Antihistamines, among the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, have evolved considerably since the first generation was introduced >50 years ago. The first generation antihistamines (e.g., chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, promethazine and hydroxyzine) are still widely available and in use today. These drugs have considerable sedative effects caused by their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The next generation of antihistamines to emerge in the market were devoid of these sedative effects; however, two (terfenadine and astemizole) have shown rare but lethal cardiotoxic side effects. The third generation antihistamines, metabolites of the earlier drugs, have demonstrated no cardiac effects of the parent drugs and are at least as potent. Many have exhibited superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacological profiles, including an improved onset of action and duration of effect. The clinical benefit of these newer oral antihistamines will clearly help improve the quality of life of patients with chronic allergies.
atarax 300 mg
To describe a case of recurrent acute hepatitis related to the use of cetirizine, a selective histamine(1)-receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of common allergic diseases.
atarax syrup high
Drug consumers handed in samples of cocaine powder from 1999 to 2007 for analysis. Reports were compiled of users' experiences with the samples received.
Four outpatient general medicine and allergy clinics in Switzerland and Germany.
atarax 50mg dosage
Eosinophils are well known to play essential roles in the development and maintenance of allergic diseases. However, the influence of histamine H1 receptor antagonists on eosinophil functions, especially chemokine production, are not well-defined. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the influence of histamine H1 receptor antagonist on chemokine production by eosinophils through the use of levocetirizine in vitro and in vivo. Eosinophils prepared from mice were stimulated with specific antigens in the presence of different concentrations of levocetirizine. After 24 h, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and eotaxin levels in culture supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis were treated with 5 mg levocetirizine once a day for four weeks during the pollen season (February 2012 to April 2012). RANTES and eotaxin levels in nasal secretions were also examined by ELISA. The addition of levocetirizine to eosinophil cultures caused a dose-dependent decrease in the ability of cells to produce RANTES and eotaxin in response to antigen stimulation, and the minimum concentration that caused a significant decrease was 0.05 μM. Although cetirizine also exerted suppressive effects on the production of RANTES and eotaxin by eosinophils, the minimum concentration that caused significant suppression was 0.15 μM, which was three-times higher than that of levocetirizine. Oral administration of levocetirizine for four weeks also reduced RANTES and eotaxin levels in nasal secretions from patients with pollinosis, along with attenuation of clinical symptoms. The ability of levocetirizine to reduce RANTES and eotaxin levels may account, at least in part, for the clinical efficacy of the agent for allergic disorders, including allergic rhinitis.
The included studies did not report on all the outcomes that were pre-specified in the protocol for this review. Even though more effective than placebo, due to the high risk of bias of the included studies, the small number of studies and the overall small sample size, it is not possible to recommend hydroxyzine as a reliable first-line treatment in GAD.
atarax drug classification
The efficacy of prophylactic treatment before the start of pollen dispersal for prevention of aggravation of symptoms is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of prophylactic treatment with an antihistamine for seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) using an environmental challenge chamber (ECC).
atarax pediatric dosing
We previously reported that streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice showed depressive-like behavior in the tail suspension test. It is well known that the central histaminergic system regulates many physiological functions including emotional behaviors. In this study, we examined the role of the central histaminergic system in the diabetes-induced depressive-like behavior in the mouse tail suspension test. The histamine contents in the hypothalamus were significantly higher in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic mice. The histamine H(1) receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently and significantly reduced the duration of immobility in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice. In contrast, the selective histamine H(1) receptor antagonists epinastine (0.03-0.3 microg/mouse, i.c.v.) and cetirizine (0.01-0.1 microg/mouse, i.c.v.) dose-dependently and significantly suppressed the duration of immobility in diabetic mice, but not in non-diabetic mice. Spontaneous locomotor activity was not affected by histamine H(1) receptor antagonists in either non-diabetic or diabetic mice. In addition, the number and affinity of histamine H(1) receptors in the frontal cortex were not affected by diabetes. In conclusion, we suggest that the altered neuronal system mediated by the activation of histamine H(1) receptors is involved, at least in part, in the depressive-like behavior seen in diabetic mice.
A 46-year-old woman with a history of severe allergies, including food allergies, and angioedema was evaluated at the emergency department (ED) for an acute episode of angioedema. Upon arrival at the ED, the patient had severe jaw tightness, facial numbness, uncontrollable cheek lifting, swollen eyes, and a swollen protruding tongue and was unable to catch her breath. Her dyspnea was apparent, and she was unable to talk and instead used hand and face gestures for affirmative and negative responses. The patient was treated with 0.3 mg epinephrine intramuscularly into the right thigh. After treatment, she had a temperature of 37 degrees C, a pulse of 90 beats/ min, a blood pressure value of 100/59 mm Hg, a respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min, and 100% oxygen saturation on room air. After stabilization, she reported that her allergies had been adequately controlled with ebastine 10 mg daily, montelukast 10 mg daily, and vitamins (unspecified). The patient reported that since she started montelukast one month prior, she experienced three similar episodes, the first occurring five days after starting the drug. She mentioned being diagnosed and adequately treated these three times in the ED for angioedema. The patient denied any changes in eating habits or in her medications except for starting montelukast. She was observed at the ED for an hour and then discharged after stabilization on hydroxyzine hydrochloride 25 mg orally daily and fexofenadine hydrochloride 180 mg orally daily. Montelukast was discontinued.
atarax y alcohol
We chose five sedatives for premedication and investigated the effect of these drugs on the induction doses of propofol. One hundred patients were allocated into one of five groups of 20. These groups consisted of control group (C) given only atropine 0.5 mg i.m.; CL group (plus clonidine 0.15 mg orally); H group (plus hydroxyzine 25 mg i.m.); M group (plus midazolam 3 mg i.m.) and D group (plus diazepam 10 mg orally). The induction dose was measured using loss of count technique. Arterial pressure and heart rate were measured, before and after propofol induction as well as after intubation. We also calculated rate pressure products (RPP) at each point. The induction doses were significantly lower in M-group than those in C-group. On the other hand, in hemodynamic responses, RPP was unchanged in any groups after propofol induction and after the intubation. Both propofol and midazolam have been known to have a depressive effect on the central nervous system via GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition, although the exact receptor for propofol is unknown. We thought, therefore, that when the interaction occurred, both midazolam and propofol had the same effect on the GABA-A receptor and increased chloride ion flux through the channels. Hydroxyzine and clonidine, however, do not share a common receptor or exert effect on the GABA-A receptor. We consider that this was one of the reasons why induction doses of both H and CL group could not decrease significantly. We concluded that midazolam 3 mg decreased propofol induction dose significantly. Both midazolam 3 mg and clonidine 0.15 mg decreased RPP before induction and hemodynamic responses to induction and intubation were stable.
atarax user reviews
In ex vivo studies, cetirizine treatment induced a decreased LTB4 production by neutrophils in allergic rhinitis. This effect of decreased LTB4 production was reproduced in vitro with 10(-8)-10(-6)M cetirizine. Nevertheless, this anti-H1 compound had no effect on neutrophil priming with GM-CSF.
atarax dose pediatric
Drugs with anticholinergic activity are used frequently in an older homebound population, irrespective of a dementia diagnosis.
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medications may differ between children and adults, necessitating different dose regimens for different age groups. Levocetirizine, the active enantiomer of cetirizine, is used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in Europe. Its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not yet been studied prospectively in school-age children.
atarax 60 mg
Twenty-six mosquito-bite sensitive subjects received cetirizine 20 mg (14 subjects) or placebo (12 subjects) in a double-blind fashion. Aedes aegypti-bites were given on a forearm and serial punch biopsies were taken at 2-, 6- and 24h after the bite exposure. Eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells, mononuclear cells and T- helper (CD4+) and suppressor (CD8+) lymphocytes were counted from dermal infiltrates.
atarax tablets 50mg
The RQLQ and SF-36 could be used to measure HRQOL and health status in PER patients. Long-term treatment with levocetirizine provides sustained improvement of HRQOL and reduces disease burden in PER patients.
atarax cough syrup
Cetirizine is able to clinically improve nasal symptoms due to pollen allergy and to reduce allergic inflammation, which is related to allergen exposure.
atarax dosage infants
To evaluate sleep impairment in children with AR using actigraphic evaluation.
Sixteen children, aged 2 to 5 years and ranked ASA 1, were included in this study assessing gastro-oesophageal reflux occurring under halothane anaesthesia, before and during, caudal anaesthesia. They were scheduled for surgery below the umbilicus lasting 1 to 5 h. After premedication with oral hydroxyzine (2 mg.kg-1) and intravenous atropine (10 micrograms.kg-1), induction was carried out with 3% halothane. A gastro-oesophageal pH probe was inserted via the nose after calibration at 37 degrees C. A neutral pH for the oesophageal electrode and an acid pH for the gastric one demonstrated the correct position of the probe. The pH was then registered every 4 s. The probe was left in situ until the patient left the recovery room. The caudal anaesthesia catheter was then inserted with the patient lying on his left side. Caudal anaesthesia was began with 2.5 mg.kg-1 of plain bupivacaine and 5 mg.kg-1 of plain lidocaine. When the patient was lying supine again, narcosis was maintained with 0.5% halothane and 50% nitrous oxide. A dose of 1.5 mg.kg-1 of bupivacaine was injected every 30 to 45 min. None of the children displayed any respiratory signs (coughing, dyspnoea, bronchospasm, cyanosis) during the combined anaesthetic. Two episodes of asymptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux were revealed by this method, one lasting 7 minutes and occurring during insertion of the caudal catheter, and the other, lasting 4 minutes, during recovery. There were no pulmonary sequels. There was excellent respiratory and haemodynamic stability throughout. The two episodes seemed to have been triggered off by rapid displacement of the patient and too deep an anaesthetic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
atarax 40 mg
Hydroxyzine is an antihistaminic with sedative properties used in the control of anxiety and emesis. Peripheral blood hydroxyzine concentrations are compared to central blood and liver concentrations in 10 medical examiner cases. Specimens were initially screened for alcohol and simple volatiles by GC-FID headspace analysis, ELISA for drugs of abuse, and alkaline drugs by GC/MS. Hydroxyzine, when detected by the alkaline drug screen, was subsequently confirmed and quantified by a specific GC-NPD procedure. Data suggest that postmortem peripheral blood hydroxyzine concentrations may be considered therapeutic to at least 0.24 mg/L and corresponding liver concentrations to at least 4.9 mg/kg. Hydroxyzine concentrations ranged 0.07-3.0mg/L in peripheral blood, 0.04-3.8 mg/L in central blood, and 0.88-55 mg/kg in liver. Hydroxyzine central blood to peripheral blood ratios averaged 0.92±0.25 (±standard deviation; N=6). Liver to peripheral blood ratios, on the other hand, were higher and averaged 13.8±6.2 (±standard deviation; N=10). Given that a liver to peripheral blood ratio less than 5 is consistent with little to no postmortem redistribution while exceeding 20-30 is indicative of propensity for significant postmortem redistribution, these data suggest that hydroxyzine is prone to a moderate degree of postmortem redistribution.
tab atarax 5mg
The diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption as non pigmenting fixed drug eruption related to cetirizine and hydroxyzine was retained. Allergy to both H1 antihistamines can be explained by the fact that they've got the same chemical node that is piperazine, and by the fact that cetirizine is the main metabolite of hydroxyzine. Oral test provocation was omitted because the patient had already reexposed himself to the drugs. To identify the drug responsible for fixed drug eruption, peroral provocation tests are the most valuable method, but carry the risk of a strong reaction. Some authors use patch tests, but their positivity is inconstant. Their interest in fixed drug eruption is undergoing assessment.
atarax generic form
A total of 510 atopic children (mean +/- SEM age, 19.4 +/- 0.2 months) composed the intention-to-treat population. During the subsequent 18 months, 27.5% (70/255) of the children taking levocetirizine and 41.6% (106/255) of the children taking placebo experienced urticaria (P < .001). The mean +/- SEM number of urticaria episodes was 0.71 +/- 0.11 in those receiving levocetirizine and 1.71 +/- 0.25 in those receiving placebo (P < .001). The mean +/- SEM duration of urticaria episodes was 4.43 +/- 1.57 days in those receiving levocetirizine and 5.36 +/- 1.27 days in those receiving placebo (P < .001).