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Cozaar

Cozaar is an effective medication which helps to fight with the symptoms of high blood pressure and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with hypertension. It is used in the treatment of kidney problems in people with type 2 diabetes. Cozaar acts by preventing the hormone angiotensin II from constricting the blood vessels, which tends to raise blood pressure.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Lasix, Norvasc, Toprol, Hyzaar

 

Also known as:  Losartan.

Description

Cozaar is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against the symptoms of high blood pressure and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with hypertension.

Its target is to treat kidney problems in people with type 2 diabetes.

Cozaar is also known as Losartan potassium, Cosart, Los-Po.

Cozaar acts by preventing the hormone angiotensin II from constricting the blood vessels, which tends to raise blood pressure. It is angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Generic name of Cozaar is Losartan Potassium.

Brand name of Cozaar is Cozaar.

Dosage

Take Cozaar tablets orally with or without food.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Cozaar once or twice a day at the same time.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cozaar suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Cozaar and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Cozaar overdosage: fainting, feeling lightheaded, rapid heartbeat.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cozaar are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Cozaar if you are allergic to Cozaar components.

Do not take Cozaar if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Cozaar can harm your baby.

Do not use Cozaar if you are taking salt substitutes or potassium supplements, other blood pressure medicine, diuretic (water pill).

It can be dangerous to use Cozaar if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease, kidney disease, heart failure.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop taking Cozaar suddenly.

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Budgetary pressures within health care systems have led many health care providers to consider the switching of patients on long term anti hypertensive medication to agents with the lowest acquisition price. The long term success of this strategy hinges on price differentials remaining stable, an assumption that may not be valid in drug classes where patent expiry times vary. The treatment of hypertension using angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) represents just such a case. The present study, therefore, modelled the 5-year cost consequences of treatment based on losartan, candesartan, valsartan and irbesartan, based on expected patent expiry dates.

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These data suggest that the increase in the local RAS activity could be an adaptive change that contributes to maintain the homeostasis of body fluids after uninephrectomy.

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Combination therapy significantly reduced alpha1-m excretion compared to either agent used alone: 178.29+/-27.36 to 99.63+/-13.03 mg/g creatinine for losartan + benazepril vs 178.29+/-27.36 to 161.59+/-23.22 mg/g creatinine for benazepril alone (p<0.05; ANOVA) and 178.29+/-27.36 to 99.63+/-13.03 mg/g creatinine for losartan + benazepril vs 178.29+/-27.36 to 173.45+/-27.69 mg/g creatinine for losartan alone (p<0.05; ANOVA). There was a significant correlation between change in alpha1-m excretion and reduction in proteinuria (r=0.704; p=0.023). There were no differences in TGF-beta1 level between the studied treatments. Systemic blood pressure reduction did not differ among the therapies.

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SAD led to augmentation of the mRNA levels and protein expression of left ventricular ACE and AT1R. Both losartan and ramipril ameliorated SAD-induced left ventricular hypertrophy. Both losartan and ramipril abated oxidative stress, suppressed inflammation, and reduced expression TGFβ-R in left ventricles. In addition, the protective effect of ramipril could be abolished by HOE-140.

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Functional angiotensin receptors were characterized in the rat pancreatic acinar cell line AR4-2J. Angiotensin II stimulated a dose-dependent release of amylase and production of inositol phosphates. Results of high-performance liquid chromatography separation of inositol phosphates indicated that angiotensin stimulated the rapid accumulation of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Angiotensin II and angiotensin III were at least an order of magnitude more potent than angiotensin I in the stimulation of amylase release. The angiotensin II-stimulated amylase release was blocked by losartan, a selective AT1 angiotensin antagonist. The selective AT2 angiotensin receptor ligands CGP42112 did not alter angiotensin II-stimulated amylase released. However, CGP42112 stimulated amylase release at micromolar concentrations with a potency similar to angiotensin I. Analysis of mRNA expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction suggested that AT1A was the predominant type-I angiotensin receptor expressed in the AR4-2J cells.

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This study tested the hypothesis that acute reduction in blood pressure (BP) at the initial stage of antihypertensive therapy compromises brain perfusion and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in patients with hypertension. Cerebral blood flow velocity and BP were measured in patients with mild and moderate hypertension and in healthy volunteers at baseline upon reduction of BP within 1 to 2 weeks of administration of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide and after 3 to 4 months of treatment. The transfer function between beat-to-beat changes in BP and cerebral blood flow velocity was estimated to assess dynamic autoregulation. After 1 to 2 weeks of treatment, BP was reduced in mild (143+/-7/88+/-4 versus 126+/-12/77+/-6 mm Hg) and moderate hypertension (163+/-11/101+/-9 versus 134+/-17/84+/-9 mm Hg; P<0.05). These reductions in BP were well maintained over the 3 to 4 month period. Cerebral blood flow velocity did not change, whereas cerebrovascular resistance index was reduced by 17% (P<0.05) after reduction in BP. Responses of cerebral blood flow velocity to head-up tilt remained unchanged. Baseline transfer function gain at the low frequencies (0.07 to 0.20 Hz) was reduced in moderate hypertension, consistent with cerebral vasoconstriction and/or enhanced dynamic autoregulation. However, this reduced transfer function gain was restored to the level of control subjects after reduction in BP. These findings, contrary to our hypothesis, demonstrate that there is a rapid adaptation of the cerebral vasculature to protect the brain from hypoperfusion even at the initial stage of antihypertensive therapy in patients with mild and moderate hypertension.

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We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced hypertension is associated with an increase in vascular .O2- production, and characterized the oxidase involved in this process. Infusion of angiotensin II (0.7 mg/kg per d) increased systolic blood pressure and doubled vascular .O2- production (assessed by lucigenin chemiluminescence), predominantly from the vascular media. NE infusion (2.75 mg/kg per d) produced a similar degree of hypertension, but did not increase vascular .O2- production. Studies using various enzyme inhibitors and vascular homogenates suggested that the predominant source of .O2- activated by angiotensin II infusion is an NADH/NADPH-dependent, membrane-bound oxidase. Angiotensin II-, but not NE-, induced hypertension was associated with impaired relaxations to acetylcholine, the calcium ionophore A23187, and nitroglycerin. These relaxations were variably corrected by treatment of vessels with liposome-encapsulated superoxide dismutase. When Losartan was administered concomitantly with angiotensin II, vascular .O2- production and relaxations were normalized, demonstrating a role for the angiotensin type-1 receptor in these processes. We conclude that forms of hypertension associated with elevated circulating levels of angiotensin II may have unique vascular effects not shared by other forms of hypertension because they increase vascular smooth muscle .O2- production via NADH/NADPH oxidase activation.

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The regulation of A-type K+ current (I(A)) and the single channel underlying I(A) in neonatal rat hypothalamus/brain stem cultured neurons were studied with the use of the patch-clamp technique. I(A) had a threshold of activation between -30 and -25 mV (n = 14). Steady-state inactivation of I(A) occurred between -80 and -70 mV and had a membrane voltage at which I(A) was half-maximum of -52.2 mV (n = 14). The mean values for the activation and inactivation (decay) time constants during a voltage step to +20 mV were 2.1 +/- 0.3 (SE) ms (n = 8) and 13.6 +/- 1.9 ms (n = 8), respectively. Single-channel recordings from outside-out patches revealed A-type K+ channels with voltage-dependent activation, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) sensitivity, and inactivation kinetics similar to those of I(A). The single-channel conductance obtained from cell-attached patches was 15.8 +/- 1.3 pS (n = 4) in a physiological K+ gradient and 41.2 +/- 3.7 pS (n = 5) in symmetrical 140 mM K+. Angiotensin II (Ang II, 100 nM) reduced peak I(A) by approximately 20% during a voltage step to +20 mV (n = 8). Similarly, Ang II (100 nM) markedly reduced single A-type K+ channel activity by decreasing open probability (n = 4). The actions of Ang II on I(A) and single A-type K+ channels were reversible either by addition of the selective angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan (1 microM) or on washout of the peptide. Thus the activation of AT1 receptors inhibits a tetraethylammonium-chloride-resistant, 4-AP-sensitive I(A) and single A-type K+ channels, and this may underlie some of the actions of Ang II on electrical activity of the brain.

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Each active treatment, as compared with placebo, lowered BP both during the morning hours as well as the entire 24-h period. COER-24 verapamil was more effective in lowering morning systolic (-16.6 mm Hg) and diastolic (-11.9 mm Hg) BP than either enalapril or losartan (P < .001). For the entire 24-h period, the effects of COER-24 verapamil (-11.6/-8.4 mm Hg) were comparable to enalapril (- 13.4/-8.3 mm Hg; P = NS). Losartan achieved a similar 24-h effect on systolic pressure (-9.3 mm Hg) but was less effective on diastolic pressure (-5.4 mm Hg; P = .004 v COER-verapamil). Unlike losartan or enalapril, COER-24 verapamil was the only treatment to lower the heart rate over both the 24-h period (-4.6 beats/min; P < .001) and during waking hours (-4.6 beats/min; P < .001). A blunted rate of rise in BP, heart rate, and rate-pressure product occurred during the postawakening period with COER-verapamil (P = .03) but not with either of the other treatment arms. Lastly, the decline in BP at night was similar for COER-verapamil and losartan and greater with enalapril (P = .014)

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The combined administration of a standard single oral dose of an ACE inhibitor and an Ang II antagonist to mildly sodium-depleted normal subjects (1) had a major additive effect on plasma renin rise, (2) induced an additional mean blood pressure reduction, and (3) had no additive effect on plasma aldosterone fall.

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We examined the influence of procedures used in blood pressure measurement on blood pressure and the effects of antihypertensive agents. Subjects were spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their Wistar/Kyoto (WKY) controls. Blood pressure was recorded by telemetry. Twenty-four h baseline pressure were measured, and the effect of minor handling on blood pressure and heart rate was examined. The influence of restraint such as is used for tail-cuff blood pressures was examined. The effects of three different antihypertensive drugs was also examined in the SHR. In the home-cage environment, the SHRs showed higher systolic blood pressures, but had similar hypertensive responses to minor handling as the WKYs. Both strains had elevated heart rate and blood pressure when restrained in the manner used for tail-cuff readings. The antihypertensive effects of captopril and losartan in the SHR were unchanged when the animals were restrained but the hypotensive effect of hydralazine was greater. These results confirm that significant changes in heart rate and blood pressure can occur as a result of the minor procedures frequently used in blood pressure recording in both SHR and WKY rats. This suggests that telemetry may have significant advantages as a method for continuous blood pressure monitoring. The pharmacological profile of antihypertensive drugs may well be different in animals where telemetry is employed and are not subject to the stresses involved in previous methods of monitoring blood pressure.

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The combination of an angiotensin antagonist with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor confers superiority over monotherapies on renal function, as assessed by prevention of albuminuria and rise in plasma BUN and creatinine. However, no advantage of combination therapy was seen with respect to attenuating renal structural injury and renal expression of TGF beta and VEGF in experimental diabetes.

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Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the L group compared with the H group in weeks 3 and 5. ACE and ATIA proteins in the L group were lower than H group in week 5.

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This study will provide the characteristic differences in the effects of amlodipine and losartan on LV diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

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These studies demonstrated that the combination blockade of the RAAS axis with an ARB plus an ACE inhibitor may play an important role in the prevention and treatment of DN and may turn the tide of increasing kidney disease due to DM, improve the overall quality of life of patients

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The upregulation of angiotensin II receptors on myocytes in this model of global ischaemia may be a compensatory mechanism ameliorating myocyte contractility in an attempt to sustain ventricular pump function.

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This study was conducted to examine the role of bradykinin in the persistence of the renal vasodilator effect of captopril during angiotensin II receptor blockade. Blood pressure and renal blood flow were monitored in eight groups of pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits. In group 4, captopril alone was administered, and it decreased blood pressure by 14 +/- 4 mm Hg and increased renal blood flow by 21 +/- 4 ml/min. After a bolus injection and a constant intravenous infusion of the imidazole derivative angiotensin II receptor antagonist DuP 753 (group 5), captopril decreased blood pressure by 9 +/- 2 mm Hg and increased renal blood flow by 8 +/- 1 ml/min (12 +/- 1% change in renal blood flow, p less than 0.05 versus group 4). In the presence of a constant intravenous infusion of saralasin (group 6), captopril decreased blood pressure by 13 +/- 5 mm Hg and increased renal blood flow by 7 +/- 2 ml/min (17 +/- 5% change in renal blood flow, p less than 0.05 versus group 4). These results did not differ from those in group 5. During a constant intrarenal arterial infusion of a B2 bradykinin receptor antagonist, DArg0, [Hyp3-Thi5,8-DPhe7]-bradykinin (BkA) (group 7), captopril decreased blood pressure by 14 +/- 4 mm Hg and increased renal blood flow by 10 +/- 4 ml/min. Combined administration of DuP 753 intravenously and BkA intra-arterially (group 8) eliminated the effect of captopril. In group 8, captopril caused insignificant changes in blood pressure and renal blood flow. The results indicate that DuP 753 and saralasin antagonize the renin-angiotensin system to a comparable extent in vivo. Although blockade of the latter system accounted for a significant part of the increase in renal blood flow caused by captopril, the remaining component was contributed by endogenous bradykinin.

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Urinary protein excretion, kidney weight, serum ACE activity and plasma TGF-beta1 increased significantly in untreated diabetic rats compared with controls. Administration of losartan, enalapril, or both for 60 days prevented these changes. Furthermore, combined therapy for 30 days normalised urinary protein excretion, while monotherapy did not. Losartan inhibited serum ACE activity both in vivo and in vitro. Plasma TGF-beta 1 levels were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (r=0.4059) and with urinary protein excretion (r=0.3558).

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These results demonstrate that the activity of RAS was either not suppressed or, even augmented, after 4 weeks of salt loading despite high salt intake and increased SBP. The data suggest that an augmented intrarenal RAS during high-salt diet may contribute to the development of renal injury in this experimental model.

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Clusters of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome are related to greater initial ECG LVH in hypertensive patients with value of blood pressure similar to individuals without metabolic abnormalities, and are associated with less reduction of ECG LVH during antihypertensive therapy, potentially contributing to the reported adverse prognosis of metabolic syndrome.

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We previously reported that pressure loading of the vascular wall can activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), enzymes believed to be involved in the pathway for cell proliferation, partly via the vascular angiotensin system in isolated perfused rat aorta. In this study, we examined whether cyclic stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) also produces activation of p42 and p44 MAPKs in cultured rat VSMC and whether stretch-induced MAPK activation is mediated via angiotensin and endothelin systems in VSMC. Cyclic stretching of VSMC produced an elongation-dependent and frequency-dependent increase in p42 and p44 MAPK activity. The stretch-induced p42 and p44 MAPK activation was inhibited by the angiotensin receptor antagonist losartan and by the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril. The MAPK activation was also inhibited by the endothelin receptor antagonist cyclo(D-alpha-aspartyl-L-prolyl-D-valyl-L-leucyl-D-tryptophyl) (BQ123) and by the endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitor phosphoramidon. Replacement of medium with culture medium of stretched cells caused MAPK activation, which was inhibited by losartan and BQ123. The results of the present study suggest that cyclic stretching of VSMC can activate p42 and p44 MAPKs and that the MAPK activation is mediated via angiotensin and endothelin systems in VSMC.

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In the present study we assessed (1) the effects of 4 to 10 weeks of volume overload by an aortocaval shunt or minoxidil on LV and RV collagen and elastin and (2) the potential of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril and the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan to prevent and regress volume overload-induced changes in cardiac collagen and elastin. Cardiac volume overload by aortocaval shunt or minoxidil treatment decreased LV collagen accumulation as compared with control rats. In contrast, RV collagen accumulation was potentiated during the initial weeks but not during chronic aortocaval shunt. Enalapril and losartan prevented the relative decreases in LV collagen content and concentration induced by a shunt. Losartan also reversed the decrease in LV collagen content by aortocaval shunt. Neither blocker significantly affected the enhanced RV collagen accumulation during the initial weeks of shunt, but both blockers further potentiated RV collagen accumulation during chronic volume overload. Aortocaval shunt for 4 weeks but not 10 weeks enhanced LV and RV elastin accumulation. This initial increase in LV and RV elastin content was blocked by both enalapril and losartan.

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Epidemiological study showed that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) in older people, especially male subjects, which suggested that angiotensin II may have a detrimental effect on bone. Therefore, blocking its effect may have a beneficial effect on bone health.

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The fluorescence intensity of labeled HPS70 in the NPY group was 1,825.10 +/- 115.55, significantly stronger than that in the control group (1595.83 +/- 186.54, P < 0.05) and the fluorescence intensity of labeled HPS70 in the NPY + losartan group (1 658.54 +/- 183.78) was not significantly different from that in the control group (P > 0.05). The MTT-OD in NPY group was 0.2626 +/- 0.0025, significantly higher than that in the control group (0.2239 +/- 0.0010, P < 0.01). and the MTT-OD in NPY + losartan group was 0.2440 +/- 0.0013, significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05).

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In the present study we evaluated the effect of caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) microinjection of the main angiotensin (Ang) peptides, Ang II and Ang-(1-7), and their selective antagonists on baseline arterial pressure (AP) and on baroreceptor-mediated bradycardia in renovascular hypertensive rats (2K1C). Microinjection of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) into the CVLM of 2K1C rats produced similar decrease in AP as observed in Sham rats. In both Sham and 2K1C, the hypotensive effect of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) at the CVLM was blocked, for up to 30 min, by previous CVLM microinjection of the Ang II AT1 receptor antagonist, Losartan, and Ang-(1-7) Mas antagonist, A-779, respectively. As expected, the baroreflex bradycardia was lower in 2K1C in comparison to Sham rats. CVLM microinjection of A-779 improved the sensitivity of baroreflex bradycardia in 2K1C hypertensive rats. In contrast, Losartan had no effect on the baroreflex bradycardia in either 2K1C or Sham rats. These results suggest that Ang-(1-7) at the CVLM may contribute to the low sensitivity of the baroreflex control of heart rate in renovascular hypertensive rats.

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Left ventricular hypertrophy has been suggested to mediate the relation between hypertension and left atrial enlargement, with associated risks of atrial fibrillation and stroke. However, less is known about correlates of left atrial size in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. We assessed left atrial size by echocardiography in 941 hypertensive patients, age 55 to 80 (mean, 66) years, with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy at baseline in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study. Enlarged left atrial diameter (women, >3.8 cm; men, >4.2 cm) was present in 56% of women and 38% of men (P<0.01). Compared with the 512 patients with normal left atrial size, the 429 patients with enlarged left atrium more often had mitral regurgitation, atrial fibrillation, and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy. They also had higher age, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, weight, body mass index, left ventricular internal chamber dimension, stroke volume, and mass and lower relative wall thickness and ejection fraction (all, P<0.05). In logistic regression analysis, left atrial enlargement was related to left ventricular hypertrophy and eccentric geometry; greater body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and age; female gender; mitral regurgitation; and atrial fibrillation (all, P<0.05). Thus, left atrial size in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy is influenced by gender, age, obesity, systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular geometry independently of left ventricular mass and presence of mitral regurgitation or atrial fibrillation.

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This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study compared the efficacy of amlodipine and losartan in an older hypertensive population, focusing on therapeutic coverage in the case of missed doses. Following a 4-week, single-blind, placebo washout period, 211 patients were randomly assigned to receive either 5 mg of amlodipine once daily or 50 mg of losartan once daily. Doses were doubled after 6 weeks of treatment if the diastolic blood pressure exceeded 90 mm Hg. After the 12-week treatment period, patients received the placebo for 2 days (drug holiday) to simulate two missed doses of antihypertensive medication. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted at the end of the placebo washout period (baseline), upon completion of the 12-week treatment period (steady state), and after the 2-day drug holiday. Amlodipine was more effective than losartan in reducing patients' 24-h ambulatory blood pressure at the steady-state sampling time. The increases in 24-h blood pressure during the drug holiday averaged 6±2/2±1 mm Hg (P<0.0001) in the amlodipine group and 3±2/2±1 mm Hg (P<0.0001) in the losartan group. The rise in systolic pressure was greater in patients on amlodipine than in those on losartan (P<0.0001). For diastolic pressure, the changes did not differ. Owing to the lower pressure during treatment, patients in the amlodipine group remained at a significantly lower blood pressure level after the 2-day drug holiday. Amlodipine was more effective than losartan in lowering blood pressure and in maintaining blood pressure control after two missed doses, and the difference was most significant for systolic blood pressure.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 19 January 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.190.

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 Antiproteinuric therapy ameliorates the prothrombotic state. Proteinuric patients are in a more prothrombotic state than buy cozaar healthy controls.

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50 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 255 +/- 39 g were housed. Forty rats were injected 6 mg/kg adriamycin into tail veins under anesthesia to induce nephrosis, while 10 rats were spared as sham control. After the stabilization of proteinuria at the sixth week, the rats were treated for 6 weeks by losartan (n = 10, 30 mg/kg/day), HBO (n = 10, 2.8 atmosphere absolute buy cozaar , 90 min/day), HBO + losartan (n = 10) and vehicle (n = 10). Protein carbonyl (PCO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analyzed from tissue specimens. Biochemical markers were studied from venous samples and 24-hour urine was collected for proteinuria. The surviving animals at 12 weeks (vehicle group (n = 6), HBO (n = 6), losartan (n = 8), HBO + losartan (n = 10) were sacrificed. Glomerular sclerosis, tubulointerstitial and blood vessel changes were determined by semiquantitative scoring.

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We examined the effects of U-97018, an AT1 receptor antagonist, on the pressor response to intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered angiotensin II (AII) in conscious normotensive rats in comparison to losartan, EXP 3174, EXP 655, and saralasin. In an i.c.v. study, U-97018, losartan, and EXP 3174 reduced the pressor response. EXP 655, an AT2 selective antagonist, also inhibited the pressor response to i.c.v. AII. buy cozaar U-97018 combined with EXP 655 did not fully eliminate the pressor response to i.c.v. AII. Moreover, saralasin, a nonselective peptide AII antagonist, also failed to abolish the pressor response to i.c.v. AII. Therefore, both AT1- and AT2-receptors probably are functional in inhibiting the pressor response to i.c.v. AII and that a part of the i.c.v. AII-induced pressor response occurs through non-AT1- and non-AT2-receptors. In an intravenous (i.v.) study, U-97018, losartan, and EXP 3174 reduced the pressor response to i.c.v. AII. At 10 mg/kg orally (p.o.), which is an antihypertensive dose in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), neither U-97018 nor losartan reduced the pressor response to i.c.v. AII even at 180 min after administration. This result indicates that neither U-97018 nor losartan, at the oral antihypertensive dose, reaches the brain in sufficient amount to affect the pressor response to i.c.v. AII.

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This buy cozaar study investigated the dose-related effect of losartan on changes in renal function using data from the HEAAL (Heart failure Endpoint evaluation of Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan) trial.

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GH rats were given losartan 15 mg/kg/day, enalapril 10 mg/kg/day (enalapril 10) or 3 mg/kg/day (enalapril 3) from the age of 4 to 10 weeks. Untreated GH and N groups served as controls. Tail-cuff systolic BP was measured weekly from 4 weeks. At the age of 10 weeks, kidneys were perfused with microspheres to identify afferent arterioles, kidney pieces were fixed, embedded in Technovit and stained sections analysed. Lumen and media plus lumen diameters were measured; media width buy cozaar , media cross-sectional area (CSA) and media/lumen (M/L) ratio were derived.

cozaar 40 mg 2015-06-11

Angiotensin II is a vasoactive peptide that controls blood pressure and homeostasis. Emerging evidence shows that locally generated angiotensin II plays a crucial role in normal physiology, as well as pathophysiological conditions such as pancreatitis. We recently reported that angiotensin II activates pancreatic NFκB in obstructive pancreatitis. However, the specific cell type responsible for this activation remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether pancreatic acinar cells respond to angiotensin II. These cells are the most abundant pancreatic cells and the most vulnerable to pancreatitis. Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were used as an in vitro model of pancreatic inflammation. Our results demonstrated that treatment with caerulein, a cholecystokinin receptor agonist, induced hypersecretion and NFκB activation, as demonstrated by elevated amylase secretion and degradation of inhibitor of NFκB (IκBβ). Angiotensin II, either alone or in combination with caerulein, augmented IκBβ degradation. Pre-treatment with losartan, an antagonist of the angiotensin type I (AT₁) receptor, abolished NFκB activation by angiotensin II and caerulein in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PD123319, a blocker of the angiotensin type II (AT₂) receptor, enhanced the activation of NFκB by buy cozaar angiotensin II and caerulein. Preliminary data further demonstrated that angiotensin II could extend caerulein-induced ERK1/2 activation in acinar cells. These results indicated that inflammation triggered by hyperstimulation of pancreatic acinar cells is enhanced by angiotensin II, via the AT₁ receptor. In contrast, stimulation of the AT₂ receptor protects against caerulein-induced NFκB activation. The differential roles of the AT₁ and AT₂ receptors might be useful in developing potential therapies for pancreatic inflammation.

cozaar overdose treatment 2015-03-06

After 24 weeks, both treatment groups experienced a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (-11.37% and -8.47%, respectively; both p <0.001 vs. baseline) and diastolic blood pressure levels (-10.67% and -9.28%, respectively; both p <0.001 vs. baseline), with a greater reduction of mean systolic values in Group A compared with Group B (p <0.001). Furthermore, after six months microalbuminuria was significantly decreased in both treatment groups (-67.62% and -49.1%, respectively; both p < buy cozaar 0.001), with a reduction rate in Group A significantly higher than in Group B (p<0.001).

cozaar max dose 2016-03-11

Post hoc buy cozaar analysis of 2 multicenter randomized controlled trials.

cozaar dosing 2015-05-02

We investigated the role of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and AT2 receptors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and extracellular matrix (ECM) components involved in vascular remodeling of resistance arteries induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). Sprague-Dawley rats received Ang II (120 ng/kg per minute SC) +/- the AT1 antagonist losartan (10 mg/kg per day PO), the AT1/AT2 antagonist Sar1-Ile8-Ang II (Sar-Ile; 10 microg/kg per minute SC), or hydralazine (25 mg/kg per day PO) for 7 days. Structure and mechanical properties of small mesenteric arteries were evaluated on a pressurized myograph. Ang II increased growth index (+21%), which was partially decreased by losartan (-11%) and abrogated by Sar-Ile. Hydralazine markedly increased growth index (+32%) despite systolic blood pressure (BP) lowering, suggesting a BP-independent effect of Ang II on vascular growth. Elastic modulus was increased by Sar-Ile compared with Ang II and control. Vascular type I collagen was reduced (P<0.05), whereas fibronectin increased significantly with Sar-Ile. Vascular tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 binding to MMP-2 was abrogated by Sar-Ile, but MMP-2 activity was significantly increased compared with losartan, Ang II, and controls. Thus, AT1 blockade exerted antigrowth effects and reduced stiffness of small resistance arteries by decreasing nonelastic fibrillar components (collagen and fibronectin). Concomitant AT1/AT2 blockade prevented growth, reduced collagen type I and elastin deposition but increased vascular stiffness, fibronectin, and MMP-2 activity. These results demonstrate opposing buy cozaar roles of AT1 receptors that increase fibronectin and vascular stiffness and AT2 receptors that decrease MMP-2 and increase elastin. Changes in vascular wall mechanics, ECM deposition, and MMP activity are thus modulated differentially by Ang II receptors.

cozaar cost 2017-09-10

Ang III induced STAT3 phosphorylation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Significant STAT3 phosphorylation was rapid and was maximal within 10 min, and with 100 nM Ang III. The Ang AT1 receptor was shown to mediate this action of Ang III. Ang III also significantly induced IL-6 mRNA expression within an hour, and maximal Ang III-mediated IL-6 mRNA expression occurred in the presence of 100 nM Ang III. Ang III-mediated IL-6 mRNA expression occurred by the interaction buy cozaar of the peptide with the Ang AT1 receptor and was mediated by STAT3. In addition, STAT3 was shown to mediate Ang III astrocyte proliferation.

cozaar generic 2015-06-02

We have recently shown that vasoactive peptides such as angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) increased the expression of G(i) proteins and proliferation of A10 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) through MAP kinase / PI3 kinase pathways. The present study was undertaken to examine the implication of growth factor receptor activation in Ang II-induced enhanced expression of G(i) proteins and proliferation of A10 VSMC and to further investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for these increases. Cell proliferation was determined by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, and the expression of G(i) proteins and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was determined by Western blotting. Treatment of A10 VSMC with Ang II enhanced the expression of Gi proteins, which was attenuated by Ang II AT(1) receptor antagonist but not by AT(2) receptor antagonist. The inhibitor of EGFR also attenuated the enhanced expression of G(i) proteins induced by Ang II to control levels. In addition, Ang II enhanced the phosphorylation of EGFR in A10 VSMC, and this was restored to control levels by the EGFR buy cozaar inhibitor and antioxidants. Furthermore, Ang II also augmented the proliferation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation of A10 VSMC, which were restored to control levels by the EGFR inhibitor. These data suggest that the Ang II-induced increase in oxidative stress transactivates EGFR, which through MAP kinase signaling may contribute to the enhanced expression of G(i) proteins and thereby to the increased proliferation of A10 VSMC.

cozaar dosage forms 2017-08-16

The mechanism of the NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA)-induced pressor response was examined in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. The pressor effect of L-NNA (50 mg/kg, i.v.) was significantly and equally diminished by pretreatment with either hexamethonium (25 mg/kg, i.v.) or phentolamine (5 mg/kg, i.v.). The intracisternal administration of L-NNA (1 mg/kg), which did not cause changes in cardiovascular parameters when administered systemically, produced a significant pressor response and tachycardia. Furthermore, significant suppression of L-NNA-induced pressor responses was observed after treatment buy cozaar of dogs with captopril (5 mg/kg, i.v.) or a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan (10 mg/kg, i.v.), or bilateral occlusion of renal veins. The inhibitory effects of hexamethonium and losartan were additive. These results suggest that, in addition to vasoconstriction due to the inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide production, increased activity of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems contributes significantly to the development of pressor responses produced by the intravenous injection of L-NNA in anesthetized dogs.

cozaar 5 mg 2017-12-31

Losartan potassium is mainly metabolized by P450 chiefly in the liver. A P450 inducer, phenobarbital, has no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of losartan. Cimetidine, known to inhibit P450 activity, has no buy cozaar remarkable effects on the metabolism of losartan. Side effects of losartan has been very few in the clinical trials of this drug on several thousands of patients so far. The rate was as low as that of placebo. Losartan may cause hyperkalemia when used with potassium-sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone or triamterene. Angioedema and acute hepatitis had been reported in 3 patients among thousands of millions of hypertensives under losartan treatment. The etiology was unclear, simple coincidence may not be ruled out. Losartan should not be administered to pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers, because it may disturb the fetal growth or may be harmful to the newborn. It should be cautiously used in patients with renal failure or liver disfunction.

cozaar 100mg tab 2017-02-22

Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy often occurs in response to both hemodynamic and neurohumoral factors. To study whether activation of the renin-angiotensin system by itself may induce buy cozaar a cardiac growth response, the acute effects of angiotensin II on cardiac protein synthesis were studied in isolated rat hearts. New protein synthesis in isolated buffer-perfused adult rat hearts was measured by incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into cardiac proteins during a 3-hour perfusion protocol. Angiotensin II (1 x 10(-8) mol/L), administered alone or in combination with the alpha 1-blocker prazosin (1 x 10(-7) mol/L), stimulated protein synthesis in both ventricles. The rate of [3H]phenylalanine incorporation into cardiac proteins was 3.9-fold (P < .005) and 2.6-fold (P < .01) higher in angiotensin II-perfused (n = 6) than in vehicle-perfused (n = 6) left and right ventricles, respectively. The induction of new protein synthesis by angiotensin II was blocked by the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan (1 x 10(-7) mol/L, n = 5). To study the pathways of angiotensin signal transduction, protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon as well as cardiac c-fos and c-jun mRNA levels were analyzed. Angiotensin II (1 x 10(-8) mol/L, n = 20) resulted in a transient translocation of PKC-epsilon from the cytosol to the cellular membrane. However, compared with phorbol ester stimulation (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA], 1 x 10(-7) mol/L; n = 20), angiotensin II effects on PKC translocation were significantly less pronounced and required a more prolonged stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

cozaar medication 2015-04-16

Pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy initiates oxidative stress, induces telomere repeat-binding factor 2 loss and accelerates telomere shortening in hypertrophic myocardium. EGCG, quercetin and Glucovance Drug Study carvedilol with potent antioxidant effect, may inhibit cardiac myocyte apoptosis by preventing telomere shortening and telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF(2)) loss.

cozaar generic equivalent 2017-07-20

The venoconstrictor effect of Angiotensin II (Ang II) was investigated in the rat mesenteric venules and portal vein. Mesenteric venules were perfused at a constant rate and reactivity to Ang II (0.1 nmol) was evaluated as changes in the perfusion pressure. Zovirax Tabs Rings of portal vein were mounted in organ baths and curves to Ang II (0.1-100 nmol/L) were generated. In venules, Ang II-contraction (10.6+/-1.1 mmHg) was abolished by losartan (0.9+/-0.3 mmHg*), reduced by PD 123,319 (5.8+/-0.9 mmHg*), increased by L-NAME (16.5+/-1.8 mmHg*) and not altered by indomethacin. In portal veins, curves to Ang II (-logEC50: 8.9+/-0.1 mol/L) were shifted to the right by losartan (-log EC50: 7.5+/-0.1 mol/L*) and by PD 123,319 (-logEC50: 8.0+/-0.1 mol/L*). L-NAME increased the maximal response to Ang II (Emax: 0.91+/-0.1g versus 1.62+/-0.3g*) and indomethacin had no effect. In conclusion, Ang II induces venoconstriction by activating AT1 and AT2 receptors. Data obtained with L-NAME provide evidence that the basal nitric oxide release from the endothelium of the venous system can modulate the Ang II-induced venoconstriction.

cozaar 30 mg 2016-12-02

Olmesartan medoxomil is a new angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) indicated for the treatment of hypertension. Olmesartan medoxomil is a pro-drug that is converted to the active metabolite olmesartan. Olmesartan Vasotec Brand Name does not undergo further metabolism and does not interact with cytochrome P450 enzymes. Olmesartan is a potent ARB with high selectivity for the type 1 (AT(1)) receptor subtype and shows insurmountable antagonism against the AT(1) receptor in vascular tissues. This antagonistic mode, which could be attributed to tight binding of this drug to the receptor, would underlie the potent and persistent action of olmesartan medoxomil in vivo. In fact, oral administration of olmesartan medoxomil produces a potent and long-lasting antihypertensive action without inducing tachycardia. The preventive effects of olmesartan medoxomil on end-organ damage in the kidney, heart, and blood vessels have been demonstrated in various animal models. In clinical studies, olmesartan medoxomil is shown to be well tolerated and have an excellent safety profile that is comparable to that of placebo. Head-to-head comparisons with other ARBs (losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, and candesartan cilexetil) conducted in the United States and Europe have revealed that olmesartan medoxomil is superior to these other ARBs in lowering blood pressure. These facts suggest that olmesartan medoxomil would be beneficial for the treatment of hypertension and other end-organ diseases.

cozaar tabs 2015-05-30

Our results show that ventricular ADM synthesis is an insensitive marker of changes in haemodynamic load or cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, the expression of ADM, ANP and BNP genes Lipitor Normal Dose is differently regulated both in the left ventricle and atria in response to AT1 receptor antagonism and ACE inhibition.

cozaar generic availability 2015-10-19

Aortic valve (AV) sclerosis and urine albumin Sinequan Overdose /creatinine ratio (UACR) are both markers of atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate whether they predicted cardiovascular (CV) events independently in patients with hypertension and electrocardiographic left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy.

cozaar reviews 2016-05-26

The chronic nandrolone treatment impairs the exercise-induced cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury by activating Aggrenox Tablet the cardiac renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and downregulating KATP channel expression.

cozaar generic picture 2016-09-04

In vitro cultured RIN-m cells were divided into control group, 100 nmol/L AngII group Antabuse Missed Dose and losartan pretreatment group. After cell incubation with the corresponding agents for 24 h, the amount of basal (3.3 mmol/L) and glucose-stimulated (16.7 mmol/L) insulin secretion (GSIS) was detected by radioimmunoassay, and the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed by flow cytometry with DCFH-DA staining; the mRNA and protein expressions of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively.

cozaar pill 2017-01-11

DDAH-1 was positively regulated by losartan and pentoxifylline with its antioxidative effect in albumin-exposed renal Bystolic Generic Alternative proximal tubular cells. Combined treatment with losartan and pentoxifylline has a direct beneficial effect on expression of renal DDAH-1, and, thus, at least in part, modulates the circulatory levels of ADMA in proteinuric nephropathy.

cozaar water pill 2015-02-05

Fifteen healthy volunteers, five from each genotype: CYP2C9*1/*1, *1/*2, and *1/*3.

cozaar generic medication 2017-02-24

8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased after treatment in the E+L+ and L+ groups (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively). Only the TT genotype of AGT had the most antioxidative role regarding the treatment (P = 0.01). We found a remarkable correlation between MDA and DNA damage levels before and after intervention (r = 0.48, P < 0.001; r = 0.35, P = 0.006).