Generic Casodex is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of prostate cancer. Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Bicalutamide.
Generic Casodex is a perfect remedy in struggle against prostate cancer.
Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Casodex is also known as Bicalutamide, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid, Bicalox.
Generic name of Generic Casodex is Bicalutamide.
Brand name of Generic Casodex is Casodex.
Take Generic Casodex tablets orally with or without food.
Take Generic Casodex at the same time every day with water.
Do not crush or chew it.
This medicine is only for men.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Casodex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Casodex are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Casodex if you are allergic to Generic Casodex components.
Use contraception and avoid vaccinations.
Try to be careful using Generic Casodex if you take warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin-substitute products, aspirin.
Be very careful with Generic Casodex if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease.
Do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
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hTERT immunostaining was performed on the cancerous pretreatment biopsy tissue of 30 men who consecutively underwent CAA with bicalutamide and goserelin acetate for 30 days prior to undergoing radical prostatectomy, and on their tumor tissue from radical prostatectomy. As controls, biopsy and prostatectomy samples from 30 untreated men were studied. Nuclear staining was evaluated by two observers, and the change in staining between biopsy and prostatectomy samples was evaluated using the Student t test in both groups.
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A longer duration of NHT followed by RP for patients with high-risk prostate cancer resulted in a comparatively favorable outcome. However, despite the nonrandomized retrospective analysis, the present findings suggest no significant impact of long-term NHT on biochemical recurrence. Longer follow-up is needed to determine whether this therapeutic strategy is beneficial for high-risk prostate cancer patients.
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Tamoxifen (TAM) has been shown to be active against the bicalutamide-induced breast events (BEs) gynecomastia, and breast pain in patients with prostate cancer (PC). Optimal doses and schedules are not yet established. Debate still exists about whether prophylaxis with TAM is more effective than treatment of BEs when diagnosed. The results of a randomized study comparing TAM prophylaxis vs. TAM therapy are presented.
A standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer is androgen deprivation by surgical or medical castration. In theory, however, combined androgen blockade (CAB) with an antiandrogen plus castration should be more effective because castration alone does not completely eliminate androgens in the prostate. Therefore, a number of randomized clinical trials (RCT) were conducted in the 1990s to investigate the efficacy of CAB with an antiandrogen (nilutamide or flutamide) plus castration; however, there were both positive and negative results for the efficacy of CAB. The lack of data on safety, quality of life (QOL) and cost-effectiveness has been a hindrance to the adoption of CAB for the treatment of prostate cancer. Nevertheless, discussion on CAB for the treatment of prostate cancer has continued for over 20 years, which suggests that there remains some hope for this regimen. In the 2000s, clinical research on CAB with the antiandrogen bicalutamide commenced. CAB using this new antiandrogen was found to prolong overall survival (OS) in patients with prostate cancer, with favorable safety profiles and cost-effectiveness, without deteriorating QOL. In this article, we discuss the feasibility of CAB with bicalutamide for the treatment of prostate cancer by reviewing the theoretical background of CAB and then the results of RCT conducted in the 1990s when the usefulness of CAB was assessed.
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Two ARE motifs were identified to be responsible for androgen-induced MMP-2 expression in prostate cancer cells.
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To evaluate combinations of anti-tumour agents in tissue cultures using three established cell lines derived from patients with prostate cancer to obtain potential candidates for therapeutic testing in patients with prostate cancer.
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The study included 187 patients with T1c-T3a prostate cancer unsuitable for local definitive treatment and treated with primary CAB. Clinical outcomes, predictive factors of PSA relapse and adverse events were investigated.
Quantitative PCR, Western analysis, reporter assays, and proliferation analyses in vitro and in vivo were used to evaluate the effect of PI3K pathway inhibition on AR signaling and cell growth.
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Both finasteride and bicalutamide were supplied as oral suspensions in water and given daily to rats for 7 days by tube feeding. Blood flows to the ventral and dorsal prostates, and to the kidneys, were measured using the radioactive microsphere technique. In the bicalutamide experiments, some rats were treated with the Leydig cell toxin ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS), to obtain a castration-like effect, and one group of these rats received testosterone.
In this update, bicalutamide (Casodex, Zeneca Pharmaceuticals) has been confirmed as an effective, well-tolerated and convenient non-steroidal anti-androgen for advanced prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical studies have indicated its potential as monotherapy, with quality of life advantages compared with castration. A head-to-head comparison with flutamide, where both anti-androgens were used as part of combined androgen blockade, has suggested that the choice of components in this regimen can influence outcome, and has demonstrated that bicalutamide is better tolerated than flutamide. There is also preliminary evidence to support the potential use of bicalutamide in treatment of early-stage disease and tumours that are refractory to other non-steroidal anti-androgens.
This study examined the optical characteristics of bicalutamide-loaded magnetic/ethylene glycol composite nanoparticles (BMP), as well as their anti-cancer activity against cancer cells. The gamma-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), approximately 20 nm in diameter, were prepared via a chemical co-precipitation method and coated with two surfactants to yield a water-based product. The characteristics of the particles were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectrophotometry. The Raman spectra of the BMP showed peaks at 222, 283, 395, 520, 669 and 1316 cm(-1), with broadened band in comparison to the Raman spectra of the magnetic nanoparticles. The BMP absorbance evidenced a rapid increase, with a broad peak at 409 nm, thus reflecting a good loading of the bicalutamide onto the magnetic nanoparticles. The results of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that the MNPs were non-toxic against human brain cancer cells (SH-SY5Y), human cervical cancer cells (Hela), human liver cancer cells (HepG2), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), colon cancer cells (CaCO2) and human prostate cancers (Du 145, PC3) tested herein. In particular, BMPs were cytotoxic at 56% against DU145 cells, at 74.37% in SH-SY5Y cells, and at 58% in Hela cells. Our results demonstrated the biological applicability of BMP nanoparticles as anticancer agents and as agents for enhanced drug delivery against human prostate cancer cells. Our results indicated that the MNPs were biostable and that the BMP functioned effectively as drug delivery vehicles.
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The purpose of this investigation was to explore the potential benefit of hormone therapy in addition to external beam radiotherapy for patients with early-stage (T1-2), intermediate-(prostate-specific antigen [PSA] > 10 or Gleason score >or= 7) or high-risk (PSA > 10 and Gleason score >or= 7) prostate cancer. The charts of 412 patients with early-stage intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy with or without a 4-month total androgen blockade were reviewed. The groups were balanced with respect to age, pretreatment PSA, and stage, but differed with respect to Gleason score and radiation dose. Biochemical failure rates, as defined by the ASTRO consensus panel, were compared between those receiving and those not receiving hormones. With a median follow-up of 2.0 years, the biochemical failure rate was 12.1 versus 23.1% (p = 0.02) in favor of those receiving hormones. This difference was seen for the subgroups followed for more than 6 months (12.5 vs. 25.0%), more than 9 months (14.5 vs. 26.3%), and more than 12 months (17.3 vs. 27.0%). Thus, biochemical failure decreased with the administration of hormone therapy in this group of patients with early stage, intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. This finding requires validation by ongoing randomized trials.
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The objective of this study was to assess differences in efficacy outcomes between luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist plus antiandrogen (AA) flare protection and monotherapy with the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist degarelix in patients with prostate cancer.
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High Gleason score appears to be predictive of duration of response to docetaxel. Interestingly, progression-free survival with abiraterone appears to be correlated with the duration of response with docetaxel, whereas PSA decline and low nadir appear to be predictive of response to abiraterone.
In our previous microarray analysis searching for genes differentially regulated by androgens in the rat ventral prostate, we identified GADD45gamma (growth arrest and DNA damage inducible, gamma) as one of the genes up-regulated by androgens. GADD45gamma was initially identified to be a gene involved in negative growth control and its overexpression induced cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. In this study, we showed that GADD45gamma was transiently up-regulated by androgens in the androgen-responsive human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. The GADD45gamma up-regulation was blocked by an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, bicalutamide, suggesting the involvement of the androgen receptor. However, this up-regulation was inhibited by cycloheximide, indicating that GADD45gamma induction by androgens requires new protein synthesis. Overexpression of GADD45gamma inhibited cell growth of LNCaP and PC3 cells and resulted in dramatic morphological changes in both cell lines, arguing that GADD45gamma is likely to participate in the differentiation program induced by androgens in the prostate. The above observations provide evidence that GADD45gamma is an androgen-responsive gene with growth-inhibitory activity in human prostate cancer cells.
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The case of a 66-year-old gentleman who presented with unilateral proptosis, eye pain and partial loss of vision seven years after his original prostate cancer diagnosis is reported. MRI of the orbits revealed a 2-cm lesion in the posterolateral right orbital wall near the optic foramen with compression of the optic nerve. Metastatic orbital lesions are relatively uncommon in prostate cancer. Treatment is palliative and varies according to the time of presentation in the course of the disease. This patient's symptoms resolved after reinitiation of combined androgen blockade.
Transcriptional activity of AR was increased when the PI3K pathway was inhibited at different levels. In the androgen responsive prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, androgen and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin synergistically activated androgen target genes. Despite increased androgen signaling, rapamycin treatment reduced LNCaP cell growth; the AR antagonist bicalutamide potentiated this effect. Furthermore, the rapamycin derivative CCI-779 reduced the growth of CWR22 prostate cancer xenografts while increasing AR target gene expression.
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Median follow-up was 81 months (12-230). Median age was 74.7 years (52-92). Median Gleason score at diagnosis was 7 (3-9). Median initial PSA was 17 ng/ml (0.4-433). Cycle duration decreased progressively from 23 months for the 1st cycle to 10 months at 12th cycle. The number of patients who became hormone resistant was 182 (32%). Median cancer specific survival probability for the series is 12 (10.8-infinity) years. No previous treatment group showed a higher cancer specific survival probability (log rank test, CI 95%, P = 0.003) versus BCR group. Multivariate analysis of cancer specific survival demonstrates age, initial Gleason score and initial PSA level as significant factors affecting mortality (P < 0.05).
We report a Phase II trial assessing the acute and late toxicities of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), long-term androgen suppression (LTAS), and bevacizumab in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer.
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The HHDS product contained one or more endocrinologically active tumor-promoting components that had cellular androgen receptor status-independent activity. The HHDS product exhibited potent prostate cancer growth stimulatory activity that was more powerful than that of testosterone, independent of the androgen-receptor status of prostate cancer cells, and resistant to antiandrogen blockade.
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Serum testosterone could play an important role when delayed maximal androgen blockade is indicated as the second-line treatment in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Delayed maximal androgen blockade might be more beneficial in patients with a serum testosterone level of ≥ 5ng/dl.
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Cdc25C is a cell cycle protein of the dual specificity phosphatase family essential for activating the cdk1/Cyclin B1 complex in cells entering into mitosis. Since altered cell cycle is a hallmark of human cancers, we investigated androgen regulation of Cdc25C protein in human prostate cancer (PCa) cells, including androgen-sensitive (AS) LNCaP C-33 cells and androgen-independent (AI) LNCaP C-81 as well as PC-3 cells. In the regular culture condition containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), Cdc25C protein levels were similar in these PCa cells. In a steroid-reduced condition, Cdc25C protein was greatly decreased in AS C-33 cells but not AI C-81 or PC-3 cells. In androgen-treated C-33 cells, the Cdc25C protein level was greatly elevated, following a dose- and a time-dependent manner, correlating with increased cell proliferation. This androgen effect was blocked by Casodex, an androgen receptor blocker. Nevertheless, epidermal growth factor (EGF), a growth stimulator of PCa cells, could only increase Cdc25C protein level by about 1.5-fold. Altered expression of Cdc25C in C-33 cells and PC-3 cells by cDNA and/or shRNA transfection is associated with the corresponding changes of cell growth and Cyclin B1 protein level. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide could only partially block androgen-induced Cdc25C protein level. Treatments with both proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors resulted in elevated Cdc25C protein levels. Immunoprecipitation revealed that androgens reduced the ubiquitination of Cdc25C proteins. These results show for the first time that Cdc25C protein plays a role in regulating PCa cell growth, and androgen treatments, but not EGF, greatly increase Cdc25C protein levels in AS PCa cells, which is in part by decreasing its degradation. These results can lead to advanced PCa therapy via up-regulating the degradation pathways of Cdc25C protein.
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Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists have been shown to reduce the growth of several prostate cancer cell lines. However, the effects of VDR activation have not been examined in the presence of the recently identified androgen-regulated TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions, which occur in a high percentage of prostate cancers and play a role in growth and invasiveness. In a previous microarray study, we found that VDR activation induces TMPRSS2 expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Here we show that the natural VDR agonist 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and its synthetic analog EB1089 increase expression of TMPRSS2:ERG mRNA in VCaP prostate cancer cells; this results in increased ETS-related gene (ERG) protein expression and ERG activity as demonstrated by an increase in the ERG target gene CACNA1D. In VCaP cells, we were not able to prevent EB1089-mediated TMPRSS2:ERG induction with an androgen receptor antagonist, Casodex, although in LNCaP cells, as reported for some other common androgen receptor and VDR target genes, Casodex reduces EB1089-mediated induction of TMPRSS2. However, despite inducing the fusion gene, VDR agonists reduce VCaP cell growth and expression of the ERG target gene c-Myc, a critical factor in VDR-mediated growth inhibition. Thus, the beneficial effects of VDR agonist treatment override some of the negative effects of ERG induction, although others remain to be tested.
Men with high-risk prostate cancer are often thought to have very poor outcomes in terms of disease control and survival even after definitive treatment. However, results after external beam radiotherapy have improved significantly through dose escalation and the use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). This report describes long-term findings after low-dose (< 75.6 Gy) or high-dose (≥ 75.6 Gy) external beam radiation, with or without ADT.
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is typically the first indicator of relapse in patients treated for prostate cancer. Though radiographic progression with an undetectable PSA is clearly documented in the literature, this is an unusual event. We describe two cases of patients treated with a combination of androgen deprivation and chemotherapy for early stage but high risk prostate cancer who manifested clear evidence of radiographic relapse despite PSA values of <0.1 ng/mL. We hypothesize that patients with early stage prostate cancer treated with combinations of androgen deprivation and chemotherapy may be at high risk for this unusual pattern of relapse.
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Bicalutamide (Casodex) has been approved as a new option for the treatment of prostate cancer. It is a new non-steroidal anti-androgen synthesized by the British company Zeneca. In pharmacological studies using rats and other subjects, the product showed excellent affinity with androgen receptors and was found to be anti-androgen active and effective against tumors, and so clinical trials have begun. Approval has been obtained in approximately 70 countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States and Germany. Anti-androgens are used extensively in combination with LHRH analogs or surgical castration (MAB therapy) in the treatment of prostate cancer. Overseas, encouraging results have been obtained from comparative trials using bicalutamide or flutamide in MAB therapy. Bicalutamide is expected to be highly effective. Moreover, it can be administered in a once-daily dose, which is expected to improve patient compliance. In a late Phase II study in Japan, a response rate as high as 64.4% was achieved when bicalutamide was administered alone. The potential for bicalutamide to be used alone is important because of the growing emphasis on patient quality of life and sexual function in prostate cancer therapy.
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