The in vitro inhibitory effects of diallyl disulphide (DADS), diallyl trisulphide (DAT), roselle calyx extract and protocatechuic acid (PA) on the growth of Helicobacter pylori (15 susceptible, 11 clarithromycin-resistant and 9 metronidazole-resistant strains) were studied. The inhibition zone was determined after each agent had been heated at 25, 60, 100 degrees C for 60 min. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each agent was determined by the tube dilution assay. The results showed that heat treatment did not affect the anti-H. pylori activity of DADS, DAT, roselle calyx extract and PA, and the MIC values of these agents against test H. pylori strains were in the range 8-64 mg/L. The time-kill study assay for DAT and PA at 1x MIC was monitored in Muller Hinton broth supplemented with 10% horse blood or mice stomach homogenate. Both DAT and PA inhibited the growth of all test H. pylori in broth and mice stomach homogenate (p < 0.05); however, the inhibitory effects of these two agents were less in mice stomach homogenate than in broth (p < 0.05). DAT at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 mg/L and PA at 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48 mg/L were used for urease activity assay. These two agents significantly reduced urease activity of test H. pylori strains (p < 0.05), in which DAT and PA at 1x MIC reduced the urease activity of H. pylori to 70% and 40%, respectively. These agents, based on their lower MIC values and heat tolerance, might be useful in the prevention or therapy of H. pylori.
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A rapid analytical method was developed for the application of a long-term monitoring (>one year) of the most prescribed and often in hospitals used antibiotics in diverse wastewaters of an urban sewage treatment plant (STP). Additionally to the selected multi-class antibiotics amoxicillin, penicillin V and piperacillin (penicillins), cefotaxime and cefuroxime (cephalosporins), azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin (macrolids), ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin-ofloxacin (fluoroquinolones), clindamycin (lincosamide), doxycycline (tetracycline), sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide) and trimethoprim (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor), the bioactive metabolite clindamycin-sulfoxide, the reserve antibiotic vancomycin (glycopeptide) and as tracer of the STP the anticonvulsant carbamazepine and the antifungal fluconazole were involved. The analytical method combines a low-sample-volume solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by a chromatographic separation using a reversed phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) technique, respectively, coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Detection was performed with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) measured with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+). The extraction efficiency of different SPE cartridges and optimized pH-values of the preparation procedure were tested. Finally, the extraction of antibiotics was realized with the Oasis HLB cartridge and a pH adjustment at 3.5. An external calibration curve in diluted blank urine was used for quality control of the sample set of daily composite samples of the STP for the duration of one year monitoring. The squared coefficient of determination (r(2)) in the concentration range (20-20,000ng/L or 100-100,000ng/L) of the calibration curves for the method was higher than 0.99 for all determined substances. The limit of quantification (LoQ) ranged between 0.8ng/L (azithromycin) and 245.1ng/L (vancomycin). Furthermore, a standard addition was used for quantification in wastewater samples. The process efficiencies ranged from 20% (doxycycline) to 134% (cefuroxime) in influent samples and from 31% (doxycycline) to 171% (cefuroxime) in effluent samples of the STP. All selected substances have been found in wastewater samples. Cefuroxime, doxycycline, levofloxacin, piperacillin, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine showed highest concentrations up to 6.2μg/L.
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este estudio posibilitó investigar la asociación de factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de flebitis durante el uso y después de la retirada del catéter. La frecuencia de la flebitis post-infusión fue mayor que el número de flebitis asociada a la permanencia del catéter, siendo las de grado III y II, respectivamente, las más frecuentes. Se trato de elucidar aspectos relacionados a la flebitis post-infusión, considerando que existen pocos estudios que abordan el tema bajo esta perspectiva.
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Our findings suggest that eradication of gastric H. pylori significantly alleviates halitosis and coated tongue, the two oral conditions that may be considered as extragastric manifestations of this common chronic bacterial infection.
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Six clinical isolates of the nonpigmented, rapidly growing species Mycobacterium mageritense were recovered from sputum, bronchial wash, blood, sinus drainage, and two surgical wound infections from separate patients in Texas, New York, Louisiana, and Florida. The isolates matched the ATCC type strain by PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the 65-kDa hsp gene sequence of Telenti, high-performance liquid chromatography, biochemical reactions, and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These are the first isolates of this species to be described in the United States and the first isolates to be associated with clinical disease. Susceptibility testing of all known isolates of the species revealed all isolates to be susceptible or intermediate to amikacin, cefoxitin, imipenem, and the fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides but resistant to clarithromycin. Because of their phenotypic and clinical similarity to isolates of the Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex (sorbitol positive), isolates of M. mageritense are likely to go undetected unless selected carbohydrate utilization or molecular identification methods are used.
In addition to antibacterial activity, some macrolide antibiotics, such as azithromycin and clarithromycin, also exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo, although the targets and mechanism(s) of action remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify protein targets of azithromycin and clarithromycin which could potentially explain their anti-inflammatory effects. Using chemical proteomics approach, based on compound-immobilized affinity chromatography, valosin containing protein (VCP) was identified as a potential target of the macrolides. Validation studies confirmed the interaction of macrolides and VCP and gave some structural characteristics of this interaction. Cell based assays however, including the use of gene silencing and the study of VCP specific cellular functions in J774.A1 (murine macrophage) and IB3-1 (human cystic fibrotic epithelial) cell lines, failed to confirm an association between the binding of the macrolides to VCP and anti-inflammatory effects. These findings suggest the absence of an abundant high affinity protein target and the potential involvement of other biological molecules in the anti-inflammatory activity of macrolides.
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A decision analysis to examine the cost effectiveness of eight H pylori eradication strategies for duodenal ulcer disease with and without 13C-urea breath testing to confirm eradication.
The in vitro activity of ABT-773, a new ketolide, was compared with those of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and tetracycline against 15 strains of Helicobacter pylori. The MIC of ABT-773 at which 90% of isolates were inhibited was 0.25 microg/ml, which was 3 dilutions higher than that of the most active agent, clarithromycin. Synergy and antagonism were not seen with any combinations. Additive activity was seen with tetracycline, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in 100, 60, and 40% of the combinations, respectively.
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The influence of inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (verapamil [VE], cyclosporine [CY], and GF120918 [GF]) on the cell handling of macrolides (erythromycin [ERY], clarithromycin [CLR], roxithromycin [ROX], azithromycin [AZM], and telithromycin [TEL]) was examined in J774 murine macrophages. The net influx rates of AZM and TEL were increased from 2- to 3.5-fold in the presence of these inhibitors, but their efflux was slowed only marginally. At 3 h, the inhibitors increased the levels of AZM, ERY, and TEL accumulation approximately three- to fourfold (the effect of VE, however, was lower) but did not influence CLR accumulation (the inhibitors had an intermediate behavior on ROX accumulation). The effect was concentration dependent (half-maximal increases in the level of accumulation of AZM were obtained with GF, CY, and VE at 0.5, 5, and 10 micro M, respectively). ATP depletion also caused an approximately threefold increase in the level of accumulation of AZM. Two inhibitors of MRP (probenecid [2.5 mM] and gemfibrozil [0.25 mM]) had no effect. Monensin (a proton ionophore) completely suppressed the accumulation of AZM in control cells as well as in cells incubated in the presence of VE, demonstrating that transmembrane proton gradients are the driving force causing the accumulation of AZM in both cases. Yet, VE did not alter the pH of the lysosomes (approximately 5) or of the cytosol (approximately 7.1). P-glycoprotein was detected by immunostaining at the cell surface as well as in intracellular vacuoles (endosomes and lysosomes). The data suggest that the influx of AZM, ERY, TEL, and ROX is adversely influenced by the activity of P-glycoprotein in J774 macrophages, resulting in suboptimal drug accumulation.
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Helicobacter pylori is a pathogen that establishes long life infections responsible for chronic gastric ulcer diseases and a proved risk factor for gastric carcinoma. The therapeutic properties of carbon-monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) led us to investigate their effect on H. pylori. We show that H. pylori 26695 is susceptible to two widely used CORMs, namely CORM-2 and CORM-3. Also, several H. pylori clinical isolates were killed by CORM-2, including those resistant to metronidazole. Moreover, sub-lethal doses of CORM-2 combined with metronidazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin was found to potentiate the effect of the antibiotics. We further demonstrate that the mechanisms underpinning the antimicrobial effect of CORMs involve the inhibition of H. pylori respiration and urease activity. In vivo studies done in key cells of the innate immune system, such as macrophages, showed that CORM-2, either alone or when combined with metronidazole, strongly reduces the ability of H. pylori to infect animal cells. Hence, CORMs have the potential to kill antibiotic resistant strains of H. pylori.
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Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of lymphocytes in blood has been well documented, and it is apparent that control of this pathogen in these cells may be critical in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with infection by this bacterium. The activity of antibiotics against C. pneumoniae in lymphocytes was assessed in this study by utilizing an in vitro infection model with lymphoid cells. The results obtained indicated that although all of the antibiotics tested showed remarkable activity against bacterial growth in epithelial cells, C. pneumoniae in lymphocytes was less susceptible to antibiotics than was bacterial growth in epithelial cells, which are widely used for the evaluation of anti-C. pneumoniae antibiotics.
Inflammatory cytokines are involved in the development of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). It has been shown that macrolides inhibit cytokine production in the alveolar macrophages of COP patients.
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One-hundred patients (mean age 50 years, 39% men, 31% peptic ulcer/69% functional dyspepsia) were included. Eight patients did not take the medication correctly (in six cases due to adverse effects). Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 52% (95% CI = 41-63%) and 50% (40-60%). Adverse effects were reported in 30 (30%) patients: nausea/vomiting (13 patients), asthenia/anorexia (8), abdominal pain (7), diarrhoea (5), fever (4), metallic taste (4), myalgia (4), hypertransaminasemia (2), leucopenia (<1,500 neutrophils) (2), thrombopenia (<150,000 platelets) (2), headache (1) and aphthous stomatitis (1). Myelotoxicity resolved spontaneously in all cases.
In this open, randomized, monocenter, parallel group comparison, 107 patients with duodenal ulcer or functional dyspepsia were assigned to receive one of the following treatment regimens: a 7-day triple therapy with pantoprazole, 40 mg bid; clarithromycin, 250 mg bid; and metronidazole, 400 mg bid, which was either preceded or followed by a 7-day therapy with pantoprazole, 40 mg (P-PCM or PCM-P). Assessment of H. pylori status was performed by a biopsy urease test and 13C urea breath test at the initial visit and 13C urea breath test at all follow-up visits.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a bacterium responsible for 15 to 40 % of acute community-acquired pneumonia in children and 20 % of adult cases. Several extrapulmonary manifestations have been reported. We report a rare case of an adult patient suffering from pneumonia associated with an acute pancreatitis in the setting of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.
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This prospective randomized control study was performed during June 2014 to December 2014. H. pylori infected gastritis patients were randomized to receive 7- or 14-day levofloxacin-dexlansoprazole based on quadruple therapy (levofloxacin 500 mg OD, dexlansoprazole 60 mg bid, clarithromycin MR 1000 mg OD, bismuth subsalicylate 1048 mg bid). CYP2C19 genotyping and antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted for all patients. A 13C urea breath test was performed to confirm H. pylori eradication at least 4 weeks after treatment.
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The prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients in Yemen is very high, the eradication rate with standard triple therapy was unsatisfactory probably because of widespread bacterial resistance due to unrestricted antibiotic use. The recurrence rate of infection at 1 year was high, as a result of recrudescence of incompletely eradicated organisms rather than reinfection.
A 77-year-old male with uncontrollable hypertension developed shock, heart block, and multiorgan failure 2 days after clarithromycin was added to his antihypertensive treatment (nifedipine, captopril, doxazosin). Invasive monitoring revealed hyperdynamic shock with decreased systemic vascular resistances.
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The review was performed on 251 patients. There were 177 males, 74 females. The median age was 51 (18-77) years. H. pylori infection was confirmed by CLO test in 170 patients and by histology in 72 patients. Thirty patients did not undergo further investigation after therapy to confirm the eradication. Of the remaining 221 patients, H. pylori was successfully eradicated in 198 patients (89.6%) as confirmed by 14C urea breath test (190 patients) or repeat gastroscopy and gastric biopsy (31 patients). There were no serious adverse events documented.
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The in vitro effect of macrolides at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) on the interaction between Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated by using a chemiluminescence assay. The PMN response to either mucoid or nonmucoid P. aeruginosa biofilm was strongly reduced compared with the response to planktonic bacteria (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). When biofilms were treated with erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin prior to incubation with PMNs, the chemiluminescence response was markedly enhanced as compared to untreated controls, and a dose-dependent effect was noted over the range of sub-MIC concentrations studied. In general, macrolides appeared to be slightly more active against mucoid biofilm. Azithromycin was shown to be the most active macrolide against P. aeruginosa biofilms. However, the treatment with sub-MICs of rokitamycin did not have any effect. On the other hand, treatment of planktonic bacteria with macrolides before being exposed to the PMNs did not affect the chemiluminescence response as compared to untreated controls. These findings suggest that macrolides inhibiting the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa may facilitate the phagocytosis of bacteria by PMNs.
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Pravastatin was associated with fewer hospitalizations, physician visits, and overall health care resource utilization in prevalent users than lovastatin, possibly due to a lack of drug interaction effects.
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Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory disease which is caused predominantly by the gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Further Bordetella species such as B. parapertussis and the recently discovered species B. holmesii are also involved in whooping cough-like diseases. Depending on age, vaccination status and distance to pre-infection with B. pertussis, whooping cough shows a wide range of symptoms. The disease occurs at any age, leaving only short time immunity. During the last 15 years, in industrialized countries the number of reported pertussis cases has been increased markedly. The reason for this observation is still unclear Macrolides such as azithromycin and clarithromycin are regarded as antibiotics of first choice. In Germany, combination vaccines containing acellular pertussis vaccines is the most important strategy of prevention. To ensure the best possible protection against pertussis, booster doses at determined times should be given after primary vaccination in infancy.
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To characterize response to a three-times-weekly (TIW) regimen of clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampin.
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Isolated cutaneous mycobacterial infection is exceptional in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report a case of Buruli ulcer observed in a Zairan female infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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This was a retrospective review of studies evaluating antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among clinical isolates of S pneumoniae in Turkey from 2000 onward. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches of both Turkish (Ulakbim and Pleksus) and international (MEDLINE) databases using the search terms S pneumoniae and Turkey. Only antibiotics likely to be used in pneumococcal pneumonia were evaluated. The minimum concentration required to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC(90)) for each antibiotic was obtained by averaging all reported values to arrive at a single value for the entire country.
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Novel drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles (NPs) have been proved to enhance the effectiveness of many drugs. Clarithromycin is a broad spectrum macrolide antibiotic, used in many infectious conditions like upper and lower respiratory tract infections, and skin and other soft tissue infections. This paper describes the preparation and enhanced in vitro antibacterial activities of clarithromycin loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. A modified quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion (MQESD) method was used to prepare clarithromycin (CLR) NPs. The antibacterial activity of the NPs was evaluated using the agar well diffusion method against Escherichia coli (PTCC 1330), Haemophilus influenzae (PTCC 1623), Salmonella typhi (PTCC 1609), Staphylococcus aureus (PTCC 1112) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PTCC 1240). The inhibition zone diameters related to each nano formulation were compared with those for untreated CLR at the same concentrations. The results indicated that the mean inhibition zone diameters of NPs against all the bacteria tested were significantly higher than those of untreated CLR, particularly in the case of S. aureus. The increased potency of CLR NPs may be related to some physicochemical properties of NPs like modified surface characteristics, lower drug degradation, and increased drug adsorption and uptake.
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To determine if chloroquine modifies the activity of clarithromycin, less effective at acidic pH, against intracellular Mycobacterium avium.