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A series of novel 8-fluoro Norfloxacin derivatives and the hybrids of its piperazinyl derivatives incorporated with 1,3,5-triazine and pyrimidine were synthesized. All the above compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin & vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. Among all, compounds having Morpholine, N-methyl/phenyl/benzyl/pyrimidinyl piperazines and n-butylamine substitution at C-7 position, have shown increased potency in comparison to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin.
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Between April 2001 and April 2010, 231 patients who experienced snakebites were included. Male predominated, accounting for 62.3% (144). The age range of patients was 4-95 years. Ninety-five (41.1%) people were bitten by Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus, followed by Tstejnegeri, and cobra. A total of 61 pathogens were obtained from 21 patients. Thirty-nine (63.9%) isolates were gram-negative bacteria, 14 (23%) gram-positive pathogens, and 8 (13.1%) anaerobic pathogens. There were 17 patients bitten by cobra in these 21 patients. Morganella morganii and Enterococcus species were the most common pathogens identified in the wound cultures.
In the last decade extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have become an increasing problem. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and trends in antibiotic use in the county of Östergötland, Sweden. From 2002 through 2007 there were 224 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and 23 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with an ESBL-phenotype identified among all Enterobacteriaceae isolated at the clinical laboratory. Trends in antibiotic consumption expressed as defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants and day (DID) were studied. The prevalence of ESBL-producing isolates among Enterobacteriaceae in our region is still low (< 1%). Patients with ESBL-producing E. coli increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 5 in y 2002 to 47 in y 2007. CTX-M group 1 was the dominant enzyme group in both E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole revealed that 58% of E. coli and 50% of K. pneumoniae isolates were multi-resistant. Antibiotic use remained unchanged from 2001 through 2009, but there was a trend towards increased use of drugs with low ESBL selection potential, which was probably due to the increased prevalence of ESBL producers.
The cohort included 282 children with CF who participated in the EPIC trial ages 1-12 with newly acquired Pa, defined as either a first lifetime Pa positive respiratory culture or positive after two years of negative cultures (past isolation of Pa but >2 years prior to the trial). All received antibiotics to promote initial eradication followed by 15 months of intermittent maintenance antibiotics. Quarterly cultures were used to define initial eradication success and subsequent number of Pa recurrences. A standardized symptom-based definition of exacerbation was utilized. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate exacerbation risk.
Total numbers of 100 cases of typhoid were studied. Diagnosis of Typhoid fever was based on clinical features, Widal test and blood culture. The sensitivity pattern of drugs in blood culture was recorded. The mode of presentation, treatment history, laboratory investigations reports, antibiotics administered and response to therapy were recorded.
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Hansen's solubility parameter study was carried out in screening of a suitable carrier and solvent system. Subsequently, SLNs were prepared by solvent diffusion evaporation method and investigated for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug release behaviour.
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Fluoroquinolones that have activity against the majority of bacterial isolates were potent at in vitro. However, unacceptably high levels of resistance to azithromycin and chloramphenicol in rural community indicated a need for further study and antimicrobial resistance surveillance.
Fluoroquinolone resistant S. Typhi constitute a serious public health concern in endemic areas as well as in industrialized countries. Increased surveillance of global patterns of antimicrobial resistance is necessary and the control of resistant strains is of the utmost importance to maintain treatment options.
Adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 to and invasion by Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 of antibiotic-treated or untreated J774 murine macrophages were measured using a tissue culture infection model. Expression of genes central to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling pathway of macrophages infected with Salmonella was analysed using the RT(2) Profiler PCR Array. Cytokine production was measured by ELISA.
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To examine the relationship between anterior chamber (AC) sterilization and vitreous positivity rate in cases of endophthalmitis.
Fosfomycin had the excellent activity against ESBL-EC but not ESBL-KP in this study. Based on the study findings, we suggest that fosfomycin can be a therapeutic option for UTIs with ESBL-EC. Nitrofuranoin was actively against ESBL-EC. Nitrofurantoin may be an alternative option for uncomplicated UTIs with ESBL-EC in Taiwan.
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A total of 662 children participating in the 2 studies were randomized to receive ciprofloxacin plus fluocinolone (n = 223), ciprofloxacin alone (n = 221), or fluocinolone alone (n = 218). The median age was 2.5 years (range, 0.6-12.7 years). The median time to cessation of otorrhea was 4.23 days (95% CI, 3.65-4.95 days) in patients receiving ciprofloxacin plus fluocinolone compared with 6.95 days (95% CI, 5.66-8.20 days) in those receiving ciprofloxacin and not estimable findings in those receiving fluocinolone alone (P < .001). The clinical cure rate at the test-of-cure visit was 80.6% in the ciprofloxacin plus fluocinolone group, 67.4% in the ciprofloxacin group (difference, 13.2%; 95% CI, 5.0%-21.4%; P = .002), and 47.6% in the fluocinolone group (difference, 33.0%; 95% CI, 24.0%-42.0%; P < .001). The sustained microbiological cure rate was 79.7% in the ciprofloxacin plus fluocinolone group vs 67.7% in the ciprofloxacin group (difference, 12.0%; 95% CI, 0.8%-23.0%; P = .04) and 37.6% in the fluocinolone group (difference, 42.1%; 95% CI, 29.3%-54.8%; P < .001). Only 7 (3.1%) of the patients receiving ciprofloxacin plus fluocinolone, 8 (3.6%) of the patients receiving ciprofloxacin, and 10 (4.7%) of the patients receiving fluocinolone presented with adverse events related to study medication.
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Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic are two widely used antibiotics due to their high efficacy and few side effects. While the percentage of hepatotoxicity of these antibiotics is low, their frequent use has led to a progressive increase in the number of cases. Both antibiotics have been associated with a wide variety of hepatotoxic reactions, from a slight rise of transaminases to fulminant hepatitis. Once hepatotoxicity secondary to a drug appears, the first step is to discontinue the drug. Physicians may opt to administer an alternative treatment with a different chemical structure. It should be borne in mind, however, that different chemical structures may also cause recurrent drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). We present the case of a patient who consecutively developed DILI due to ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic.
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The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of ciprofloxacin (CIP) loaded on chitosan bioactive glass scaffold on human periodontal ligament stem cells (PLSCs) in vitro.
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The present report concerns a 46-year-old man who presented with acute prostatitis due to Brucella melitensis infection. He was first treated with doxycycline and ciprofloxacin, but after 3 months he was admitted again with the same diagnosis. The relapse was probably related to ciprofloxacin use, or the length of treatment not being sufficient. The patient was successfully treated with a combination of doxycycline and rifampin for 3 months. In conclusion, prostatitis due to Brucella, such as spondylitis, meningoencephalitis and endocarditis, should be treated for longer courses.
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No role of efflux pump in ciprofloxacin resistance was found in strains studied. There is a need to explore further mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella Typhi.
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The worse prognosis of Type 1 MEO compared with Type 2 should alert clinicians to establish earlier diagnosis and treatment.
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Amongst the five prevalent phage types, 42E was most common (52%), followed by a non-typable variant (22.9%), 42E/47/54/75 (16.6%), 42E/47 (6.2%) and 47 (2%). Phage type 42E was the predominant strain in all wards and OPDs except in the ICU where 42E/47/54/75 was most common. Although not statistically significant, strain 42E/47/54/75 (n=8) showed higher resistance to all drugs, except ciprofloxacin and amikacin, and were mostly D-test positive (87.5%) compared to the 42E strain (32%). Duration of hospital stay, intravenous catheterisation and breach in skin were the most significant risk factors for MRSA infection.
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Staphylococcus species was routinely collected in the nodal and regional centres of the network and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed against a panel of antimicrobials. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of vancomycin (VAN), daptomycin, tigecycline and linezolid (LNZ) against selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) isolates were determined by E-test and MIC creep, if any, was determined. Resistant genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction for those isolates showing phenotypic resistance.
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We collected 17 clonally related paired isolates [including first positive samples (A) and those with MICs increased ≥4-fold (B)]. Most B isolates with increased MICs of imipenem, meropenem and ceftazidime became resistant to these drugs. The most prevalent resistance mechanisms detected were OprD loss (65%), mexB overexpression (53%), ampC derepression (29%), quinolone target gene mutations (24%) and increased mexY expression (24%). Five (29%) B isolates developed multidrug resistance. Meropenem was the most frequently (71%) received treatment, explaining the high prevalence of oprD mutations and likely mexB overexpression. Previous exposure to ceftazidime showed a higher impact on selection of increased MICs than previous exposure to piperacillin/tazobactam.
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This study revealed no obvious trend in the prevalence of drug-resistant community-acquired UTI in a single community. Prevalence at any time was influenced by a small number of E. coli clonal groups. This observation suggests that the introduction of strains that are drug resistant into a community plays a greater role in changing the prevalence of drug-resistant UTI than does the drug use or prescribing habits in that community.
A series of structurally related citric acid-ciprofloxacin conjugates was synthesised to investigate the influence of the linker between citric acid and ciprofloxacin on antibacterial activities. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined against a panel of reference strains and clinical isolates of bacteria associated with infection in humans and correlated with the DNA gyrase inhibitory activity. The observed trend was rationalised by computational modelling.
P. richardsiae endophthalmitis is rare, and outcomes are typically poor. Infections typically occur following traumatic skin inoculation; however, a long refractory period may occur before symptoms develop. Early diagnosis and combination antimicrobial therapy are essential to optimize visual outcomes.
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Simple, rapid, reliable, and sensitive spectrofluorometric methods were developed for the determination of eight quinolone antibacterials namely ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, difloxacin, amifloxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. The methods depend on the chelation of each of the studied drugs with zirconium, molybdenum, vanadium or tungsten to produce fluorescent chelates. Different factors affecting the relative fluorescence intensity of the resulting chelates were studied and optimised. At the optimum reaction conditions, the drug-metal chelates showed excitation maxima ranging from 274 to 295 nm and emission maxima ranging from 409 to 495 nm. The chelates were found to be stable at room temperature for 2 days and show good stability upon increasing temperature to 50 degrees C for about 1 h. Rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the range of 10-60 ng ml(-1) for each of the investigated drugs and the limits of detection and quantitation ranged from 1.214 to 2.046 and from 4.047 to 6.819 ng ml(-1), respectively. The molar ratios of the formed chelates were determined by Job's method and their association constants were also calculated. The developed methods were applied successfully for the determination of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms with a good precision and accuracy compared to official and reported methods as revealed by t- and F-tests. They were also applied for the determination of studied drugs in spiked urine and plasma samples.
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The delivery of antipseudomonal antibiotics by inhalation to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected subjects with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis is a logical extension of treatment strategies successfully developed in CF bronchiectasis. Dual release ciprofloxacin for inhalation (DRCFI) contains liposomal ciprofloxacin, formulated to optimise airway antibiotic delivery.
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In this study, E. coli and Enterococcus isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs showed relatively lower resistance rates than those in other areas of China, where more intensive farming practices are used. These results also revealed that free-range husbandry and absence of antibiotic use could decrease the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance to some extent.