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Calan (Verapamil Hydrochloride)
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Calan

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cartia XT, Cardizem, Cardizem LA, Nifedical XL , Propranolol, Procardia, Procardia XL

 

Also known as:  Verapamil Hydrochloride.

Description

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders.

It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Calan is also known as Verapamil, Calaptin, Isoptin, Verelan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS.

Dosage

Take Calan orally.

Do not take Calan in large amounts.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open a controlled-delivery or extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the whole pill.

It is important to use verapamil regularly to get the most benefit.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Calan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Calan overdosage: slow heartbeat, fainting fit.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Calan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Calan if you are allergic to Calan components.

Be careful with Calan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Calan if you have poor heart condition, low blood pressure, recent heart attack.

Be careful with Calan if you suffer from kidney, liver disease, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy.

Be careful with Calan if you take medications such as any other blood pressure medications; buspirone (BuSpar); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid); lovastatin (Mevacor); phenobarbital (Solfoton); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl); a sedative such as midazolam (Versed) or triazolam (Halcion); an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), telithromycin (Ketek), or voriconazole (Vfend); a beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta, Ziac), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), disopyramide (Norpace), flecainide (Tambocor), or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release); HIV/AIDS medicine such as amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Calan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

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Multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (Pgp), coded by the multidrug resistance type I (MDR1/ABCB1) gene, is an energy-dependent efflux pump and functions in systemic detoxification processes. In the present study, the expression and development of Pgp were evaluated in the porcine oocyte during in vitro maturation to compare with the expression of Pgp in cultured granulosa cells. As revealed by Western blotting using anti-human Pgp antibody, a single band of Pgp with an apparent molecular size of 170 kDa was detected in the germinal vesicle stage oocytes. The surface of GV oocyte was positively labeled by immunostaining. In the second metaphase oocyte after culture in the maturation medium containing porcine follicular fluid and human chorionic gonadotropin, the level of Pgp was increased. The elevation of the oocyte Pgp level was associated with increased activity of rhodamine 6G efflux from the oocyte, and its efflux was suppressed by verapamil, an inhibitor of Pgp. Removal of porcine follicular fluid from the maturation medium resulted in little alteration of the oocyte Pgp level. Expression of Pgp was also elevated in cultured porcine granulosa cells during cell maturation when stimulated with follicle-stimulating hormone or luteinizing hormone for 24-48 h. Collectively, the present results indicate that the transporting activity of P-glycoprotein upregulates in porcine oocytes and granulosa cells during exposure to gonadotropins or prior to ovulation.

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This study investigated the efficacy of verapamil in acute mania.

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The 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors lovastatin and simvastatin have been associated with rhabdomyolysis in cardiac transplant recipients. Herein, we report a case of a 52-year-old male recipient of a cardiac transplant who developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure caused by simvastatin precipitated by multiple drug interactions.

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A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study was designed in eight stabile severe COPD patients [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) 0.9 +/- 0.1 l] taking theophylline. The doses of theophylline ranged from 600 mg daily to 1200 mg daily (7.0 mg/kg daily to 16.9 mg/kg daily). Nocturnal recordings, maximal respiratory muscle strength and endurance tests, lung function, blood pressure, electrocardiogram and arterial blood gas analysis were performed after 6 days of verapamil and after placebo.

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Flow sorting can efficiently improve the purity of haploid spermatid enrichment, which helps a lot to elucidate the mechanisms of spermiogenesis.

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Two authors independently checked the results of searches to identify relevant studies. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as Peto Odds ratios and continuous outcomes as weighted mean differences.

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The experiments on anesthetized rats under the conditions of a 7-min occlusion of the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery followed by reperfusion showed that drugs belonging to various classes of antiarrhythmic agents (ethacizine, IC; cardiocyclide, III; verapamil, IV; bradizol, V) produce a pronounced antifibrillatory and antiarrhythmic effects. The cholinomimetic carbacholine produced practically the same effect. Cardiocyclide, verapamil, and bradizol retained their antifibrillatory properties upon combined administration with carbacholine, while the effect of ethacizine administered jointly with carbacholine was decreased.

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1. In the present study it was tested whether known P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates/MDR reversal agents interact with small (type 1) and bulky (type 2) cationic drugs at the level of biliary excretion in the rat isolated perfused liver model (IPRL). The studies were performed with model compounds tri-n-butylmethylammonium (TBuMA) (a relatively small type 1 organic cation), rocuronium (Roc) (a bulky type 2 organic cation) and the classical P-gp substrate doxorubicin (Dox). 2. Inhibitors were given in a 4 fold molar excess to the substrate studied. To minimize an interaction of the substrates at the hepatic uptake level, the competing compounds were added when over 55% to 85% of the administered dose of the model compounds had been removed from the perfusate and taken up by the liver. 3. We found a mutual interaction between TBuMA and procainamidethobromide (PAEB), both type 1 cationic compounds during biliary excretion. Interestingly, type 2 compounds, such as rocuronium, clearly inhibited type 1 cationic drugs as well as Dox secretion into bile, whereas type 1 compounds did not significantly inhibit type 2 drug excretion into bile. The type 1 cations PAEB and TBuMA only moderately inhibited Dox biliary excretion. Dox did not inhibit the biliary excretion of the type 2 agent rocuronium whereas rocuronium reduced Dox biliary excretion by 50% compared to controls. 4. MDR substrates/reversal agents like verapamil, quinine, quinidine and vinblastine strongly reduced both type 1 and type 2 organic cation excretion into bile. Dox secretion into bile was also profoundly reduced by these drugs, vinblastine being the most potent inhibitor in general. 5. The lack of mutual inhibition observed in some combinations of substrates may indicate that major differences in affinity of the substrates for a single excretory system exist. Alternatively, multiple organic cation transport systems with separate substrate specificities may be involved in the biliary excretion of amphiphilic drugs. Furthermore, the present study revealed a clear positive correlation between the lipophilicity of the potential inhibitors studied and their respective inhibitory activity on the biliary excretion of the model drugs investigated. 6. Our data are compatible with a potential involvement of P-glycoprotein in the hepatobiliary excretion of doxorubicin as well as of some type 1 and type 2 organic cations. Furthermore we postulate that the hydrophobic properties of the amphiphilic cationic drugs studied play a crucial role in the accommodation of these agents by P-glycoprotein and/or other potential cationic drug carrier proteins in the canalicular membrane.

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Residues from several transmembrane (TM) segments of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) likely form the drug-binding site(s). To determine the organization of the TM segments, pairs of cysteine residues were introduced into the predicted TM segments of a Cys-less P-gp, and the mutant protein was subjected to oxidative cross-linking. In SDS gels, the cross-linked product migrated with a slower mobility than the native protein. The cross-linked products were not detected in the presence of dithiothreitol. Cross-linking was observed in 12 of 125 mutants. The pattern of cross-linking suggested that TM6 is close to TMs 10, 11, and 12, while TM12 is close to TMs 4, 5, and 6. In some mutants the presence of drug substrate colchicine, verapamil, cyclosporin A, or vinblastine either enhanced or inhibited cross-linking. Cross-linking was inhibited in the presence of ATP plus vanadate. These results suggest that the TM segments critical for drug binding must be close to each other and exhibit different conformational changes in response to binding of drug substrate or vanadate trapping of nucleotide. Based on these results, we propose a model for the arrangement of the TM segments.

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Verapamil, an ABCB1 inhibitor, significantly (p<0.001) increased fluorescent calcein retention in the cytoplasm of the TM and RAW 264.7 cells compared to the PBS control. Digoxin, an ABCB1 activator, increased calcein efflux (p<0.001). Lactate reduced ABCB1 activity. HMW-HA significantly (p<0.001) reduced ABCB1 activity, whereas LMW-HA decreased ABCB1 activity, and the HA effects were blocked by naloxone (p<0.001), a TLR4 inhibitor. LPS alone did not change ABCB1 activity whereas dephosphorylated LPS significantly (p<0.001) enhanced ABCB1 activity in the TM cells. β-amyloid significantly reduced ABCB1 activity, and the β-amyloid effects were blocked by naloxone.

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P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression determines the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of many drugs in the body. Also, up-regulation of P-gp acts as a defense mechanism against acute inflammation. This study examined expression levels of abcb1 mRNA and localization of P-gp protein in the liver, kidney, duodenum, jejunum and ileum in healthy and E. coli infected broilers by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, pharmacokinetics of orally administered enrofloxacin was also investigated in healthy and infected broilers by HPLC. The results indicated that E. coli infection up-regulated expression of abcb1 mRNA levels significantly in the kidney, jejunum and ileum (P<0.05), but not significantly in the liver and duodenum (P>0.05). However, the expression level of CYP 3A37 mRNA were observed significantly decreased only in liver and kidney of E. coli infected broilers (P<0.05) compared with healthy birds. Furthermore, the infection reduced absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin, significantly decreased Cmax (0.34 vs 0.98 µg mL(-1), P = 0.000) and AUC0-12h (4.37 vs 8.88 µg mL(-1) h, P = 0.042) of enrofloxacin, but increased Tmax (8.32 vs 3.28 h, P = 0.040), T1/2a(2.66 vs 1.64 h(-1), P = 0.050) and V/F (26.7 vs 5.2 L, P = 0.040). Treatment with verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp, significantly improved the absorption of enrofloxacin in both healthy and infected broilers. The results suggest that the E. coli infection induces intestine P-gp expression, altering the absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin in broilers.

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These studies show that diltiazem and verapamil increase LDLr gene transcription and expression which is independent of cell proliferation in HMCL.

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After a 4-week run-in placebo period, patients were randomized to: atenolol 50 mg/day; trandolapril 2 mg/day; verapamil 240 mg/day or verapamil 180 + trandolapril 2 mg/day combination; forced double-dose titration was carried out at the 4th week. Treatment duration was 6 months.

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SP sorting is an effective method to separate cancer stem cells. There do exist cancer stem cells in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Let-7 is down-regulated in SP cells, and the down-regulation makes let-7 lose the opportunity to restrain Ras mRNA, finally, p-Ras and p-ERK are activated. They play an important role in maintaining the characteristics of breast cancer stem cells.

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Suppression of the L-type current of the isolated myocytes by CPU 86017 was moderate, in time- and concentration-dependent manner and with no influence on the activation and inactivation curves. The IC(50) was 11.5 micromol/L. Suppressive effect of CPU 86017 on vaso-contractions induced by KCl 100 mmol/L, phenylephrine 1 micromol/L in KH solution (phase 1), Ca(2+) free KH solution ( phase 2), and by addition of CaCl(2) into Ca(2+)-free KH solution (phase 3) were observed. The IC(50) to suppress vaso-contractions by calcium entry via the receptor operated channel (ROC) and voltage-dependent channel (VDC) was 0.324 micromol/L and 16.3 micromol/L, respectively. The relative potency of CPU 86017 to suppress vascular tone by Ca(2+) entry through ROC and VDC is 1/187 of prazosin and 1/37 of verapamil, respectively.

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The anti-thrombic properties of the Korean herbal medicine, Dae-Jo-Hwan (DJW) were investigated. Water extracts, a 70% methanol (MeOH) extract and an ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction (III) from DJW inhibited platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo assays. The extracts of DJW and eleven herbs from which it is derived, except for Panax ginseng Meyer, Angelica sinensis (OLIV.) DIELS and Schisandra chinensis Baill., inhibited AA-induced blood platelet aggregation to various extents. The effects observed with total DJW was synergistic over-additive rather that additive since the sum of single contributions was lower than the effect of the total extract. Fraction III was specially protected against the lethality of PAF, while verapamil did not afford any protection. Exogenously applied arachidonic acid (AA) (100 microM) led to a 89% platelet aggregation, the release of 14 pmol of ATP, and the formation of either 225 pg of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) or 45 pg of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), each parameter being related to 10(6) platelets. An application of DJW 5 min before AA, dose-dependently diminished aggregation, ATP-re lease, and the synthesis of TXA2 and PGE2, with IC(50) values of 70, 87, 65 and 72 microg/ml, respectively. The similarity of the IC(50) values suggests the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) by DJW as the primary target, thus suppressing the generation of TXA2, which induces platelet aggregation and the exocytosis of ATP by its binding on TXA2-receptors. These results indicate that DJW shows anti-thrombotic action on human platelets and inhibits the action of PAF in vivo by an antagonistic effect on PAF. Therefore, it may be useful in treating disorders caused by PAF.

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Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders, which are characterized by strictly unilateral pain, together with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms. TACs include cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT syndrome). These diseases all have one thing in common: an activation of trigeminal nociceptive afferentia with a reflex-like activation of cranial autonomic efferentia via the facial nerve. TACs show differences not only in the length and frequency of attacks but also in the response to drug treatment. It is important to recognize and differentiate between these syndromes because they react very well, but very selectively to therapy.

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ABCB1-mediated transport in leukemic CD34+ CD38- cells compared with their normal counterparts was assessed by quantitating the effect of specific ABCB1 modulators (verapamil and PSC-833) on mitoxantrone retention [defined as efflux index (EI), intracellular mitoxantrone fluorescence intensity in the presence/absence of inhibitor].

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The role of calcium in the etiology of anxiety has been proposed for several decades. Calcium channel blockers profoundly influence calcium metabolism and the transport of calcium. Even though the evidence for the role of calcium remains weak, drugs affecting calcium might be useful in the treatment of anxiety disorders. One of these compounds, verapamil, has been used to treat mood disorders. Calcium channel blockers have also been tried in other indications such as premenstrual syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia, and Tourette's syndrome. However, the number of articles on the use of calcium channel blockers in the treatment of anxiety disorders is low. Three reports (two open, one double-blind) described some success in the treatment of panic disorder with verapamil, diltiazem, or nimodipine and one open-label study described unsuccessful treatment of anxiety and phobia with nifedipine in patients with various anxiety disorders. Further double-blind placebo-controlled studies of calcium channel blockers in the treatment of anxiety disorders are warranted to determine a possible role of these compounds in the armamentarium of antianxiety drugs.

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Paper spray is a newly developed ambient ionization method that has been applied for direct qualitative and quantitative analysis of biological samples. The properties of the paper substrate and spray solution have a significant impact on the release of chemical compounds from complex sample matrices, the diffusion of the analytes through the substrate, and the formation of ions for mass spectrometry analysis. In this study, a commercially available silica-coated paper was explored in an attempt to improve the analysis of therapeutic drugs in dried blood spots (DBS). The dichloromethane/isopropanol solvent has been identified as an optimal spray solvent for the analysis. The comparison was made with paper spray using chromatography paper as substrate with methanol/water as solvent for the analysis of verapamil, citalopram, amitriptyline, lidocaine, and sunitinib in dried blood spots. It has been demonstrated that the efficiency of recovery of the analytes was notably improved with the silica coated paper and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for the drug analysis was 0.1 ng mL(-1) using a commercial triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The use of silica paper substrate also resulted in a sensitivity improvement of 5-50-fold in comparison with chromatography papers, including the Whatman ET31 paper used for blood cards. Analysis using a hand-held miniature mass spectrometer Mini 11 gave LOQs of 10-20 ng mL(-1) for the tested drugs, which is sufficient to cover the therapeutic ranges of these drugs.

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Data are from the clinical sample of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a population-based prospective study of community and institutional residing persons aged 65+ years. The sample comprised 837 subjects without dementia and reporting use of 1+ antihypertensive/diuretic agents at baseline (1991) and with survival data during follow-up (1996).

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About 70% of the patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are resistant to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). For them one therapeutic option to achieve seizure control is to undergo epilepsy surgery. Expression of multidrug transporters is upregulated in resected tissue specimens from TLE patients, as well as in animal models of chronic epilepsy, which might lead to altered tissue availability of AEDs and therefore contribute to drug refractoriness. Here we describe a functional test of multidrug transporter activity in brain slices from TLE patients based on intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent multidrug transporter substrate calcein and compare functional data to the expression pattern of multidrug transporters. The rate of cytosolic calcein fluorescence increase was altered by inhibitors of multidrug transport such as probenecid (400 μM) and verapamil (40 μM) in a subset of slices, indicating the presence of functional multidrug transport proteins in human epileptic tissue. Interestingly, there were differences between the expression pattern of multidrug transporters and their ability to remove calcein-AM. Consequently, in vitro studies on multidrug transporters should always include functional tests of their activity as expression alone is not necessarily conclusive.

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This study sought to compare the perioperative outcomes of interventions aiming to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury during elective liver resection.

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We investigated changes in the expression of plasma proteins in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP) to identify stroke biomarkers.

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In order to elucidate the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in vasoconstriction, we investigated the effects of inhibitors of tyrosine kinase (genistein, 30 microM) and phosphatase (sodium o-vanadate, 5 microM) on the contraction of aorta isolated from guinea pig. Genistein significantly inhibited norepinephrine-induced contraction, but it did not affect that induced by KCI. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation may not be involved in the contractile response to KCI alone. The aortic contraction elicited by KCl was significantly augmented by sodium o-vanadate, which increased both the maximum force and pD2 values of KCl contraction. In the presence of verapamil, KCl-induced contraction was abolished even after pretreatment with sodium o-vanadate. Sodium o-vanadate also augmented Ca2+-induced contraction in the aortic strips depolarized with KCl, increasing both its maximum force and pD2 values. Neither basal 45Ca2+ uptake nor verapamil-sensitive 45Ca2+ uptake induced by KCl were affected by pretreatment with sodium o-vanadate. These results suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation is involved in the contraction of guinea-pig aorta not through transplasmalemmal Ca2+ entry but through increased Ca2+ sensitivity of the intracellular contractile pathway.

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calan sr dosage 2017-09-25

We investigated the potential of chronic administration of an oral daily dose (10 mg/kg) of the dietary flavonoid quercetin to prevent hypertension and oxidative stress induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt in rats. We have compared its effects to those produced by the well-known anti-hypertensive drug verapamil, administered orally (20 mg/kg/day). Quercetin and verapamil treatments reduced systolic blood pressure of DOCA-salt rats in approximately 67.6 and 63.3% respectively, producing no effect in control animals. Both drugs reduced significantly hepatic and renal hypertrophy induced by DOCA-salt administration, while only quercetin prevented cardiac hypertrophy. Decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine of aortic rings from DOCA-salt-treated rats was improved by quercetin, but verapamil only enhanced it in the presence of superoxide dismutase buy calan (SOD) plus catalase. Increased plasma and heart thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and heart, decreased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and liver and kidney glutathione transferase (GST) activities were observed in DOCA-salt-treated rats compared to the control animals. The antihypertensive effect of quercetin was accompanied by normalisation of plasma TBARS values, improvement of the antioxidant defences system in heart and liver, restoring total GSH levels in both organs and altered liver GST and GPX activities, and improving kidney GST activity. Verapamil treatment only restored GSH levels in heart, having no effect on other alterations induced by DOCA-salt chronic administration in the antioxidant defences analysed. In conclusion, quercetin shows both antihypertensive and antioxidant properties in this model of mineralocorticoid hypertension, while verapamil exhibits only antihypertensive effects.

calan overdose 2017-02-19

In the linear regression model, nine variables emerged as independent predictors of TTR: female sex (P < .0001), age < 50 years (P < .0001), age 50 to 60 years buy calan (P = .02), ethnic minority status (P < .0001), smoking (P = .03), more than two comorbidities (P < .0001), and being treated with a β-blocker (P = .02), verapamil (P = .02), or, inversely, with amiodarone (P = .05). We incorporated these factors into a simple clinical prediction scheme with the acronym SAMe-TT₂R (sex female, age < 60 years, medical history [more than two comorbidities], treatment [interacting drugs, eg, amiodarone for rhythm control], tobacco use [doubled], race [doubled]). The score demonstrated good discrimination performance in both the internal and external validation cohorts (c-index, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64-0.795; and c-index, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.57-0.82, respectively).

calan tablets 2016-05-13

Our findings reveal that the PfCRT(Dd2)-mediated transport of tricyclic antimalarials reduces the parasite's susceptibility buy calan to these drugs.

calan tab 2015-04-29

Recently, it has become possible buy calan to measure coronary flow reserve (CFR) non-invasively with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Twenty-one hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP) patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy who had either not started medication or had stopped medication for at least 24 h were enrolled, along with 29 normal subjects. Mean diastolic coronary flow velocity (CFmv) and time velocity integral of diastolic coronary flow velocity (CFtvi) were measured at the distal left anterior descending artery with a 7 MHz transducer at the baseline and after dipyridamole infusion at a dose of 0.56 mg/kg. CFR was defined as the ratio of CFmv after dipyridamole over CFmv before dipyridamole. The baseline values for CFmv and CFtvi were significantly higher (0.40+/-0.09 vs. 0.31+/-0.06 m/s, p<0.001, 0.25+/-0.07 vs. 0.16+/-0.04 m, p<0.001, respectively), while that for CFR was significantly lower (2.01+/-0.42 vs. 3.06+/-0.39 m/s, p<0.001) in the HCMP patients, compared to the normal subjects. In the HCMP patients, CFR showed a moderate negative correlation with both baseline CFmv (r=-0.522, p=0.015) and baseline CFtvi (r=-0.495, p=0.034). Treadmill test was performed in 14 patients with Bruce protocol. CFR, baseline CFmv and baseline CFtvi did not correlate with maximal exercise time. In seven patients, the CFR measured after verapamil treatment was not significantly different from that measured before treatment. In conclusion, in patients with HCMP, CFR is probably reduced due to the recruitment of vasodilatory capacity at the resting state and this reduction is not directly related to reduced exercise capacity. Also, CFR is not affected by treatment with calcium antagonist.

calan 40 mg 2016-05-10

1. Isradipine and lacidipine, two new drugs that are members of the nitro-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridine family, produced inhibition of both growth cultures and oxygen consumption on epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi Tulahuen strain, at micromolar concentrations. 2. Isradipine was found to be the most potent derivative in both, in growth cultures (I50 = 20.8 microM) and in vivo oxygen uptake (I50 = 31.1 microM). 3. Diltiazem and verapamil, two well-known calcium channel antagonists, lacked inhibitory activity, even at a 100 microM concentration. 4. The present findings indicate that the trypanocide effects exerted buy calan by isradipine and lacidipine are not related with a disruption of the calcium homeostasis of the parasite.

calan 180 mg 2016-02-27

Dose-response curves to cytotoxic drugs in the presence/absence of modulating agents were determined using colony formation buy calan and cell proliferation assays. Doxorubicin accumulation into cell monolayers was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry.

calan 80 mg 2015-05-12

In critically ill patients buy calan regulation of heart-rate is often severely disturbed. Interaction of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation-(HCN)-channels may interfere with heart-rate regulation. This study analyzes the effect of LPS, the HCN-channel blocker ivabradine or Ca(2+) -channel blockers (nifedipine, verapamil) on pacemaking in spontaneously beating neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (CM) in vitro. In vivo, the effect of LPS on the heart-rate of adult CD1-mice with and without autonomic blockade is analyzed telemetrically. LPS (100 ng/mL) and ivabradine (5 μg/mL) reduced the beating-rate of CM by 20.1% and 24.6%, respectively. Coincubation of CM with both, LPS and ivabradine, did not further reduce the beating-rate, indicating interaction of both compounds with HCN-channels, while coincubation with Ca(2+) -channel blockers and LPS caused additive beating-rate reduction. In CD1-mice (containing an active autonomic-nervous-system), injection of LPS (0.4 mg/kg) expectedly resulted in increased heart-rate. However, if the autonomic nervous system was blocked by propranolol and atropine, in line with the in vitro data, LPS induced a significant reduction of heart-rate, which was not additive to ivabradine. The in vivo and in vitro results indicate that LPS interacts with HCN-channels of cardiomyocytes. Thus, LPS indirectly sensitizes HCN-channels for sympathetic activation (tachycardic-effect), and in parallel directly inhibits channel activity (bradycardic-effect). Both effects may contribute to the detrimental effects of septic cardiomyopathy and septic autonomic dysfunction.

calan dosage forms 2015-01-12

Cultured MC3T3-E1 bone cells were exposed to capacitive coupling, inductive coupling, or combined electromagnetic fields at appropriate field strengths for thirty minutes and for two, six, buy calan and twenty-four hours. The DNA content of each dish was determined. Other cultures of MC3T3-E1 bone cells were exposed to capacitive coupling, inductive coupling, or combined electromagnetic fields for two hours in the presence of various inhibitors of signal transduction, with or without electrical stimulation, and the DNA content of each dish was determined.

calan medication 2016-04-24

The ability of manganese ions (Mn(2+)) to enter cells through calcium ion (Ca(2+)) channels has been used for depolarization dependent brain functional imaging with manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). The purpose of this study was to quantify changes to Mn(2+) uptake in rat brain using a dynamic manganese-enhanced MRI (dMEMRI) scanning protocol with the Patlak and Logan graphical analysis methods. The graphical analysis was based on a three-compartment model describing the tissue and plasma concentration of Mn. Mn(2+) uptake was characterized by the total distribution volume of manganese (Mn) inside tissue (V(T)) and the unidirectional influx constant of Mn(2+) from plasma to tissue (K(i)). The measurements were performed on the anterior (APit) and posterior (PPit) parts of the pituitary gland, a region with an incomplete blood brain barrier. Modulation of Ca(2+) channel activity was performed by administration of the stimulant glutamate and the inhibitor verapamil. It was found that the APit and PPit showed different Mn(2+) uptake buy calan characteristics. While the influx of Mn(2+) into the PPit was reversible, Mn(2+) was found to be irreversibly trapped in the APit during the course of the experiment. In the PPit, an increase of Mn(2+) uptake led to an increase in V(T) (from 2.8±0.3 ml/cm(3) to 4.6±1.2 ml/cm(3)) while a decrease of Mn(2+) uptake corresponded to a decrease in V(T) (from 2.8±0.3 ml/cm(3) to 1.4±0.3 ml/cm(3)). In the APit, an increase of Mn(2+) uptake led to an increase in K(i) (from 0.034±0.009 min(-1) to 0.049±0.012 min(-1)) while a decrease of Mn(2+) uptake corresponded to a decrease in K(i) (from 0.034±0.009 min(-1) to 0.019±0.003 min(-1)). This work demonstrates that graphical analysis applied to dMEMRI data can quantitatively measure changes to Mn(2+) uptake following modulation of neural activity.

calan dosage 2017-11-22

Clinical characteristics were similar among the three groups. The basic TFCs of left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCX) and right coronary artery (RCA) were 78.3 +/- 19.4, 57.2 +/- 14.6, 56.9 +/- 12.5 in the verapamil group, and were 70.8 +/- 21.7, 55.3 +/- 12.5, 51.1 +/- 15.4 in the nitroglycerin group, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the normal controls (LAD 29.2 +/- 4.4, LCX 23.1 +/- 3.5 and RCA 19.7 +/- 1.8, respectively). After the administration of drugs, the TFCs of LAD, LCX and RCA were buy calan 42.3 +/- 8.9, 36.7 +/- 6.8, 30.3 +/- 5.9 respectively (all P < 0.01 vs. baseline) in the nitroglycerin group and 37.7 +/- 9.3, 31.5 +/- 11.3, 24.6 +/- 4.4 respectively (all P < 0.01 vs. baseline) in the verapamil group. The TFCs after drug administration in both therapy groups were significantly higher than that in normal controls (all P < 0.05). The TFCs decrease in the verapamil group were more significant than that in the nitroglycerin group (all P < 0.05).

calan drug 2017-02-11

Ultrafine particles have been shown to induce pro-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes probably requires the activation of specific transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) via a number of possible pathways including Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. The fluorescent dye buy calan fura 2, was used to measure cytosolic Ca2+ in the human monocytic cell line, Monomac 6 on exposure to 66 microg x mL(-1) of either ultrafine carbon black (ufCB; diameter 14 nm), carbon black (CB; diameter 260 nm), quartz (diameter 1.45 microm), or medium alone. UfCB but not fine CB induced a 1.6-fold increase (p<0.01) in the resting cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of Monomac 6 cells. In addition ufCB induced a 2.6-fold increase (p<0.001) in the response to the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+- adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) inhibitor, thapsigargin, suggesting the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ current across the plasma membrane was enhanced. This response was inhibited by the removal of extracellular Ca2+ and by the Ca2+ channel blocker, verapamil. In addition, ufCB stimulated the entry of extracellular Mn2+. Finally, the antioxidants mannitol and nacystelin both inhibited the effects of ufCB on the response to thapsigargin. These data suggest that ultrafine carbon black particles stimulated an increase in cytosolic Ca2+, possibly through the entry of extracellular Ca2+ via Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane. The particles may in part activate the opening of Ca2+ channels via a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species.

calan 5 mg 2015-07-12

To study hypotensive reactions in patients taking hypotensive drugs and to specify peculiarities of blood pressure elevation in patients with buy calan a long history of taking hypotensive drugs, especially atenolol.

calan drug classification 2017-11-23

The effect of nitric oxide donors on intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i was studied in anterior pituitary cells using ratiometric FURA 2 fluorescence measurements. Sodium nitroprusside (NP) induced a transient decrease in [Ca2+]i, after which [Ca2+]i returned to, or even increased over basal values. S-Nitroso glutathione (GSNO) induced a similar buy calan decrease. NP also inhibited high [Ca2+]i achieved by depolarization with 25 mM K+. The inhibitory effect of NP was partially blunted by pretreatment with methoxy-verapamil, and in calcium free buffer, and was not altered by thapsigargin. Interestingly, in calcium free buffer there was a significant stimulatory effect of NP, which was partially blunted by thapsigargin. We conclude that NO donors modify [Ca2+]i in anterior pituitary cells. The action is biphasic, with an initial decrease in [Ca2+]i probably related to a decrease of Ca2+ influx through VDCC, and an increase evidenced in calcium free buffer in which the inhibitory component is absent, and partially depends on thapsigargin sensitive calcium stores.

calan 240 mg 2015-07-18

Though the pathophysiology of keloid and hypertrophic scars is not completely known, various cytokines have been implicated, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10, as well as various growth factors including transforming growth factor-beta and platelet-derived growth factor. Numerous treatments have been studied for keloid and hypertrophic scars,which include conventional therapies such as occlusive dressings, compression therapy, and steroids; surgical therapies such as excision and cryosurgery; and adjuvant and emerging therapies including radiation therapy, interferon, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, tacrolimus, sirolimus, bleomycin, doxorubicin, transforming growth factor-beta, epidermal growth factor, verapamil, retinoic acid, tamoxifen, botulinum toxin A, onion extract, silicone-based buy calan camouflage, hydrogel scaffold, and skin tension offloading device.

calan eeze review 2015-11-27

Tarka® is a combination antihypertensive medication composed of verapamil hydrochloride and trandolapril. A 3.5-year-old female was brought to our hospital due to a sleepy condition 7 hours after an accidental ingestion of six tablets of Tarka® containing 240 mg verapamil hydrochloride and 4 mg trandolapril in each tablet. Five hours after hospitalization, her condition deteriorated and arterial pressure progressively decreased despite the treatment. Finally, a temporary pacemaker was implanted, after which the vital findings began to return to normal values. The pacemaker was removed 13 hours after implantation as normal heart rhythm was observed. There are no reports of intoxication with fixed-dose combination products, especially Tarka®, in young children in the literature. Therefore, we believe that our report can provide an insight on the toxic dose of this drug in younger children. Clinicians should keep in mind that lethargy can be the first symptom of a possible clinical deterioration, even in normotensive and normorhythmic individuals. Asacol Buy Online

calan generic name 2017-06-05

We present the first single cell-level analysis of digestive vacuolar pH for representative chloroquine resistant (strain Dd2) versus sensitive (strain HB3) malarial parasites. Human red blood cells harboring intact intraerythrocytic parasites were attached to glass substrate, continuously perfused with appropriate buffer, and pH was analyzed via single cell imaging and photometry techniques. We find that digestive vacuolar pH (pH(vac)) is near 5.6 for HB3 parasites. Surprisingly, we also find that pH(vac) of Dd2 is more acidic relative to HB3. Notably, in vitro pH titration of hematin confirms a very steep transition between soluble heme (capable of binding chloroquine) and insoluble heme (not capable of binding chloroquine, but still capable of polymerization to hemozoin) with a distinct midpoint at pH 5.6. We suggest the similarity between the hematin pH titration midpoint and the measured value of HB3 pH(vac) is not coincidental, and that decreased pH(vac) for Dd2 titrates limited initial drug target (i.e. soluble heme) to lower concentration. That is, changes in pH(vac) for drug resistant Dd2 relative to drug sensitive HB3 are consistent with lowering drug target levels, but not directly lowering vacuolar concentrations of drug via the predictions of weak base partitioning theory. Regardless, lowering either would of course decrease the efficiency of drug/target interaction and hence the net cellular accumulation of drug over time, as is typically observed for resistant parasites. These observations contrast sharply with the common expectation that decreased chloroquine accumulation in drug resistant malarial parasites is likely linked to elevated pH(vac,) but nonetheless illustrate important differences in vacuolar ion transport for drug resistant malarial parasites. In the accompanying paper (Ursos, L. et al Mebendazole Vermox Cost ., following paper this issue) we describe how pH(vac) is affected by exposure to chloroquine and verapamil for HB3 versus Dd2.

calan sr medication 2016-11-11

The effects of the osmolarity and ionic composition of the external media and ion-channel blockers on the induction of sperm motility in the marine teleost, Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) were investigated. An in vitro sperm motility assay was developed to determine treatment effects on the percentage of motile sperm, sperm speed, and turning rate, using a computer-aided motion-analysis system. Maximum activation of sperm motility occurred in saline with an osmolarity of 680 mOs/kg. Potassium caused a decrease in the percentage of motile sperm, but only at high nonphysiological concentrations in the presence of high amounts of calcium. Calcium caused an increase in sperm velocity and turning rate. Percent motility was inhibited by the potassium-channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine and veratrine, the calcium-channel blockers, verapamil, diltiazem, and nifedipine; the sodium-channel blocker, amiloride, and the chloride-channel blocker, ethacrynic acid. In addition, the calcium-channel Desyrel With Alcohol blockers caused a decrease in sperm velocity and turning rate. These results provide evidence for the role of potassium, calcium, and possibly sodium, and chloride ions in Atlantic croaker sperm motility. In addition, this study demonstrates that membrane-bound ion channels are involved in the motility of sperm from a marine teleost.

calan reviews 2015-09-27

Verapamil is a Ca(2)(+) channel blocker and is highly prescribed as an anti-anginal, antiarrhythmic and antihypertensive drug. Ketamine, an antagonist of the Ca(2)(+) -permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors, is a pediatric anesthetic. Previously we have shown that acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) reverses ketamine-induced attenuation of heart rate and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. Here, we used 48 h post-fertilization zebrafish embryos that were exposed to relevant drugs for 2 or 4 h. Heart beat and overall development were monitored in vivo. In 48 h post-fertilization embryos, 2 mm ketamine reduced heart rate in a 2 or 4 h exposure and 0.5 mm ALCAR neutralized this effect. ALCAR could reverse ketamine's effect, possibly through a compensatory mechanism involving extracellular Ca(2)(+) entry through L-type Ca(2)(+) channels that ALCAR is known to Strattera 40mg Capsule activate. Hence, we used verapamil to block the L-type Ca(2)(+) channels. Verapamil was more potent in attenuating heart rate and inducing morphological defects in the embryos compared to ketamine at specific times of exposure. ALCAR reversed cardiotoxicity and developmental toxicity in the embryos exposed to verapamil or verapamil plus ketamine, even in the presence of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino)octyl ester, an inhibitor of intracellular Ca(2)(+) release suggesting that ALCAR acts via effectors downstream of Ca(2)(+) . In fact, ALCAR's protective effect was blunted by oligomycin A, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate synthase that acts downstream of Ca(2)(+) during adenosine triphosphate generation. We have identified, for the first time, using in vivo studies, a downstream effector of ALCAR that is critical in abrogating ketamine- and verapamil-induced developmental toxicities. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

calan 120 mg 2015-02-03

Diltiazem caused significant venodilation at a dose of 0.01 microg x min(-1) or more, while verapamil and nicardipine only caused this effect at 1 microg x min(-1) or more. The potency of the effect was diltiazem > verapamil > nicardipine. The venodilation at a dose of 1 microg x min(-1) was 41.7%, 16.2% and 8.5%, respectively, for each drug. These findings indicate that the venodilatory effect of diltiazem is larger Glucophage Reviews than that of verapamil and nicardipine in human subjects.

calan pill 2015-07-09

The solubility of amprenavir in a pH 7 buffer at 37 degrees C was 0.036+/-0.007 mg/mL. The solubility linearly increased with increasing vitamin E-TPGS concentration (above 0.2 mg/mL). Polarized transport was demonstrated in the basolateral to apical direction, exceeding apical to Lasix 10mg Tablet basolateral transport by a factor of 6. The active efflux system was inhibited by vitamin E-TPGS and known P-glycoprotein inhibitors verapamil and GF120918.

calan sr dosage 2016-12-12

Treatment for Sildenafil Generic Viagra hypertension with verapamil has a favourable renoprotective effect and is generally considered safe in patients with mild to moderate renal failure. In this report, we highlight the vulnerability of patients with mild to moderate renal failure to verapamil side effects especially in the presence of hyperkalaemia.

calan overdose 2016-04-22

Idiopathic verapamil-sensitive left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT) is the most common form of idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (VT). Different methods have been proposed for ablation of ILVT.

calan tablets 2017-02-21

Contractile concentration-response curves (CRC) of acetylcholine (ACh) and calcium in 40mM K(+)-medium (Ca(2+)-CRC) were done in isolated intestine portions, in the absence and presence of CEO or LEO at different concentrations.

calan tab 2016-02-02

Toluene and verapamil are subject to extensive oxidative metabolism mediated by CYP enzymes, and their interaction can be stereoselective. In the present study we investigated the influence of toluene inhalation on the enantioselective kinetic disposition of verapamil and its metabolite, norverapamil, in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group) received a single dose of racemic verapamil (10 mg/kg) orally at the fifth day of nose-only toluene or air (control group) inhalation for 6 h/day (25, 50, and 100 ppm). Serial blood samples were collected from the tail up to 6 h after verapamil administration. The plasma concentrations of verapamil and norverapamil enantiomers were analyzed by LC-MS/MS by using a Chiralpak AD column. Toluene inhalation did not influence the kinetic disposition of verapamil or norverapamil enantiomers (p > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test) in rats. The pharmacokinetics of verapamil was enantioselective in the control group, with a higher plasma proportion of the S-verapamil (AUC 250.8 versus 120.4 ng x h x mL(-1); p < or = 0.05, Wilcoxon test) and S-norverapamil (AUC 72.3 versus 52.3 ng x h x mL(-1); p < or = 0.05, Wilcoxon test). Nose-only exposure to toluene at 25, 50, or 100 ppm resulted in a lack of enantioselectivity for both verapamil and norverapamil. The study demonstrates the importance of the application of enantioselective methods in studies on the interaction between solvents and chiral drugs.

calan 40 mg 2017-02-25

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are popularly used to treat various diseases and for cosmetic purposes. They act by blocking neurotransmission through specific cleavage of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Recently, several polyphenols were shown to interfere with SNARE complex formation by wedging into the hydrophobic core interface, thereby leading to reduced neuroexocytosis.

calan 180 mg 2015-09-04

To explore the mechanism of the absorption enhancement of Angelica dahurica extract (Ade), the absorption mechanism of baicalin in the Scutcllaria water extraction as well as the effect of Angelica dahurica extract on absorption of baicalin were investigated. In order to determine the main absorption site, everted intestinal sac model was used to study the effect of Angelica dahurica extract on the absorption of baicalin at duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. In situ single pass intestinal perfusion model was performed to study the absorption of various concentrations of baicalin and the effect of Angelica dahurica extract on the absorption of baicalin at the main absorption site. To authenticate the consequence of perfusion by getting the blood from the hepatic portal vein and determine the concentration of the baicalin in the blood. The result showed that baicalin could be absorbed at all of the four intestinal segments with increasing absorption amount per unit as follows: ileum > colon > jejunum > duodenum. The absorption ofbaicalin in the duodenum significantly increased with Angelica dahurica extract, thus, duodenum was chosen to be the studying site. Apparent permeability values (Papp) and absorption rate constant (Ka) of baicalin in the duodenum increased gradually with higher concentrations. When the concentration of baicalin rises to a certain degree, the absorption increase had a saturable process, the absorption of baicalin may be an active transportation. Baicalin may be not a substrate of P-gp as verapamil which had not significantly affected the Papp and Ka of baicalin. The absorption of baicalin in the duodenum significantly increased (P < 0.01) in the two models with Angelica dahurica extract and the concentration of baicalin in the blood from the hepatic portal vein showed that the Angelica dahurica extract can increase the absorption of baicalin.

calan 80 mg 2015-01-14

Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an oral habit that increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a precancerous condition showing epithelial atrophy and tissue fibrosis. Persistent fibroblast contraction may induce the fibrotic contracture of tissue. In this study, we found that areca nut extract (ANE) (200-1200 µg/ml) stimulated buccal mucosa fibroblast (OMF)-populated collagen gel contraction. Arecoline but not arecaidine-two areca alkaloids, slightly induced the OMF contraction. Exogenous addition of carboxylesterase (2U/ml) prevented the arecoline- but not ANE-induced OMF contraction. OMF expressed inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptors. ANE-induced OMF (800 µg/ml) contraction was inhibited by U73122 [phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor] and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (IP3 receptor antagonist), respectively. Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and verapamil, two calcium mobilization modulators, also suppressed the ANE-induced OMF contraction. ANE induced calcium/calmodulin kinase II and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in OMF. Moreover, W7 (a Ca(2+)/calmodulin inhibitor), HA1077 (Rho kinase inhibitor), ML-7 (MLC kinase inhibitor) and cytochalasin B (actin filament polymerization inhibitor) inhibited the ANE-induced OMF contraction. Although ANE elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in OMF, catalase, superoxide dismutase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine showed no obvious effect on ANE-elicited OMF contraction. These results indicate that BQ chewing may affect the wound healing and fibrotic processes in OSF via inducing OMF contraction by ANE and areca alkaloids. AN components-induced OMF contraction was related to PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/calmodulin and Rho signaling pathway as well as actin filament polymerization, but not solely due to ROS production.