Generic Combivir is used for treating HIV infection in combination with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Lamivudine\Zidovudine.
Generic Combivir is an antiviral combination. Lamivudine and Zidovudine are both nucleoside analogues that work together to slow the growth of HIV by blocking an enzyme needed by the virus to reproduce.
Generic Name of Generic Combivir is Lamivudine plus Zidovudine.
Combivir is also known as Lamivudine, Zidovudine, Duovir.
Brand name of Generic Combivir is Combivir.
Generic Combivir is available in tablets which should be taken orally.
Take Generic Combivir with or without food.
Continue to use Generic Combivir even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.
Take Generic Combivir at the same time each day.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Combivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep the container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Combivir are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Be careful with Generic Combivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Combivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are allergic to Generic Combivir components.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are taking stavudine, zalcitabine, or other medicines containing lamivudine or zidovudine.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you have severe kidney problems, decreased liver function, abnormal liver function tests, or high levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis).
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you weigh less than 66 lbs (30 kg) .
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you are significantly overweight.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you take interferon alfa or ribavirin because serious liver problems may occur; stavudine because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Combivir; clarithromycin, doxorubicin, rifampin, or zalcitabine because they may decrease Generic Combivir 's effectiveness; acetaminophen, ganciclovir, ibuprofen, methadone, probenecid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, valproic acid, vancomycin, or zalcitabine because they may increase the risk of Generic Combivir 's side effects or toxic effects.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
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In a random subset of women from each arm of the trial, plasma samples from before and 6 weeks after sdNVP were analysed using ASP at codons 103, 181, 184 and 190.
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: Samples of umbilical cord and cord blood were obtained from HIV-1-uninfected infants born to either HIV-1-infected women receiving Combivir therapy during pregnancy (n = 10) or HIV-1-uninfected women (n = 9).
An international, phase 4, open-label, parallel-group, 34-centre study was conducted in 254 non-diabetic, antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected out-patients with an HIV-1 RNA level of >1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL and < or =200,000 copies/mL and a CD4 cell count of >50 cells/microL.
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Disparities in drug exposure between formulations were observed; however, the FDC tablet delivered therapeutically adequate exposures of each drug and could well play an important role in simplifying antiretroviral treatment for children.
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HIV-infected patients aged ≥15 years and attending Care and Treatment Clinic (CTC) at Muhimbili National Hospital, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were recruited for the study. Blood samples from patients were collected during their regular visits at the CTC and assayed for determination of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and CD4 counts.
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Randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter, formulation-switch study.
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The exclusion of ∼8% of patients with CXCR4-using virus by population-based sequencing would likely have resulted in noninferior responses in the MVC twice-daily and EFV arms. Rescreening by ESTA and population-based sequencing predicted similar virological response.
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After starting treatment with Combivir-containing regimens viral load and CD4(+) T-cell count improved as well as the control group. Rates of adverse events in Combivir group and ZDV (400 mg/day) + 3TC group were 50.9% (28/55) and 60% (12/20), respectively. Some of these Japanese patients who started Combivir regimen as a first-line HAART (primary Combivir group) showed some decrease in hemoglobin levels or neutrophil counts within 6 months. However, a significant recovery of these indices of hematological toxicities occurred in patients who continued the regimen for 18-24 months.
Retrospective observational study.
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Stavudine (d4T) was, until recently, one of the most widely prescribed antiretroviral drugs worldwide. While there has been a major shift away from d4T use in resource-limited countries, a large number of patients have previously received (or continue to receive) d4T, and many have developed peripheral neuropathy. The identification of genetic predictors of increased risk might suggest novel therapeutic targets for such patients. In AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 384, antiretroviral-naïve patients were randomized to d4T/didanosine (ddI)- or zidovudine/lamivudine-containing regimens. Data from d4T/ddI recipients were analyzed for genome-wide associations (approximately 1 million genetic loci) with new onset distal sensory peripheral neuropathy. Analyses involved 254 patients (49 % White, 34 % Black, 17 % Hispanic), comprising 90 peripheral neuropathy cases (32 grade 1, 35 grade 2, 23 grade 3) and 164 controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, no polymorphism was consistently associated with neuropathy among all patients, among White, Black, and Hispanic patients analyzed separately, both in genome-wide analyses (threshold, P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and focused on 46 neuropathy-associated genes (threshold, P < 3.5 × 10(-5)). In the latter analyses, the lowest P values were in KIF1A among Whites (rs10199388, P = 8.4 × 10(-4)), in LITAF among Blacks (rs13333308, P = 6.0 × 10(-6)), and in NEFL among Hispanics (rs17763685, P = 5.6 × 10(-6)). Susceptibility to d4T/ddI-associated neuropathy is not explained by a single genetic variant with a marked effect.
195 subjects (131 men, 64 women), median age 34 years, were randomized: 98 received combivir/abacavir and 97 combivir/nelfinavir. Baseline median plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.2 log10 copies/ml [Interquartile range (IQR): 3.7-4.5.2] and 4.1 log10 copies/ml (IQR: 3.8-4.6), respectively. Baseline median CD4 cell count was 387 cells/mm3 (IQR: 194-501) and 449 cells/mm3 (IQR: 334-605), respectively. Nine patients (3 vs 6, respectively) did not start treatment or did not have any available efficacy data. At week 48, using the intent to treat analysis (switch/missing equals failure), plasma HIV-1 RNA was <50 copies/ml in 54/95 (57%) and 53/91 (58%) of subjects, respectively. Median CD4 increase was +110 and +120 cells/mm3, respectively. Possible hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir were reported in four subjects (4%).
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The clinical diagnosis of conjunctival MC was confirmed histopathologically. Six months after the induction of HAART, the untouched lesion (right eye) had regressed and there was pronounced local injection of the conjunctiva. MC lesions did not recur after excision (left eye), and signs of inflammation were absent.
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The efficacy and safety of raltegravir (RAL) with tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) have been well studied in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, limited clinical data are available on the use of RAL with abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) or zidovudine (ZDV)/3TC. We investigated HIV-1-infected Korean adults, including 13 antiretroviral-naïve patients and 15 antiretroviral-experienced patients, treated with RAL plus ABC/3TC or ZDV/3TC. Virological suppression was achieved in 12 of the 13 (92%) antiretroviral-naïve patients within 24 weeks and in all (100%) patients within 96 weeks. In 13 of the 15 treatment-experienced patients, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) was replaced with RAL because of hyperlipidemia (n = 11) and diarrhea (n = 2). A significant decrease in median total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels was observed in these patients (P < 0.01, each). No adverse event related to RAL was observed in any of the 28 patients. The RAL plus ABC/3TC or ZDV/3TC regimens were effective and safe in antiretroviral-naïve Korean HIV-infected patients, and replacing LPV/r with RAL significantly improved lipid abnormalities in patients previously treated with regimens including LPV/r.
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Dissolution testing has a very vital importance for a quality control test and prediction of the in vivo behavior of the oral dosage formulation. This requires the use of a powerful analytical method to get reliable, accurate and precise results for the dissolution experiments. In this context, new signal processing approaches, continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs) were improved for the simultaneous quantitative estimation and dissolution testing of lamivudine (LAM) and zidovudine (ZID) in a tablet dosage form. The CWT approaches are based on the application of the continuous wavelet functions to the absorption spectra-data vectors of LAM and ZID in the wavelet domain. After applying many wavelet functions, the families consisting of Mexican hat wavelet with the scaling factor a=256, Symlets wavelet with the scaling factor a=512 and the order of 5 and Daubechies wavelet at the scale factor a=450 and the order of 10 were found to be suitable for the quantitative determination of the mentioned drugs. These wavelet applications were named as mexh-CWT, sym5-CWT and db10-CWT methods. Calibration graphs for LAM and ZID in the working range of 2.0-50.0 µg/mL and 2.0-60.0 µg/mL were obtained measuring the mexh-CWT, sym5-CWT and db10-CWT amplitudes at the wavelength points corresponding to zero crossing points. The validity and applicability of the improved mexh-CWT, sym5-CWT and db10-CWT approaches was carried out by the analysis of the synthetic mixtures containing the analyzed drugs. Simultaneous determination of LAM and ZID in tablets was accomplished by the proposed CWT methods and their dissolution profiles were graphically explored.
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Cessation of antiretroviral medication and initiation of antipsychotic medication with appropriate monitoring and assessment.
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To present a rare case of bilateral conjunctival molluscum contagiosum (MC) in an HIV-positive individual who had unilateral lesion excision before induction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and to discuss the pathophysiological consequences of immune restoration.
NOD.c3c4 mice were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. Response to treatment was studied by measuring MMTV RNA in the liver, liver enzyme levels in serum and liver histology using a modified Ishak score.
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Lamivudine/zidovudine and Combivir have equivalent antiretroviral activity over 12 weeks. Adding abacavir to Combivir can be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients, including those harbouring virus with the M184V mutation.
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Contradicting results on the effect of abacavir (ABC) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment responses in HIV/HCV co-infected patients have been reported. We evaluated the influence of ABC on the response to pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV)-containing HCV treatment in HIV/HCV co-infected patients in a large European cohort collaboration, including data from different European countries.
Our findings suggest that the safety of 600 mg of ZDV is similar to 400 mg/day of ZDV and the existence of mechanisms that compensate for anemia and for the neutropenia associated with long-term use of Combivir.
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After co-administration with BILR 355/r, the AUC(12,ss) and C(max,ss) of 3TC increased by 45% and 24%, respectively; the elimination half-life (t(1/2) ,ss) of 3TC was significantly increased. However, the pharmacokinetics of ZDV was unchanged. Co-administration with 3TC/ZDV resulted in a 22% decrease in AUC(12,ss) and a 20% decrease in C(max,ss) for BILR 355. The observed increase in exposure and prolongation of t(1/2,ss) of 3TC is potentially related to inhibition of OCT-mediated urinary excretion of 3TC.
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To review the evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-occupational postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV.
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A 48-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection developed chronic chest pain that started after a bout of pneumonia. He has hypertension and has smoked cigarettes in the past. His current medications include Kaletra and Combivir. His total cholesterol was 331 mg/L, his HDL cholesterol was 27 mg/L, his triglycerides were 935 mg/L, and his LDL cholesterol could not be calculated. How should this patient be evaluated and managed?
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It is not possible to draw conclusions on the clinical effectiveness of non-occupational PEP for HIV because of the limited evidence available. The review of cost-effectiveness suggests that non-occupational PEP may be cost-effective, especially in certain population subgroups; however, the assumptions made and data sources used in the cost-effectiveness studies mean that their results should be used with caution.
There was an average gain in fat mass of 0.009 kg/(leg.mo) in switch patients versus a loss of 0.010 kg/(leg.mo) in controls (p =.04, on-treatment analysis) over 48 weeks. Significant arm fat restoration was observed in patients who switched regimens, with an average gain of 0.014 kg/(arm.mo) (p =.004), whereas controls did not have a significant change from baseline. Analyses of percentage changes in arm and leg fat masses showed similar findings. No significant effects on intraabdominal fat, blood lipid levels, glycemic indices, and lactate levels were detected, although most baseline mean values were normal in study subjects. Combivir/abacavir maintained virological control in all but one case, and three (13.6%) of 22 individuals had adverse reactions to abacavir therapy.
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To evaluate the induction of inflammatory cytokine transcription by ABC, we used samples from women randomized to receive zidovudine/lamivudine/ABC (Trizivir) or lopinavir/ritonavir and zidovudine/lamividine (Kaletra/Combivir) from the third trimester through six-months postpartum for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Women were matched by CD4 count and baseline HIV RNA. All women attained viral suppression (<50 copies/ml) by the time of sampling.
To detect and characterize polymerase gene (pol) polymorphisms and mutation patterns in HIV-1C-infected Batswana patients treated with reverse transcriptase inhibitors, samples from AIDS patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were sequenced for the region encompassing the entire HIV-1 protease (PR) and the first 335 amino acids of reverse transcriptase (RT). Amongst the 16 patients treated with antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, eight started HAART regimens containing didanosine, stavudine and nevirapine (ddI/d4T/NVP) or efavirenz (EFV) (arm A) while the others started with zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) given together as combivir (CBV) with either NVP or EFV as arm B. Arm B is the first line regimen currently provided by the Botswana ARV national programme. Greater efficacy, in terms of treatment duration, was observed in patients in arm B (14 months) as compared with patients in arm A (9 months); P<0.05, n=8. Appearance of the M184V mutation in the arm B patients coincided with a rebound of viral load (VL) (4.3 +/-0.1 log10 RNA copies/ml) and a significantly improved immunological parameter (deltaCD4=207.0+/-48.1 cells/microl; P<0.05). Interestingly, patients developing the M184V mutation preferentially harboured polymorphisms Q174K and/or I178L located in close proximity to pol position 184. The M184V mutation occurred following a clear clinical benefit consisting of increased CD4 cell counts and lower plasma viral loads. Primary mutations known to be associated with NNRTI and NRTI resistance for HIV-1B were observed in 10 of the 16 treated patients.
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Tolerability of the combination of zidovudine-lamivudine and lopinavir-ritonavir as postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for human immunodeficiency virus infection was prospectively assessed. A total of 121 patients were enrolled in the study; 23 patients discontinued PEP prematurely for reasons other than adverse events. Of the other 98 patients, 58 (59%) experienced adverse effects, which led to premature PEP discontinuation in 20 cases (20%).
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