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We report the case of a 31-month-old girl, treated by the ifosfamide-vincristine-actinomycin chemotherapy protocol for vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma, who developed a unilateral left ptosis on day 36 of chemotherapy, i.e. 7 days after the fifth vincristine dose (1.5mg/m(2) or 0.90 mg). The cumulative vincristine dose was thus 4.50mg. The remainder of the neurological and systemic examinations were unremarkable. Laboratory testing and thoracic-cervical-cranial CT were normal. Other causes of ptosis were excluded. The ptosis decreased a few days after the infusion of vincristine and re-increased just after a new dose. It finally resolved upon lowering the dose of vincristine. According to our observations, the role of vincristine in the pathogenesis of this ptosis appears "likely". In such cases, maintenance of treatment is possible with adjustment of vincristine doses, but requires regular follow-up.
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Studies suggest that MRI is an accurate means for assessing tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). However, accuracy might be dependent on the receptor status of tumors. MRI accuracy for response assessment after homogenous NAC in a relative large group of patients with stage II/III HER2-negative breast cancer has not been reported before.
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In well designed recent studies, infections were found to be common during the first 6-12 months in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to contribute significantly to increased mortality during this period. New therapeutic schemes with lower cyclophosphamide doses and shorter corticosteroid courses were associated with decreased infectious rates in elderly patients with AAV whereas a prednisone dose greater than 10 mg/day at the end of the first year were associated with increased infectious-related mortality in patients with GCA. Recently, a potential role for varicella zoster virus in GCA pathogenesis has been proposed but more data are needed in order to establish a causal relationship. Finally, preliminary data show excellent short-term efficacy and safety of the new, interferon-free, oral antiviral agents in the treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.
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To measure the total amount of cyclophosphamide (CPA) excreted in the urine of patients with cancer and their cohabitating family members seven days after CPA administration.
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Long term follow-up of two randomised, clinical trials with 1100 patients was carried out. Pre-menopausal women were allocated to radiotherapy (RT), RT+oral cyclophosphamide (RT+C) or cyclophosphamide only (C). Post-menopausal women were allocated to RT, RT+Tamoxifen for one year (RT+Tam) or tamoxifen only (Tam). Information on admission to hospital, mortality and causes of death was obtained from national registers.
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Thus, idarubicin cannot be used instead doxorubicin even if its dose is escalated to achieve similar hematotoxicity. Doxorubicin remains the standard anthracycline for the treatment of aggressive NHL.
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The records of 60 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases who received treatment with CYC were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the rate of severe infections that occurred during CYC therapy and the 3 subsequent months.
The combination of metronomic cyclophosphamide, imatinib, and bevacizumab is safe and tolerable without significant drug interactions. A subset of patients experienced prolonged stable disease independent of dose level.
The median progression-free survival (PFS) of patients carrying the Lys/Lys and Lys/Gln+Gln/Gln genotype of the XPC Lys/Gln polymorphism were 25 and 12 months, respectively (P=0.039); and the mean overall survival (OS) of patients was 31.1 and 27.8 months, respectively (P=0.048). Cox's multivariate analysis suggested that patients with epithelial ovarian cancer with the Gln allele had an increased risk of death (HR=1.75; 95% CI=1.06-2.91) compared to those with the Lys/Lys genotype. There are no associations between the XPC PAT+/-, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln, and XPD Asp312Asn, Lys751Gln polymorphisms and the survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer when treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
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To compare benefits and harms of lupus nephritis (LN) induction and maintenance treatments.
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Treatment with metronomic chemotherapy in combination with bevacizumab and erlotinib was effective in HER2(-), estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-poor advanced breast cancer.
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We conducted a prospective analytical study on the implementation of a CPOE system at the Pharmacy Department of the Hospital Ramon y Cajal (Madrid, Spain). The study comprised three phases: a pre-implementation phase, an implementation phase conducted in the Haematology Department and a post-implementation phase, which was conducted 5 years after the implementation of the CPOE system. One hundred and fifty prescriptions per pre- and post-implementation phase were consecutively included in the study. A previously described classification scheme was used to detect and classify MEs.
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This study examined whether the laser-capture microdissection (LCM) method can achieve separation of urothelial cells from detrusor cells or superficial urothelial cells from intermediate/basal urothelial cells, using α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). In addition, we investigated the changes in expression of muscarinic receptors in laser-captured urothelial and detrusor cells in rats with chronic cystitis.
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Drug-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated in tumor recurrence following chemotherapy. However, the contribution of CSCs to drug-resistance in colorectal cancer is unclear and CSC-intrinsic drug-resistance mechanisms are ill-defined. Here, we address these issues by proteomic analysis of the secretomes of CSCs and isogenic differentiated tumor cells (DTCs) isolated from three distinct metastasized colon tumors. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics identified 1254 unique proteins in the conditioned media of the paired CSC and DTC cultures. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that proteins governing 'Cell Death' were most significantly enriched in the CSC secretome. The vast majority of these (37/43) promote cell survival. The CSC secretome is also characterized by a pro-survival Nrf2 antioxidant signature. Interestingly, proteome-maintenance networks are highly enriched in the CSC secretome. CSCs also secrete high levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1) and bleomycin hydrolase (BLMH). We show that these enzymes cause extracellular detoxification of maphosphamide and bleomycin respectively. We conclude that colorectal CSCs are characterized by extensive survival and anti-oxidant networks, which are likely to contribute to CSC-intrinsic drug-resistance. In addition, CSCs may modulate drug responses in nearby tumor cells by detoxifying chemotherapeutic drugs in the extracellular space.
Plasma cyclophosphamide concentrations and blood cell G-NOR-G amounts were measured.
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The diagnosis is established by blood counts, blood smears, and immunophenotyping of circulating B-lymphocytes, which identify a clonal B-cell population carrying the CD5 antigen as well as B-cell markers.
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Seventeen studies comprising 23 trial arms met the inclusion criteria. The analysis recruited a total of 2257 patients. The study period ranged from 1976 to 2006. Using univariate analysis, the planned dosage and DI of methotrexate and ifosfamide correlated with better 5-year EFS (P = 0.001 for methotrexate dosage; P = 0.030 for ifosfamide dosage; P < 0.001 for methotrexate DI; and P = 0.033 for ifosfamide DI). There was a trend toward worse 5-year EFS with increase of doxorubicin DI (P = 0.055). Based on the partial regression analysis, the association of doxorubicin DI and ifosfamide dosage and DI with EFS became no longer statistically significant, and the planned total dosage and DI of methotrexate remained significantly correlated with better 5-year EFS (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively).
The patient was a 68-year-old woman who received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy(4 courses of weekly paclitaxel plus bevacizumab and 4 courses of 5-fluorouracil epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide)for cT1N1M0, Stage II A right-sided triplenegative breast cancer(TNBC). Right breast-conserving surgery with axillary lymph-node dissection was performed. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was a complete response. Six months after surgery, the patient developed lower and right-sided back pain. Detailed examination revealed multiple metastases to the liver, bone, lymph nodes of the mediastinum, and bile duct. The recurrence was treated with biweekly paclitaxel plus bevacizumab. The patient's pain dramatically improved. However, the duration of the response was only 3 months. The patient received eribulin as a second-line treatment, but did not respond and subsequently died. TNBC is considered to have relatively good outcomes if a pathological complete response(pCR)is obtained after preoperative chemotherapy. However, recurrence occurred after only 6months in our patient. In patients with TNBC, physical examinations and simple laboratory tests should be performed every 1 to 2 months after surgery, even if a pathological complete response is obtained. We used paclitaxel plus bevacizumab to treat recurrence of TNBC. Although this treatment did not prolong overall or disease-free survival, the patient temporarily responded, and her quality of life was maintained. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of TNBC and to develop more effective treatments.
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can be classified by gene expression profiling into germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes with different prognoses after rituximab-CHOP. The importance of previously recognized prognostic markers, such as Bcl-2 protein expression and BCL2 gene abnormalities, has been questioned in the new therapeutic era. We analyzed Bcl-2 protein expression, and BCL2 and MYC gene abnormalities by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 327 patients with de novo disease treated with rituximab-CHOP. Isolated BCL2 and MYC rearrangements were not predictive of outcome in our patients as a whole, but only in those with the germinal center subtype of lymphoma. The prognostic relevance of isolated MYC rearrangements was weaker than that of BCL2 isolated translocations, but was probably limited by the rarity of the rearrangements. Seven of eight patients with double hit lymphoma had the germinal center subtype with poor outcome. The germinal center subtype patients with isolated BCL2 translocations had significantly worse outcome than the patients without BCL2 rearrangements (P=0.0002), and their outcome was similar to that of patients with the activated B-cell subtype (P=0.30), but not as bad as the outcome of patients with double hit lymphoma (P<0.0001). Bcl-2 protein overexpression was associated with inferior outcome in patients with germinal center subtype lymphoma, but multivariate analysis showed that this was dependent on BCL2 translocations. The gene expression profiling of patients with BCL2 rearrangements was unique, showing activation of pathways that were silent in the negative counterpart. BCL2 translocated germinal center subtype patients have worse prognosis after rituximab-CHOP, irrespective of MYC status, but the presence of combined gene breaks significantly overcomes the prognostic relevance of isolated lesions.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease with different clinical forms of presentation, including a wide range of severity and organic involvement. Such circumstance, along with the fact of the uncommon nature of the disease and the absence of clinically representative response criteria, make it difficult to design controlled clinical trials in SLE patients. As a result, observational studies have a special relevance, being a source of valuable information of SLE prognosis and outcome as well as of the efficacy and adverse effects of the different therapies. Herein we update some of the main treatments used in SLE. Steroids may have more risks than benefits if used at high doses. New mechanisms of action have been described, supporting the use of lower doses, possibly with the same efficacy and less adverse effects. Intravenous pulses of cyclophosphamide still have a role in the treatment of proliferative lupus nephritis and other serious SLE manifestations. Mycophenolate mofetil has shown its efficacy both as induction and maintenance therapy of selected cases of lupus nephritis. Biological therapies have emerged as new promising options. Although clinical trials have not confirmed a clear superiority of rituximab in SLE, observational studies have shown good response rates in severe SLE manifestations or refractory forms. Belimumab has recently been added to the therapeutic armamentarium of SLE; although its place in clinical practice is not well-defined, it may be recommended in active patients with no response or good tolerance to standard therapies. Hydroxichloroquine improves survival, decreases the risk of thrombosis and flares and is safe in pregnancy, and should be considered the baseline therapy in most SLE patients.
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We describe a case of severe leukocytosis caused by leukemic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), complicated by leukostasis with myocardial infarction in which leukapheresis was used in the initial management. A 73-year-old male presented to the emergency department because of fatigue and thoracic pain. Blood count revealed 630 × 10(9)/L WBC (white blood cells). The electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with an increase of troponin and creatinine kinase. The diagnosis was ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) induced and complicated by leukostasis. Immunophenotyping, morphology, cytogenetic and fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization analysis revealed the diagnosis of a blastoid variant of MCL. To remove leukocytes rapidly, leukapheresis was performed in the intensive care unit. Based on the differential blood count with 95% blasts, which were assigned to the lymphocyte population by the automatic hematology analyzer, leukapheresis procedures were then performed with the mononuclear cell standard program on the Spectra cell separator. The patient was treated with daily leukapheresis for 3 days. The WBC count decreased to 174 × 10(9)/L after the third leukapheresis, with a 72% reduction. After the second apheresis, treatment with vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisolone was started. The patient fully recovered in the further course of the treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on blastoid MCL with leukostasis associated with a STEMI that was successfully treated by leukapheresis. Effective harvest of circulating lymphoma cells by leukapheresis requires adaptation of instrument settings based on the results of the differential blood count prior to apheresis.
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Patients with double-hit lymphoma treated with CODOX-M/IVAC+R followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation can achieve durable remissions, although disease progression before transplantation remains a significant problem.
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This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of an extract of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), an antioxidative medicinal plant, against CP-induced oxidative lung damage in mice.
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Nasal extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, which is a highly aggressive disease, is more frequently seen in Asia than in Western countries. No consensus has been reached on the management of the disease and the survival depends on the stage of the disease. Localized NK/T-cell lymphoma often responds to radiotherapy well. However, patients with advanced disease or recurrence after chemoradiotherapy, similar to our patient, have a very poor prognosis. In this article, we present a 52-year-old male patient with early recurrence and who was refractory to chemotherapy. The management of the disease was reviewed in the light of the recent literature data.
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Immunosuppression by biologic response modifiers (BRM) is a crucial component for successful organ transplantation. In addition to their variable effectiveness in the prevention of organ rejection, these medications have safety concerns that complicate therapeutic outcomes in organ transplant patients.
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Radiation therapy (RT) has been described as the most effective single agent in the treatment of lymphoma; however, contemporary lymphoma treatment rarely relies on single agents. In the modern era, the selection of appropriate patients for combined modality therapy has become increasingly complex over the last decade with the transition to immunochemotherapy, the emergence of functional imaging for response evaluation, and the improvement in conformal avoidance of normal tissues when delivering RT. Recent evidence demonstrates that selected patients with DLBCL have significantly better outcomes when RT is added to immunochemotherapy; however, there are important knowledge gaps regarding the use of functional imaging to facilitate treatment selection. This article will review the current evidence regarding the optimal use of combined modality therapy for DLBCL.
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Conventional chemotherapy is the mainstay of adjuvant systemic treatment for most patients with early triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). At present, comparisons between adjuvant chemotherapy regimens are retrospective in nature, and so the optimal drugs or drug combinations have not been established for patients with early TNBC. In retrospective subgroup analyses, taxanes are more effective than 5-fluorouracil in combination with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. Classical CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil) has shown efficacy, whereas few data on the role of anthracyclines are available. An unplanned subgroup analysis of one randomised study suggests that capecitabine adds efficacy to a taxane-anthracycline regimen, but this observation requires confirmation. High-dose adjuvant chemotherapy is considered experimental. Ongoing trials are comparing standard adjuvant regimens with regimens that integrate an anti-angiogenic agent, a platin or maintenance capecitabine. Inhibitors of DNA repair or specific tyrosine kinases have not yet been addressed in the adjuvant setting. In the absence of data from prospective trials that focus on adjuvant therapy of early TNBC, several regimens, such as a taxane and an anthracycline-containing regimen or classical CMF may be considered reasonable choices.