Aminosalicylates have a wide range of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Oral salazosulfapyridine (SASP) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are the 'first-line' therapy for induction of remission in mild to moderate active ulcerative colitis (UC). SASP, which is consisted of 5-ASA and sulfapyridine, has greater incidence of side effects. 5-ASA is a therapeutically active compound, while sulfapyridine is related to adverse effects. For this reason, 5-ASA formulas exclusive of sulfapyridine were developed and they enabled higher dose of 5-ASA administration without adverse effects. Topical treatment by 5-ASA enema or SASP suppository should be considered for the treatment of proctitis or distal type of UC. Oral aminosalicylate therapy is also effective for the maintenance of remission in UC. Therefore, aminosalicylates are key drugs for the treatment of UC.
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Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disorder characterized by neutrophils infiltration, oxidative stress, upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Cavidine possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used to treat various inflammatory diseases but its effect on ulcerative colitis has not been previously explored. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of cavidine on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Colitis mice induced by intra-rectal acetic acid (5%, v/v) administration received cavidine (1, 5 and 10mg/kg, i.g) or sulfasalazine (500mg/kg, i.g) for seven consecutive days. After euthanized by cervical dislocation, colonic segments of mice were excised for clinical, macroscopic, biochemical and histopathological examinations. Results suggested treatment with cavidine significantly decreased mortality rate, body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), wet colon weight, macroscopic and histological score when compared with that of acetic acid-induced controls. In addition, administration of cavidine effectively modulated expressions of MPO, GSH, SOD and MDA. Furthermore cavidine inhibited the level of TNF-α and IL-6 in the serum and colon tissue in response to the regulation of p65 NF-κB protein expression. All these results indicated cavidine exerts marked protective effect in experimental colitis, possibly by regulating the expression of oxygen metabolites, NF-κB and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines production.
NF-kappaB promotes cell survival against external stress such as radiation. We examined whether NF-kappaB decoy transfection enhances the antiproliferative effects of radiation on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. The irradiation induced activation or nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 in VSMCs was confirmed by immunofluorescence. NF-kappaB decoy transfection resulted in inhibition of the radiation-induced NF-kappaB activation in VSMCs and the subsequent reduction of transcription and translocation of ICAM, iNOS, and TNF-alpha, downstream molecules under the control of NF-kappaB. By using MTT assay, NF-kappaB decoy augmented the antiproliferative effects of radiation, where the effect of low dose radiation (2 and 8-Gy) of the cells transfected with NF-kappaB decoy was equivalent to the high dose (16-Gy) irradiated non-transfected cells at 48 h after irradiation: 1.06+/-0.16, 1.11+/-0.22, 1.20+/-0.25, respectively. The decrease in proliferation and survival of the radiation treated cells by flow cytometry analysis showed that NF-kappaB inhibition did not show any additive effects on the cell cycle of the irradiated VSMCs, while apoptosis was significantly increased after NF-kappaB decoy transfection in the irradiated VSMCs (apoptosis fraction: 13.33+/-2.08% vs. 26.29+/-7.43%, for radiation only vs. radiation+NF-kappaB decoy transfection, P < 0.05). In addition, at 48 h, NF-kappaB decoy transfection dose dependently (10 microM vs. 20 microM) inhibited proliferation of 16Gy-irradiated VSMCs, and showed greater antiproliferative efficacy than 100 microM sulfasalazine, a specific NF-kappaB inhibitor. These results indicate that NF-kappaB inhibition reduces proliferation and survival of irradiated VSMCs, likely by increased apoptosis rather than additive cell cycle arrest and suggest the possibility of adjunctive gene therapy using NF-kappaB decoy to improve efficacy and to decrease the adverse effects of intracoronary radiation therapy.
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We studied prospectively the efficacy of combination therapy with DMARDs. The study was designed as a randomized trial and a single DMARD or two or three DMARD combinations were administered to 180 consecutive, age- and sex-matched patients with active RA, each of whom was followed up for a period of 2 years under treatment. Patients were divided into 3 groups which did not differ with regard to demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters. Patients in group I were treated with a single DMARD [methotrexate (MTX) 7.5-15 mg/week or sulfasalazine (SSZ) 1-2 g/day or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) 200 mg/day], group II with MTX + SSZ or MTX + HCQ, and group III with a combination of all three drugs. Patients were re-evaluated at regular intervals by means of clinical and biochemical tests designed to detect specific rheumatic activity. Radiological assessments were also performed and scored according to Larsen by the same radiologist who was blinded to the treatment groups.
A total of 5,664 patients met selection criteria. The median time to discontinuation of index drug differed significantly across index medications (range, 98.5 days [sulfasalazine] to 177.5 days [Multi-Matrix System mesalamine], P less than 0.0001). Patients on Multi-Matrix System mesalamine were less likely to discontinue (63.3% vs. ≥ 68.6%, P = 0.001) and more likely to adhere to their medication (MPR ≥ 0.8; 23.1% vs. ≤ 17.4%, P less than 0.0001) than patients on other medications. Patients on mesalamine delayed-release (13.8%) or Multi-Matrix System mesalamine (14.3%) had lower switch rates than the patients on balsalazide (17.2%) or sulfasalazine (17.8%), P = 0.01. Significant predictors of nonpersistence included index medication versus Multi-Matrix System mesalamine (balsalazide disodium: HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.07-1.36; mesalamine delayed-release: HR = 1.21, CI = 1.11-1.32; sulfasalazine: HR = 1.40, CI = 1.25-1.57), female gender (HR = 1.16, CI = 1.09-1.23), never receiving specialist care (HR = 1.14, CI = 1.07-1.21), preferred provider organization (PPO) versus health maintenance organization (HR = 1.14, CI = 1.04-1.24), and Medicare fee for service or self-insured health plan versus commercial plan (HR = 1.29, CI = 1.10-1.52). Significant variables associated with nonadherence with 5-ASA treatment (PDC less than 0.8) included not switching medication (OR = 1.90, CI = 1.58-2.29), age less than 65 (OR = 1.90, CI = 1.56-2.31), index medication as compared with Multi-Matrix System mesalamine (balsalazide disodium: OR = 1.43, CI = 1.10-1.85; mesalamine delayed-release: OR = 1.41, CI = 1.19-1.68; sulfasalazine: OR = 1.66, CI = 1.30, 2.12), female gender (OR = 1.33, CI = 1.17-1.52), residing in different regions as compared with the Midwest region (the South [OR = 1.40, CI = 1.20-1.64] and Northeast [OR = 1.29, CI = 1.05-1.58]), no use of rectal forms during the post-index period (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.08-1.50), no use of immunosuppressive/biologic agents during the post-index period (OR = 1.70, CI = 1.35-2.14), never receiving specialist care (OR = 1.25, CI = 1.08-1.44), and Medicaid/Medicare versus commercial plan (OR = 1.48, CI = 1.03-2.13).
B cells from patients with RA showed hyperactivity to stimulation by Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I. Sulfasalazine significantly inhibited this B cell hyperactivity in a dose dependent manner. The kinetic study and a decrease in 3H-thymidine incorporation on Day 3 indicate that sulfasalazine inhibited the early phase (0-48 h) of B cell proliferation in these patients. Sulfapyridine also inhibited B cell hyperactivity in these patients, but 5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetylsulfapyridin had no significant effect.
Contrary to traditional teaching, endoscopic and histological patchiness of inflammation and rectal sparing are common during the course of disease in treated UC and seem to be unrelated to specific therapy.
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A total of 3,724 ETN-MTX patients and 818 triple therapy patients were eligible. At 1 year, 27.9% who were taking ETN-MTX and 18.2% using triple therapy were adherent to all agents in their regimen (P < 0.0001), and 29.4% who were taking ETN-MTX and 23.2% using triple therapy were persistent (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounders, ETN-MTX patients had significantly greater odds of being adherent (odds ratio [OR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.47-2.17) and persistent (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.20-1.72) compared with patients using triple therapy.
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One of the main characteristics of nonthyroidal illness (NTI) is a decrease in serum triiodothyronine, partly caused by a decrease in liver deiodinase type 1 (D1) mRNA and activity. Proinflammatory cytokines have been associated with NTI in view of their capability to decrease D1 and thyroid hormone receptor (TR)beta1 mRNA expression in hepatoma cells. Proinflammatory cytokine induction leads to activation of the inflammatory pathways nuclear factor (NF)kappaB and activator protein (AP)-1. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta decreases thyroid hormone receptor (TR)beta1 mRNA in an NFkappaB-dependent way. The aim of this study was to unravel the effects of IL-1beta on endogenous TRalpha gene expression in an animal model and in a liver cell line. The TRalpha gene product is alternatively spliced in TRalpha1 and TRalpha2, TRalpha2 is capable of inhibiting TRalpha1-induced gene transcription. We showed that both TRalpha1 and TRalpha2 mRNA decreased not only after lipopolysaccharide administration in liver of mice, but also after IL-1beta stimulation of hepatoma cells (HepG2). Using the NFkappaB inhibitor sulfasalazine and the AP-1 inhibitor SP600125, it became clear that the IL-1beta-induced decrease in TRalpha mRNA expression in HepG2 cells can only be abolished by simultaneous inhibition of NFkappaB and AP-1. The IL-1beta-induced TRalpha1 and TRalpha2 mRNA decrease in HepG2 cells is the result of decreased TRalpha gene promoter activity, as evident from actinomycin D experiments. Cycloheximide experiments showed that the decreased promoter activity is independent of de novo protein synthesis and therefore most likely due to posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation or subcellular relocalization.
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1. Chronic inflammatory diseases have been shown to be associated with NF-kappaB activation and impaired apoptosis of immune cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate if sulfasalazine and its colonic metabolites 5-aminosalicylic acid (5ASA) and sulfapyridine affect NF-kappaB/Rel activation and viability of T-lymphocytes. 2. Sulfasalazine inhibits NF-kappaB/Rel activation in the murine T-lymphocyte cell line RBL5 using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In transfection assays sulfasalazine treatment for 4 h inhibits kappaB-dependent transcription with an IC50 value of approximately 0.625 mM. 3. Higher doses or prolonged treatment result in cell death of T-lymphocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is caused by apoptosis as judged by DNA fragmentation, annexin V and Apo 2.7 staining. Induction of apoptosis is a fast event with 50% apoptotic cells after a 4 h incubation with 2.5 mM sulfasalazine. The ED50 value for apoptosis induction after 24 h treatment was approximately 0.625 mM. 4. In contrast, 5ASA and sulfapyridine neither inhibit NF-kappaB/Rel activation nor induce apoptosis in T-lymphocytes at doses up to 5.0 mM. 5. These results demonstrate that sulfasalazine, but not 5ASA or sulfapyridine, strongly inhibits NF-kappaB activation and potently induces apoptosis in T-lymphocytes. Inhibition of NF-kappaB/Rel activation and subsequent clearance of activated T-lymphocytes by apoptosis might thus explain the beneficial effects of sulfasalazine in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders.
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A placebo-controlled trial of sulfasalazine (SSZ) in patients with oligoarticular- and polyarticular-onset JIA yielded the data for this study. Data were obtained from 418 sets of radiographs of the clinically involved and contralateral joints (at study entry and at 6 months' followup) from 66 JIA patients. The Dijkstra score assesses the presence or absence of swelling, osteopenia, joint space narrowing, growth abnormalities, subchondral bone cysts, erosions, and malalignment. These signs were combined in the Dijkstra composite score, to assess inflammation (DI), growth (DG), and damage (DD). Progression was defined as an increase in either the DG or the DD score. Scores were evaluated among all radiographs, a standard set of films (hand, foot, and knee), and per patient. All scores were used to explore differences between the 2 treatment groups.
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Despite changing the drug's properties by crushing it for incrementally increasing administration, we successfully desensitized two patients on three occasions with 5-aminosalicylic acid.
To examine how agents currently used to treat inflammatory bowel disease affect MAdCAM-1: induced by tnf-alpha in an in vitro model of inflammatory bowel disease.
To describe radiologic features of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a standardized manner, to test the reliability and feasibility of this description, and to correlate these features with clinical signs as a first step in the development of a standardized assessment method.
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Infertility and the outcome of pregnancy has been examined in 112 married women with Crohn's disease who were below the age of 45 years. Fifty four patients were available for study. The infertility rate (12%) was similar to that seen in the general population. Patients who had active disease at the time of conception continued to have symptoms and they mostly failed to go into satisfactory remission despite therapy. Furthermore, there was a high rate (35%) of spontaneous abortion in this group. In contrast, patients whose disease was in remission at the time of conception had a normal pregnancy and, in the majority, the Crohn's disease remained quiescent.
Forty five patients with acute ulcerative colitis were randomly allocated to receive (a) sulphasalazine, (b) levamisole, or (c) a combination of sulphasalazine and levamisole. Each group contained 15 patients. The ulcerative colitis activity index (UCAI), the remission and relapse rates were compared at three monthly intervals for one year. The UCAI fell in each group. Detailed analysis of all clinical and biochemical parameters used for estimation of UCAI showed that the only difference was in patients receiving combined therapy who continued to have a raised ESR and platelet count. Fewer patients, however, went into remission on levamisole therapy (46.6%) compared with the other two groups (66.6%). The cumulative relapse rate was 20% for those receiving levamisole compared with 6.6% in the other groups. Side effects were observed in 20% of patients receiving levamisole, 26% receiving sulphasalazine, and 40% in those having combined therapy. The results indicate that levamisole is unlikely to have a major role in the management of patients with ulcerative colitis.
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The aim was to study the side-effect profile and the survival characteristics of leflunomide used in a regional patient population in New Zealand (NZ).
A comparative assessment of the patterns of IBD in Accra from 1997 to 2011.
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Sulphasalazine (SASP), used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, is split into sulphapyridine (SP) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in the colon. Lower plasma levels of SASP and 5-ASA as compared to those of SP may be due to different absorption rates from the colon because of different pK values and pH dependent lipid-water partition coefficients. In this study we determined the pK values of 5-ASA and its major metabolite, N-acetyl amino-salicylic acid (AcASA), by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and compared the pH dependent apparent benzene-water partition coefficients (Papp) of SASP, SP and 5-ASA with respect to their different plasma levels. The COOH group of 5-ASA had a pK value of 3.0, the -NH3+ group had 6.0, the -OH group 13.9; the -COOH group of AcASA had 2.7 and the -OH group 12.9; The Papp of SASP (0.042 +/- 0.004) and 5-ASA (0.059 +/- 0.01) were significantly lower than that of SP (0.092 +/- 0.03) (at pH 5.5).
Orocaecal transit time (OCTT) was assessed in six healthy beagles by means of the breath hydrogen test (BH2T) and the sulphasalazine/sulphapyridine method (SLZ) after the administration of a test meal of canned food mixed with sulphasalazine. Orocaecal transit time was defined as the time taken from the oral administration of the test meal to the time when the first portion of the meal reached the colon. In five of the dogs the OCTTs assessed by the BH2T were shorter than those measured by the SLZ method by 30, 15, 45, 30 and 45 minutes. However, the median OCTT assessed by the BH2T (135 minutes, range 120 to 195 minutes) was not significantly different from that measured by the SLZ (180 minutes, range 150 to 210 minutes) and was highly correlated with it (r = 0.94, P = 0.016). The sixth dog maintained baseline hydrogen and plasma sulphapyridine readings throughout the monitoring period and the OCTT could not be measured.
A 10-year-old girl who complained of fatigue and debilitating pain in both hips and legs for >1 year had recurrent episodes of redness and discharge in both eyes with little response to different topical medications. The diagnosis of CRMO was confirmed with the help of magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan, and bone biopsy results. She had moderate hyperemia and multiple discrete salmon-colored lesions in both palpebral and fornical conjunctivae. Biopsy revealed chronic inflammatory infiltration composed predominantly of lymphocytes forming a follicular pattern. Conjunctival lesions worsened during relapses of skeletal symptoms, improved during remission, and resolved shortly after the initiation of oral prednisolone therapy. No recurrence was observed during 16 months of follow-up.
A literature search for relevant studies (inception to January 20, 2012) was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Review articles and conference proceedings were also searched to identify additional studies.
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Periostal new bone formation can be observed as a symptom secondary to numerous diseases. In gastrointestinal disease this hypertrophic osteoarthropathy occurs very rare. The present case report demonstrates an extensive periostal proliferation involving the long bones in a 14 years old girl with longstanding ulcerative colitis.
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To determine the effect of nicotine on colonic inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of inflammatory bowel disease in comparison with sulphasalazine.
In this case report, a 58-year-old Malay woman with a 17-year history of ulcerative colitis had persistent left knee effusion and synovitis for seven years, despite remission of the primary disease. She had had multiple courses of systemic and intra-articular steroid that caused significant systemic side effects such as impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, cataract, and weight gain. She also had a total left knee replacement for secondary osteoarthritis. But the left knee synovitis and effusion recurred a month after the total knee replacement, and she was subjected to a total synovectomy the following year. In view of failure of remission despite multiple immunosuppressants (100 mg of azathioprine daily, 1 g of sulfasalazine twice a day, 10 mg of prednisolone daily, and 10 mg of methotrexate weekly), 25 mg of subcutaneous etanercept twice weekly was started. After 5 weeks of treatment, complete resolution of left knee effusion and normalization of the inflammatory markers were shown. This continued up to 12 months of follow-up while our patient was on etanercept and 10 mg of methotrexate weekly. No relapse or serious side effects were noted.
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An examination is needed of the potential adverse effects of the agents most commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Most of these therapies can be used safely to induce or maintain remissions, although some aspects of monitoring for toxicity are necessary. Aminosalicylates, including sulfasalazine and mesalamine delivery systems, are most commonly associated with sulfa-related effects (sulfasalazine) or intolerance, with rare instances of nephritis, pulmonitis, hepatitis, or worsening colitis. The immunomodulators are most commonly associated with bone marrow suppression, hepatitis, and the risk of opportunistic infections. Methotrexate is contraindicated in pregnancy. Antibiotics used for inflammatory bowel disease are generally safe and well tolerated, although metronidazole carries a long-term risk of peripheral neuropathy. The well-recognized multitude of adverse effects from corticosteroids are eliminated or minimized when rapidly metabolized steroids, such as budesonide, are used.
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To describe the treatment with DMARDs established for the first time in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or persistent arthritis (PA) in routine clinical practice in Spain.
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All patients were treated with sulfasalzine at initial doses of 1.5 g/day, increasing by 0.5 g/week to 3 g/day for 4-16 weeks. Some patients also received descendent doses for 2-12 months. Complete responses were observed in 13 patients and partial responses in seven patients. All patients reported an early resolution of the pruritus. No changes were detected in mucosal LP. Most of the patients tolerated the treatment well and only eight patients presented some minor side-effects.