye was employed. With this dose, eleven out of twelve patients experienced significant improvement which lasted from five to fifteen weeks. The only nonresponder obtained complete relief upon buy artane duplicating the dose. The only side effect was uni or bilateral ptosis in six patients which improved completely in seven to twenty one days. One patient developed a peripheral facial palsy with complete remission in nineteen days. No systemic side effects were noted. There was only one desertion from this study due to depression enhanced by prolonged (21 days) ptosis. All patients (including the deserter) agreed that treatment with BOTOX provided more relief than any other previous therapeutic method. Our results confirm those obtained by others but a more prolonged study is needed to better evaluate long term effects.

artane medication 2016-02-06

The lower limb is an uncommon but possible topographical site buy artane of dystonia in adulthood that should be kept in consideration during clinical evaluation.

artane overdose symptoms 2016-09-23

Exteroceptive suppression of the masseter and temporalis muscles, produced by electrical stimulation of the mental nerve, was studied in 40 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 18 age-matched control subjects. Prior to the stimulation, background electromyographic activity showed no difference between the normal subjects and patients with PD. The latency in the patients with PD did not differ from that in the normal subjects. The duration and degree of suppression buy artane were lower in the patients with PD when compared with the normal subjects. The low level of degree was more obvious in patients with severe rigidity in the neck. A low degree of exteroceptive suppression might play a partial role in causing rigidity.

artane maximum dose 2017-08-24

We report the cases of two patients with complaints of dysphagia following long-term neuroleptic therapy. Esophageal contrast radiography revealed that one patient suffered disruption of the normal swallowing activity of the pharyngoesophagus due to tardive dyskinesia. Her dysphagia disappeared following changes in her neuroleptic medications and the administration of clonazepam. The other patient demonstrated severe rabbit syndrome involving the glossopharynx. This 3-Hz rhythmic movement buy artane disorder resolved following injection of an anticholinergic agent. Thereafter, the addition of oral trihexyphenidyl to her medication regimen improved her dysphagia. It should be emphasized that the differential diagnosis of neuroleptic-associated dysphagia subtypes is important because therapeutic strategies differ depending on the subtype of this life-threatening illness.

artane medication classification 2016-12-07

The neurotoxin N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces neuropathology and clinical symptoms that resemble Parkinsonism in primates and humans. In mice it induces a long-lasting depletion of neostriatal 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) content. Using the mouse, we found that MPTP induces a buy artane fall of dopamine and a rise of acetylcholine in the neostriatum. Both responses to MPTP can be blocked by prior treatment with atropine or trihexyphenidyl.

artane reviews 2015-09-03

The available evidence suggests that BtA injections provide more objective buy artane and subjective benefit than trihexyphenidyl to patients with cervical dystonia. We could not draw any conclusions about other anticholinergic drugs. Future trials should explore the role of anticholinergic drugs in patients that do not get benefit with BtA.

artane 5 mg 2015-05-30

Fifty patients attending a neurological outpatient clinic for Parkinson's disease were assessed by standardized methods for both physical and psychiatric symptoms. The patients then received treatment with L-dopa with carbidopa or anticholinergic drugs and/or amantadine. During the following six-month period the subjects were assessed at intervals, both physically and psychiatrically. Forty patients were followed up for the full six-month period. The severity of physical signs and affective symptoms was shown to be significantly related at several stages of the investigation. Initially, the patients showed a high psychiatric morbidity. During treatment, 22 patients developed a depressive disorder, 12 or which had a history of previous depressive episodes. By contrast, of the 11 patients who showed very few affective symptoms during follow-up, none had a history of depression. Of the 22 patients with a depressive disorder, only two were in the anticholinergic/amantadine group, compared buy artane with nine and 11 in the other groups. L-dopa was not an effective antidepressant agent. The probable relevance of the findings of the study to the management of patients with Parkinson's disease is outlined.

artane pediatric dosing 2016-03-16

In order to analyse the subtype of muscarinic receptors involved in the methacholine-induced contraction of the rabbit iris sphincter we have determined equilibrium dissociation constants (KB) of various antagonists in the sphincter muscle. The values were compared with those observed at M1 (rabbit vas deferens), buy artane M2 (heteroreceptors in rat iris) and M3 receptors (guinea-pig ileum), or at the muscarinic receptors in the guinea-pig uterus. The methacholine-induced contraction of the uterus from immature guinea-pigs was competitively antagonized by pirenzepine (6.64, -log KB), 4-DAMP (8.39), hexahydrodifenidol (HHD; 7.00 for the (R)- and 5.40 for the (S)-enantiomer), p-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol (p-F-HHSiD; 6.25) and valethamate bromide (8.04). The affinity of the antagonists is consistent with the presence of an M2 receptor. The -log KB values of the antagonists in the rabbit iris sphincter (6.43, p-F-HHSiD; 6.22, AQ-RA 741; 7.23 and 5.34, (R)- and (S)-trihexyphenidyl) were lower than, or within the lowest range of, estimates in the other experimental models, irrespective of the subtype selectivity of the antagonist. This excludes the presence of an M1, M2, M3 or M4 receptor in this smooth muscle. The affinity of UH-AH 37 in the iris was intermediate between that for M1 or M3, and M2 receptors. The low affinity of AQ-RA 741 and the low enantiomeric ratio of trihexyphenidyl (THP) in the iris (77.6) would be compatible with a presumed M5 receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

artane 2mg tab 2017-01-27

An operant food-related conditioned reflex was developed in six cats by the "active choice" protocol: short-latency pedal presses were followed by presentation of low-quality reinforcement (bread-meat mix), while long-latency pedal presses were followed by presentation of high-quality reinforcement (meat). Animals differed in terms of their food-procuring strategies, displaying "self-control," "ambivalence," or "impulsivity." Multineuron activity was recorded from the frontal cortex and hippocampus (field CA3). Cross-correlation analysis of interneuronal interactions within (local networks) and between (distributed networks) study structures showed that the numbers of interneuronal interactions in both local and distributed networks were maximal in animals with "self-control." On the background of systemic administration of the muscarinic cholinoreceptor blockers scopolamine and trihexyphenidyl, the numbers of interneuronal interactions decreased, while "common source" influences increased. This correlated with impairment of the reproduction of the selected strategy, primarily affecting the animals' self-controlled behavior. These results show that the "self-control" strategy is buy artane determined by the organization of local and distributed networks in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.

artane 2 mg 2017-06-21

Paradigms of isometric force control allow study of the generation and release of movement in the absence of complications due to disordered visuomotor coordination. The onset and release of isometric force in Parkinson's disease (PD) was studied, using computerised determinants of latency of response and rate of force generation and release. Components of isometric force control were related to measures of cognitive, affective and clinical motor disability. The effects of treatment were Lopressor 5 Mg determined by longitudinal study of de novo patients. Patients with PD showed impairment in latency and rate of force change for movement release as well as onset. Rate of force change correlated with depression, clinical motor disability and memory quotient but latency showed no correlation with any of these measures. Treatment improved rate of force release, in concert with clinical motor disability, but not latency. These results suggest dissociations between latency and rate of force change that may be linked to different neurochemical deficits. Further, they demonstrate akinetic deficits in force release that argue against the "neural energy hypothesis" of akinesia.

artane medication dystonia 2016-02-29

To describe data the epidemiological features, etiology, and Diamox 500mg Medication treatment of retrospectively reviewed data of all patients with SJS and TEN.

artane max dose 2016-02-10

We report observations on the treatment of 66 patients with presumed dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). Forty-seven of these patients had hereditary disease; 19 had disease of sporadic occurrence. Initial diagnostic confusion with "cerebral palsy" or "spastic diplegia" existed in 16 patients. Several patients benefited from anticholinergic medications and a few from carbamazepine. Levodopa was the most effective treatment in all cases. In the majority, there was an excellent response, with continued long-term clinical stability on levodopa therapy for as long as 10 to 22 years. Four men with sporadic disease and 1 woman with a sister affected with adolescent-onset parkinsonism had similar initial treatment response, but developed "wearing-off" and a less satisfactory response to levodopa within the first few years of treatment. Nexium 300 Mg This indicates that some patients with clinical syndromes suggestive of DRD may not have an excellent prognosis on long-term levodopa treatment and may represent misclassified cases of childhood-onset parkinsonism.

artane medication uses 2015-01-01

Compliance to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in 274 consecutive schizophrenic Aggrenox Medication Aspirin outpatients has been assessed retrospectively from their clinical records. Ten point four percent of the sample (22 patients) took these drugs in amounts greater than those prescribed. Some possible explanations of this excessive use are discussed.

artane pills 2016-01-16

Anti-PD treatment in Xi'an did not strictly follow the standardized protocol, with few patients using dopamine agonist and over 50% of the patients Triphala Zandu Tablets changed their drugs randomly.

artane drug wikipedia 2016-04-10

The absolute configuration of the more Combivir Dosage Children active (-)-enantiomer of the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride has been established as (R) by syntheses of (S)-(+)-procyclidine hydrochloride, whose absolute configuration has been established previously, and (S)-(+)-trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride from the same chiral building block, viz. (S)-(-)-cyclohexyl-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid. Both enantiomers of this chiral synthon were prepared by optical resolution of the corresponding racemate, employing (R)- and (S)-1-phenylethylamine, respectively, as resolving agents.

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In order to facilitate direct comparisons of anticholinergic drug effects on activity, nine drugs were tested in Clomid Tablet one laboratory using a standardized procedure.

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In a double-blind study of 100 chronic schizophrenic patients, withdrawal of antiparkinson (AP) medication showed that 44% of the 75 patients who constituted the placebo Famvir 500mg Generic group (versus none of the patients on active AP medication), complained strongly of debilitating extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and another 22.6% (versus 8.7% of the patients on active AP medication), displayed disturbing psychotic symptomatology related to EPS. The authors discuss their findings in relation to the widely held view that AP medication may be safely withdrawn from chronic schizophrenics.

artane generic 2016-07-04

Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is characterized by regions of demyelination throughout the brain, which are most prominent in the pons. This demyelinating disease is associated with electrolyte disturbances and typically occurs in patients Glucotrol Xl Generic who are alcoholic or malnourished. Movement disorders are not frequently recognized in patients with ODS. This report describes a 22-year-old woman with ODS after correction of profound hyponatremia. The main neurologic symptom was two-phase movement disorder. First, she had acute onset dystonia, then the movement disorder transformed to generalized rigidity and tremors in the delayed second phase. Magnetic resonance imaging in the first phase revealed demyelinating lesions in the central pons, bilateral thalami and basal ganglia. In the second phase, the previous myelinolysis had been partially resolved. The clinical course of the two-phase movement disorder did not correlate with the resolving feature of neuroradiologic findings. During the second-phase movement disorder, the patient had a good response to propranolol and trihexyphenidyl.

artane y alcohol 2017-11-27

Central nervous system involvement in Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a very rare clinical manifestation. We report a 15-year-old girl who presented to us with fever, drowsiness, neck swellings, and involuntary closure of both eyelids of 2 days duration. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensities in dorsal midbrain and pons. Cervical lymph node fine-needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. Blepharospasm secondary to infectious etiology is rare. Positron emission computed tomography brain showed increased focal uptake in anterior cingulate Duphaston Tab Usage gyrus which can be the site of origin of blepharospasm. The patient was managed with steroids and trihexyphenidyl with significant recovery. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a rare disease which has to be considered as one of the differential diagnosis in a case of acute encephalopathy with cervical lymphadenopathy.

artane tablets 2015-04-05

Hartnup disease is an inborn abnormality of renal and intestinal transport involving the neutral amino acids. Intermittent pellagra-like rash, attacks of cerebellar ataxia and psychiatric disturbance are characteristic symptoms of this disease. We described here a patient with adult-onset Hartnup disease who presented unique neuropsychiatric symptoms but no dermatologic symptoms, and reported features of amino acids transport in this patient and his family. The patient, a man aged 37 years, was referred to us because of lasting daytime bruxism. He is the second child of healthy parents who are first cousin; his elder brother who has been mentally retarded became bed-ridden and died at 32 years of age. His younger brother is completely healthy. Although the patient's development in infancy has been slightly retarded, he completed compulsory 9-year education. At 29 years of age, he experienced episodes of diplopia, ataxic gait and insomnia, and at 33 years of age, of transient stupor. There had been no history of photosensitivity or dermatitis. On neurological examination, there were trunkal ataxia, increased muscular tone and decreased mental activity besides bruxism. These symptoms remained unchanged despite of several medications including trihexyphenidyl, diazepam, halloperidol, tiapride and sulpiride. Two months later, the patient became stuporous; bruxism and hypertonicity became exaggerated. Myerson's sign, sucking reflex and grasp reflex in both hand appeared. There was no dermal lesion. A cranial computed tomography revealed a small calcification in the right frontal subcortical region and a single photon emission tomography indicated possible bifrontal hypoperfusion. Electroencephalograms demonstrated non-specific slowing. Somatosensory evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocities were normal. There were constant indicanuria and amino-aciduria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

artane and alcohol 2015-08-04

Rats were trained to discriminate 1.25 mg/kg CLZ from vehicle in a two-choice drug discrimination task.

artane 1 mg 2015-09-28

Computer analysis of the electroencephalogram (CEEG) in psychotic children before and after pharmacotherapy, normal children of schizophrenic mothers, and matched normal children of normal parents indicated significant intergroup differences. The psychotic children had more slow, as well as very fast, EEG waves. With drug therapy the EEG showed a partial "normalization," as fast EEG activity decreased. The EEG and auditory evoked potential of children of schizophrenic mothers were strikingly similar to those of psychotic children and schizophrenic adults, with significant decreases of the average EEG amplitude and the evoked potential latencies. Psychotic children were distinctly differentiated from the normal children by discriminant function analysis of the EEG and EP. Quantitative analysis of brain functions in the mentally ill can help determine the neurophysiological correlates of behavior, a more scientific diagnostic classification, prognosis, and selection of therapy.

artane 20 mg 2015-07-30

Pediatric movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of symptoms that occur in the context of a large number of different neurological diseases. Accurate diagnosis and quantification of these disorders is essential for determining outcome, appropriate treatment, and criteria for inclusion in research trials. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in diagnosis and treatment for childhood movement disorders.

artane dosage 2016-09-18

Pretreatment of rats with hydantoin (75 mg/kg, PO, an anticonvulsant), trihexyphenidyl (10 mg/kg, SC, a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist), or piperonyl butoxide (500 mg/kg, PO, a metabolic inhibitor) had no effect on the whole blood or brain tissue levels of orally administered DDT (75 mg/kg) or its metabolites DDD and DDE. Hydantoin and piperonyl butoxide decreased DDT-induced tremor and hyperthermia due to DDT when measured 12 h after DDT exposure, while trihexyphenidyl augmented some components of DDT-induced tremor. Additional experiments found that pretreatment with piperonyl butoxide increased tremor due to permethrin exposure (120 mg/kg, PO), while having no effect on tremor due to chlordecone administration (60 mg/kg, IP). Pretreatment with ellipticine (30 mg/kg, IP, a metabolic inhibitor) also decreased tremor 12 h after DDT exposure. The effects of piperonyl butoxide and ellipticine on DDT-induced tremor are postulated to occur through direct actions of these compounds on nerve or muscle tissue. Hydantoin-induced attenuation of DDT-induced neurotoxicity may be due to the ability of hydantoin to block repetitive firing of nerves by binding to the inactivation gates of sodium.