Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.
name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.
Brand name of Artane is Artane.
Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.
If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.
If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Artane are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.
Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.
Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.
Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.
Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.
Avoid driving machine.
It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.
artane medication class
Tardive laryngeal dystonia, a rare form of dystonic syndrome, was only reported to be induced by typical antipsychotics. Here, we report one case of ziprasidone-induced tardive laryngeal dystonia in a schizophrenic female patient, who showed dysphonia, hoarseness and dyspnea after taking ziprasidone 120 mg/day for 8 months. These symptoms were significantly improved after discontinuing ziprasidone and increasing the dose of trihexyphenidyl for 1 week. Although atypical antipsychotics are associated with a lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms, caution should be taken for any tardive dystonic movement when using these medications.
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1. The pA2 anti-acetylcholine activity in vitro for benapryzine was 6.55 compared with 9.02 for benzhexol.2. In vivo, the anti-acetylcholine activity of benapryzine relative to benzhexol was 0.038 as assessed by the mydriatic response of mice after subcutaneous administration. The relative activity assessed by the inhibition of pilocarpine-induced salivation was 0.13 after oral administration and 0.056 following subcutaneous administration of the drugs.3. Benapryzine had the same order of activity as benzhexol in inhibiting oxotremorine-induced tremors in mice.4. Benapryzine had anticonvulsant properties but no analgesic activity, whilst in high doses it antagonized the extrapyramidal symptoms induced by perphenazine in rats.5. In patients benapryzine was effective in reducing the symptoms of Parkinson's disease without overt anti-cholinergic effects or central hallucinogenic actions.6. Benapryzine abolished the excess tremor and reduced the rigidity and akinesia induced by physostigmine in Parkinsonian subjects.
Extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) are clinically relevant side effects of metoclopramide which are often not anticipated.
artane medication trihexyphenidyl
A new neuroleptic drug, Timiperone, is able to exert an antiapomorphine effect at doses smaller than cataleptogenic doses. Nineteen patients with urologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy with cisplatin in combination with other agents were studied for the antiemetic efficacy of Timiperone. Six of 8 patients over 46 years old treated with Timiperone 6 mg/day p.o. from the day before undergoing DDP therapy to the last day of the therapy had no episode of vomiting and 2 patients had a few episodes of emesis (one and two episodes during 5 days of undergoing DDP, respectively). Five patients under 45 years old given Timiperone 6 mg/day by the same method had few episodes of vomiting, but suffered from extrapyramidal symptoms. Finally 6 patients undergoing DDP with Timiperone in combination with trihexyphenidyl suffered no symptoms of catalepsy but sometimes had mild vomiting episodes (1-4 times a day). We would like to propose that in antiemetic therapy with Timiperone for cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting, a dose of 4.5 mg/day be given from two days before undergoing chemotherapy because of the cumulative effect of Timiperone.
artane drug class
The cataleptic state induced by the depot-type preparations of fluphenazine (FZ) was investigated in mice. Intramuscular injections of FZ-enanthate or FZ-decanoate produced a marked and long-lasting catalepsy, which was antagonized by trihexyphenidyl, biperiden and promethazine but not by l-dopa. These anticataleptic effects disappeared after several hours and catalepsy occurred again. The cataleptic effects of FZ-enanthate and FZ-decanoate were increased by (D-Ala2, MePhe4, Met(0)5-ol)-enkephalin, aminooxyacetic acid and haloperidol. The results indicate that the cataleptic effects of FZ-enanthate and FZ-decanoate correspond with their long duration of antipsychotic effects and that the catalepsy may involve enkephalinergic, GABAergic and cholinergic as well as dopaminergic neuron activity.
Alterations in complex I activity, one of the enzymatic units of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, have been demonstrated in different tissues from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Subsequently, we showed that the chronic administration of levodopa can cause alterations in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in rats, which suggests that the observed deficit in complex I activity in PD might be, at least in part, related to chronic levodopa therapy. Our study assessed the in vitro effects of different antiparkinsonian agents on complex I activity in rat brain. As previously reported, both levodopa and dopamine inhibit complex I activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the two major metabolites of dopamine, homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as well as 3-O-methyl-dopa, had little or no effect on complex I activities. Bromocriptine, pergolide, trihexyphenidyl, molindone, and clozapine were all without significant inhibitory effects on mitochondrial function. Although vitamin C and deprenyl did not alter complex I activity, they did prevent the inhibitory effect of both levodopa and dopamine on complex I activity. This work indicates that among the different and usual antiparkinsonian agents, only levodopa and dopamine induced reductions in complex I activity. It also indicates that vitamin C and deprenyl are both effective in preventing the levodopa-induced complex I inhibition. This latter finding provides further support to the use of antioxidants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors as therapeutic strategies in attempts to slow the progression of PD.
In patients with cranial dystonia, we compared the effects of central anticholinergic, peripheral anticholinergic, and placebo treatments in a double-blind crossover study. One of the nine patients who completed the study improved markedly with central anticholinergic therapy. The three treatments were indistinguishable in the other eight patients except for the higher incidence of central and peripheral anticholinergic side effects with trihexyphenidyl.
1. Contractions of the isolated taenia of the guinea-pig caecum produced by acetylcholine and TMA were examined in the presence of various antagonists and anticholinesterases.2. Hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) (50-400 mug/ml) inhibited contractions or relaxations produced by TMA but not contractions produced by acetylcholine. The inhibition was rapid in onset and readily reversible. Contractions produced by transmural stimulation were unaffected by HC-3 but responses produced by nicotine were inhibited.3. Low concentrations of hyoscine and benzhexol inhibited responses to acetylcholine to a greater extent than those to TMA.4. Morphine, raised concentrations of Mg(++) or reduced concentrations of Ca(++) inhibited contractions produced by TMA and by acetylcholine to a similar extent.5. Edrophonium, in concentrations which preferentially inhibit acetylcholinesterase, increased contractions produced by acetylcholine and converted responses to nicotine or transmural stimulation into contractions or biphasic responses with a marked contraction phase but did not increase contractions produced by TMA.6. Iso-OMPA, in concentrations which preferentially inhibit butyrylcholinesterase, had no effect on responses to acetylcholine, nicotine, transmural stimulation or TMA.7. HC-3 inhibited contractions produced by TMA in the presence of anticholinesterases but had little effect on contractions produced by acetylcholine.8. These results suggest that TMA produces contractions by acting directly on receptors of the smooth muscle. An analysis of possible reasons for HC-3 (in the concentrations used) acting as an antagonist of TMA but not of acetylcholine indicates that the findings do not necessarily contradict the interpretation that both agonists act on the same receptor.
We report 2 uncomplicated pregnancies in 1 woman with early-onset, sporadic, primary generalized dystonia (DYT1 negative) treated with high dosage trihexyphenidyl and review the literature on antidystonic agents and pregnancy.
parkinson drug artane
The study of psychiatric disorders co-occurring with rare genetic syndromes has important therapeutic and pathophysiological implications. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in schizophrenia with comorbid Marfan syndrome is challenging in view of multiorgan involvement. We report successful use of ECT in a patient who presented to us with catatonia and Marfan syndrome. The report highlights the importance of careful evaluation of patients with schizophrenia and Marfan syndrome before ECT in liaison with other specialties.
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Several neuroleptics recurrently failed to ameliorate psychosis in three schizophrenic patients. Failures were caused by recurrent intractable akathisia, unresponsive to diazepam and trihexyphenidyl. Lacking this extrapyramidal side effect, lithium carbonate was tried and proved an effective antipsychotic. It is suggested that in schizophrenic psychosis lithium is a rational therapeutic option in cases of neuroleptic intolerance and failures due to akathisia.
Selecting the appropriate treatment for dystonia begins with proper classification of disease based on age, distribution, and underlying etiology. The therapies available for dystonia include oral medications, botulinum toxin, and surgical procedures. Oral medications are generally reserved for generalized and segmental dystonia. Botulinum toxin revolutionized the treatment of focal dystonia when it was introduced for therapeutic purposes in the 1980s. Surgical procedures are available for medication-refractory dystonia, markedly affecting an individual's quality of life.
artane medication classification
To describe data the epidemiological features, etiology, and treatment of retrospectively reviewed data of all patients with SJS and TEN.
artane medication dosage
Intermittent high-frequency electrical stimulation of the caudate nucleus induces contralateralhead-turning in rats. The anti-Parkinson drugs, L-dopa, amantadine and apomorphine, raise the threshold for or completely inhibit head-turning. There was a high correlation between the predicted clinical potency and these drugs based on inhibition of head-turning and their respective clinical anti-Parkinson potency. The centrally acting anticholinergic drugs also antagonized head-turning but there was not a good correlation between the predicted and acutal anti-Parkinson doses used in man. In order to determine if these drugs blocked head-turning by acting on the caudate nucleus, a combination cannula and stimulating electrode was used to administer drugs directly into the same area of the caudate nucleus being stimulated electrically. Dopamine, amantadine and apomorphine each antagonized head-turning when infused into the same site, at doses which did not produce concurrent overt sterotyped behavior. Time- and dose-response data with all three drugs suggest a direct inhibitory action on the caudate nucleus consistent with their proposed mechanism for treatment of Parkinson symptomatology. Head-turning appears to be a useful animal model for the development of new, specific anti-Parkinson drugs and for the study of possible mechanism(s) of action of existing drugs.
artane drug wikipedia
Tardive Tourette syndrome is an extrapyramidal symptom which appears after long-term neuroleptic use. We report two cases of this syndrome and review case reports to introduce this extrapyramidal symptom. The first case is a 40-year-old male with schizophrenia. After 6 years of neuroleptic therapy, he began to have barking and grunting vocalizations and show neck and shoulderjerking. The second case is a 53-year-old male with alcoholism. Sulpride was prescribed for three years to treat mood symptoms. Oral dyskinesia appeared after sulpride was stopped. About five weeks after amantadine and trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride was started, he began to have grunting vocalizations and show neck jerking. The involuntary movement disappeared quickly after intraveneous administration of haloperidol. Including our two cases, there are 17 case reports of tardive Tourette syndrome. Twelve cases were schizophrenic patients. In addition to typical movements, patients had coplolalia in 6 cases, and oral dyskinesia in 9 cases. In 8 cases, tardive Tourette syndrome appeared during neuroleptic treatment, and in 9 cases the syndrome appeared after neuroleptics were stopped. Our two cases and previous case reports showed that tardive Tourette syndrome appeared after long-term neuroleptic therapy, it was improved transiently by an increase of neuroleptics and exacerbated by their decrease, it was exacerbated by dopaminergic and anticholinergic drugs, and tardive dyskinesia was often seen concomitantly, indicating that tardive Tourette syndrome has a similar pathophysiology to tardive dyskinesia. Tardive Tourette syndrome should not be misdiagnosed as an exacerbation of schizophrenic symptoms responsive to an increase of neuroleptics. This side effect should be recognized widely and treated properly.
artane user reviews
We evaluated prospectively 100 patients, the largest reported series, with blepharospasm and orofacial-cervical dystonia, or Meige syndrome. The mean age at onset was 51.7 years, and 81% presented between the ages of 40 and 70. Women outnumbered men three to two. Blepharospasm was the initial symptom in 58 patients, but only 23 had involuntary movements localized to the orbicularis oculi. Sixty-one patients had the complete syndrome, blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia, and 60 had neck or generalized dystonia in addition to the orofacial movements. Twenty-one patients with spasmodic dysphonia were included; in 12 of these patients, spasmodic dysphonia was part of the complete (Meige) syndrome, and 16 of these patients had neck or generalized dystonia or essential tremor. An organic cause of Meige syndrome is supported by a high correlation with essential tremor and other movement disorders and by positive family history in some patients. Response to medication was inconsistent, but 69% of patient trials resulted in some improvement; in 22% the benefit was marked and persistent. Tetrabenazine, lithium, and trihexyphenidyl were most useful for the treatment of oromandibular dystonia, and clonazepam was useful in some patients with blepharospasm.
artane and alcohol
Eight of the ten genetically defined types of NBIA are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Exceptions are: beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), caused by a de novo pathogenic variant in WDR45, which is inherited in an X-linked dominant manner with suspected male lethality; and neuroferritinopathy, caused by a pathogenic variant in FTL, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. If the family-specific pathogenic variant(s) are known, carrier testing for family members at risk for the autosomal recessive types and the X-linked type is possible, and prenatal testing for most types is possible.
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Trihexyphenidyl (Tri) inhibited the contraction of rabbit basilar artery due to high K+ (45.6 mmol/L). IC50 was 2.9 +/- 0.7 mumol/L. The contractions of basilar and mesenteric arteries due to calcium and those of basilar artery and saphenous vein due to serotonin were noncompetitively. Tri inhibited myogenic activities of the portal vein strips of rats and increased the normal cerebral blood flow of rats to 19 +/- 7 ml/(min.100 g).
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Sixty-four patients completed the study, 32 in each group. Mean dose of BTA was 292 mouse units (first session) and 262 mouse units (second session). Mean dose of trihexyphenidyl was 16.25 mg. The changes on the Disability section of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-Disability) (primary outcome), Tsui Scale, and the General Health Perception Subscale were significantly in favor of BTA. More patients treated with BTA had an improvement of at least three points on the TWSTRS-Disability (14 versus 6) and on the Tsui Scale (23 versus 12). Adverse effects were significantly less frequent in the BTA group.
artane medication uses
Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist clonidine and related drugs can offer significant protection against both the acute and chronic toxicity to soman administration in rats and mice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether addition of clonidine to a standard pretreatment protective regimen against soman toxicity could offer added protection or benefit. The standard regimen employed was a mixture of physostigmine salicylate (150 micrograms/kg) and artane (trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride 2 mg/kg). Rats were randomly assigned to one of 4 experimental groups: (1) those receiving i.m. sterile saline injection followed 30 min later by s.c. saline injection (normal controls); (2) saline, i.m. followed 30 min later by one of several doses (60-110 micrograms/kg of soman, s.c.; (3) saline, i.m., followed 10 min later by the standard pretreatment regimen i.m., followed by one of several doses of soman (160-300 micrograms/kg), s.c.; and (4) clonidine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg) i.m., followed 10 min later by the pretreatment regimen, followed 30 min later by soman. All animals were examined acutely and survivors were examined over a 3-week period following soman administration. The following observations were made: (1) Addition of clonidine to the standard pretreatment regimen did not enhance survival rate over the standard regimen alone (unless the clonidine was administered after the regimen). (2) Of the acutely toxic behavioral signs promoted by soman, clonidine addition to the standard regimen was of benefit only in reducing soman-induced tremor. (3) Addition of clonidine to the standard regimen appeared to hasten the return to normal motor behavior after soman; however, all groups exhibited normal motor behavior in 9 days. (4) Despite apparent normal motor behavior, soman-treated animals exhibited a marked performance deficit in the passive avoidance parameter 3 weeks after injection. The standard regimen partially preserved this effect; addition of clonidine to the standard regimen completely reversed the effect. These results indicate that clonidine provides a measure of protection against chronic behavioral deficits caused by soman intoxication.
artane pediatric dosage
MDs are clinically important neurological disorders which are often caused by drugs and interestingly drugs used for its management are also associated with high incidence of ADRs. Hence these ADRs should be carefully monitored.
artane drug classification
Groups of patients with Parkinson's disease, either medicated, or unmedicated and early in the course, together with age- and IQ-matched control subjects were tested in two paradigms measuring different aspects of selective attention. The first set of tests compared visual discrimination learning following intra- and extra-dimensional shifts, using a "total change" design in which each shift was made in the presence of novel exemplars of the compound stimuli used as discriminanda. The second test consisted of a visual search task in which the number of alternatives was varied. The results of the first experiment showed a selective deficit in both groups of Parkinsonian subjects in their ability to perform an extra-dimensional shift. In the visual search task, the patients were less accurate, but responded with equivalent choice reaction times to those of controls. The results are discussed in terms of the nature of the attentional dysfunction that occurs in Parkinson's disease.
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