Our findings indicate that rosuvastatin dose- dependently ameliorates angiotensin II-induced-organ damage and almost completely prevents inflammation at the highest dose. The data implicate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A function in signaling events leading to target-organ damage.
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HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy frequently develop dyslipidemias and, despite therapy with potent lipid-lowering agents, a high percentage does not achieve guideline recommended lipid targets. In this study, we examined the efficacy of combination treatment with a statin and the cholesterol transport blocker, ezetimibe, vs. monotherapy with a statin in HIV-infected patients not achieving lipid goals.
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The results of this data analysis suggest that increasing the use of rosuvastatin can result in cardiovascular event reduction and cost savings. Because the impact of lipid-modifying therapy on cardiovascular risk has not been thoroughly documented in controlled clinical studies, our model assumed that incremental lipid changes had effects in proportion to the magnitude of change.
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We conducted a Pubmed and Medline literature search (January 2000 to March 2008) to identify all papers on rosuvastatin published in English. Other relevant papers and textbooks from the author's personal collection were also used as references.
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Our results show a direct inhibitory effect of rosuvastatin on IL-6-induced expression of CRP in liver cells. Statins may lower CRP by inhibiting its production in the liver rather than by exerting systemic anti-inflammatory effects. The effects of rosuvastatin in reducing the levels of CRP in plasma may have clinical utility in addition to its effects on atherogenic lipoproteins.
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We designed a pharmacokinetic study and tested ex vivo platelet function on 21 healthy volunteers who received clopidogrel and all currently commercially available statins: rosuvastatin [10 mg o.d.], simvastatin [20 mg o.d.], fluvastatin [80 mg o.d.], pravastatin [40 mg o.d.], and atorvastatin [20 mg o.d.]. Each statin was administered for 7 days followed by 1 week of wash-out period with clopidogrel treatment alone. Detection of the statins in the plasma was performed on all blood samples, using HPLC analytical method.
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Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury was induced in rats, and groups of rats were pretreated with oral rosuvastatin.
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A total of 123 participants were enrolled in this study; these included acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients (n=53), unstable angina patients (UA, n=40), and normal controls (n=30). AMI and UA patients were divided into high-dose rosuvastatin (20 mg) and low-dose rosuvastatin (5 mg) groups. NLRP3, cathepsin-B, and downstream cytokine expressions were appropriately evaluated using real-time PCR, flow cytometry, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentrations of serum inflammatory markers were also evaluated for correlation with NLRP3 levels.
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Statin therapy cost $10,889/QALY for vascular event prevention in this population. Results were sensitive to the cost of statin treatment. Based on 10,000 simulations, statin therapy was cost-effective in 99.5% of simulations, using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $20,000/QALY, and 100% of simulations using a threshold of $50,000/QALY.
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The effects of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin (Crestor) were assessed in healthy young (18-35 years) and elderly (> 65 years) males and females in this open, nonrandomized, noncontrolled, parallel-group trial. Sixteen males and 16 females (8 young and elderly volunteers per gender group) were enrolled. Mean (range) ages were 24 (18-33) and 68 (65-73) years for young and elderly volunteers, respectively. Volunteers were given a single oral 40 mg dose of rosuvastatin. Blood samples for measurement of rosuvastatin plasma concentration were collected up to 96 hours following dosing. Age and gender effects were assessed by constructing 90% confidence intervals (CIs) around the ratios of young/elderly and male/female geometric least square means (glsmeans) for AUC(0-t) and Cmax (derived from ANOVA of log-transformed parameters). Small differences in rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics were noted between age and gender groups. Glsmean AUC(0-t) was 6% higher (90% CI = 0.86-1.30) and glsmean Cmax, 12% higher (90% CI = 0.83-1.51) in the young compared with the elderly group. Glsmean AUC(0-t) was 9% lower (90% CI = 0.74-1.12) and glsmean Cmax 18% lower (90% CI = 0.61-1.11) in the male compared with the female group. These small differences are not considered clinically relevant, and dose adjustments based on age or gender are not anticipated. Rosuvastatin was well tolerated in all volunteers.
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Twenty-one OHT recipients, median age 66 years, whose lipid levels were sub-optimal on the highest tolerated doses of statins, received ROS in addition to standard immunosuppression. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), liver transaminases (AST) and creatinine kinase (CK) were measured before and during treatment with ROS.
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Statins enhance incorporation of bone marrow-derived cells into experimental neointimal lesions. However, the contribution of progenitor cells to progression of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaques, and the possible modulatory role of statins in this process, remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of rosuvastatin (1 and 10mg/kg BW) and pravastatin (10mg/kg) on progenitor cell mobilisation, recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques, and lesion growth. Statins were administered over 8 weeks to apolipoprotein E knockout mice on atherogenic diet. In addition, mice were lethally irradiated, followed by transplantation of bone marrow from LacZ transgenic mice. Rosuvastatin reduced lesion area and intima-to-media ratio at the brachiocephalic artery compared to vehicle, while both parameters were not significantly altered by pravastatin. Rosuvastatin also augmented endothelialisation (P<0.05) and reduced the smooth muscle cells (SMC) content (P=0.042) of lesions. Numbers of c-kit, sca-1 and flk-1, sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in rosuvastatin compared to control-treated mice, both in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Similarly, the number of spleen-derived acLDL, lectin double-positive progenitor cells (P=0.001) and colony-forming units (P=0.0104) was significantly increased in mice treated with rosuvastatin compared to vehicle alone. In the bone marrow, increased Akt and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation and upregulated SDF1alpha mRNA expression were observed. Importantly, rosuvastatin treatment also increased the plasma levels of c-kit ligand (P=0.003), and the number of c-kit-positive cells within atherosclerotic lesions (P=0.041). Our findings suggest that rosuvastatin reduces the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment into vascular lesions.
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Ten apparently healthy subjects were given 40 mg of simvastatin and tested for urinary α1-microglobulin, albumin, creatinine and cystatin C, up to 24 h after administration. Additionally, urine samples of 76 statin-treated and 456 untreated patients presenting with micro-albuminuria (albuminuria range between 20 and 200 mg/L) were tested for α1-microglobulin and albumin. α1-Microglobulin/albumin ratios were compared. Total cholesterol was measured in 50 patients on statin therapy.
This open-label, single-arm, pharmacokinetic (PK) study in HIV-seronegative volunteers evaluated the bioequivalence of rosuvastatin and lopinavir/ritonavir when administered alone and in combination. Tolerability and lipid changes were also assessed.
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We showed that the association between ApoB and LDL-C is similar across different lipid-lowering treatment regimes, which suggests that the use of different lipid-lowering agent confers similar ability to predict ApoB levels. When determining CVD risk at an individual patient level, limitation exists when using LDL-C or nonHDL-C per se as risk markers. In the absence of ApoB measurement, we believe that information from both LDL-C and nonHDL-C should be used together to improve the estimation of residual CVD risk among patients who are already receiving lipid lowering therapy.
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This study indicated that the number of outcome events is less than 1 per 3000 person years. This study in more than 45,000 Dutch statin users suggests that rosuvastatin does not lead to an increased incidence of rhabdomyolysis, myopathy, acute renal failure or hepatic impairment compared to other statins.
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Rosuvastatin and fenofibrate are lipid-regulating agents with different modes of action. Patients with dyslipidemia who have not achieved treatment targets with monotherapy may benefit from the combination of these agents.
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High hsCRP, as defined by JUPITER, was not associated with CAC and was mildly associated with cIMT in the absence of obesity. In contrast, obesity was associated with both measures of subclinical atherosclerosis independently of hsCRP status.
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Baseline characteristics of the 16,279 JUPITER study participants (mean age, 66 years; 62% men; 72% white; and 58% with a history of hypertension) who had both a baseline and ≥ 1 postbaseline serum creatinine measurement were similar to the entire population of 17,802 patients who entered the trial. The mean age of the study population was 66 years, 62% were men, 72% were white, and 58% had a history of hypertension. Mean (SD) serum creatinine increased from baseline by 0.08 (0.16) mg/dL and 0.09 (0.14) mg/dL in the rosuvastatin and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.001) at year 1 and by 0.09 (0.18) and 0.10 (0.16) mg/dL (P = 0.0045) at the final visit. Reductions in MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR were ∼ 0.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) greater with placebo than with rosuvastatin (P < 0.004) at year 1 and the final visit. The magnitude of eGFR change was closely related to baseline eGFR, with greater reductions among subjects with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in both the rosuvastatin and placebo groups. Among those with an eGFR ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , mean changes at year 1 and final visit ranged from -16 to -23 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with MDRD and CKD-EPI, respectively; in contrast, mean changes were <1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in subjects with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) .
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This study suggests that rosuvastatin and olmesartan did not significantly influence each other's pharmacokinetics when coadministered. Although the pharmacokinetics of N-desmethyl rosuvastatin were influenced by olmesartan, such interactions were considered clinically insignificant. All 3 formulations were well tolerated, and no serious adverse events or drug reactions were noted.
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Rosuvastatin was more effective than other statins in reducing LDL, triglyceride (except vs atorvastatin), and total cholesterol levels. Significantly more patients taking rosuvastatin than patients taking other statins attained their LDL goals.
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We performed a sub-analysis of a clinical trial that determined the 20-week-effects of two statins (rosuvastatin, n=14; atorvastatin, n=14) combined with regular exercise on renal function, as assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) of CAD patients.
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Total oversupply expenditure for fiscal year 2009 was 56.9 million Baht when summedfrom monthly basis and 62.0 million when performed as a whole year. Oversupply expenditure was 2.12 to 2.73%per month in term of money and 2.91 to 3.46% in term of quantity. In September 2009, cardiovascular & hematopoietic system had the most oversupply. By brand of drug, the most frequently oversupply were Calcium carbonate (7.60%), Simvastatin (3.69%) and Omeprazole (3.20%). In term of money, the top three highest costs were for Atorvastatin (7.27%), Clopidogrel (6.83%) and Rosuvastatin (4.24%). By health schemes, patients under CSMBS trend to be the most of prescribed drug oversupply at 8.31% (3.21 million Baht in September 2009) with average number of oversupply per patient at 1.83 items and average day left per drug item at 61.83 days.
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Using information from an electronic medical records database, for patients >or=18 years of age who received newly prescribed statin therapy during August 2003 to March 2006, who were switched to either rosuvastatin or simvastatin, and who had LDL-C values at baseline, switch and postswitch data were included (N = 277). Percent LDL-C reduction between patients switched to rosuvastatin (n = 155) and those switched to simvastatin (n = 122) were compared. Linear regression model was adjusted for percent LDL-C change from preswitch to switch, LDL-C at time of switch, age, sex, smoking, statin aggressiveness, and therapy duration postswitch. Percent LDL-C reduction for patients switched from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin to simvastatin was also compared.
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This study assessed the metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of radiolabeled rosuvastatin ([14C]-rosuvastatin) in healthy volunteers.
To assess whether very intensive statin therapy could regress coronary atherosclerosis as determined by IVUS imaging.
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Results indicate that rosuvastatin 20 mg treatment is a cost-effective option vs no-treatment in patients with Framingham CVD risk >20% in Sweden and might even be cost saving if taking a long-term perspective.
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The present analysis supports concerns about the relative safety of rosuvastatin at the range of doses used in common clinical practice in the general population.
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The dose range for rosuvastatin in Europe has recently been expanded to 5 to 40 mg and is now in line with the dose range currently available in the United States.