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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)
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Cytoxan

Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel

 

Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.

Description

Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.

Dosage

Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

cytoxan chemo drug

We report the case of a 31-month-old girl, treated by the ifosfamide-vincristine-actinomycin chemotherapy protocol for vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma, who developed a unilateral left ptosis on day 36 of chemotherapy, i.e. 7 days after the fifth vincristine dose (1.5mg/m(2) or 0.90 mg). The cumulative vincristine dose was thus 4.50mg. The remainder of the neurological and systemic examinations were unremarkable. Laboratory testing and thoracic-cervical-cranial CT were normal. Other causes of ptosis were excluded. The ptosis decreased a few days after the infusion of vincristine and re-increased just after a new dose. It finally resolved upon lowering the dose of vincristine. According to our observations, the role of vincristine in the pathogenesis of this ptosis appears "likely". In such cases, maintenance of treatment is possible with adjustment of vincristine doses, but requires regular follow-up.

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Studies suggest that MRI is an accurate means for assessing tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). However, accuracy might be dependent on the receptor status of tumors. MRI accuracy for response assessment after homogenous NAC in a relative large group of patients with stage II/III HER2-negative breast cancer has not been reported before.

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In well designed recent studies, infections were found to be common during the first 6-12 months in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to contribute significantly to increased mortality during this period. New therapeutic schemes with lower cyclophosphamide doses and shorter corticosteroid courses were associated with decreased infectious rates in elderly patients with AAV whereas a prednisone dose greater than 10 mg/day at the end of the first year were associated with increased infectious-related mortality in patients with GCA. Recently, a potential role for varicella zoster virus in GCA pathogenesis has been proposed but more data are needed in order to establish a causal relationship. Finally, preliminary data show excellent short-term efficacy and safety of the new, interferon-free, oral antiviral agents in the treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.

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To measure the total amount of cyclophosphamide (CPA) excreted in the urine of patients with cancer and their cohabitating family members seven days after CPA administration.

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Long term follow-up of two randomised, clinical trials with 1100 patients was carried out. Pre-menopausal women were allocated to radiotherapy (RT), RT+oral cyclophosphamide (RT+C) or cyclophosphamide only (C). Post-menopausal women were allocated to RT, RT+Tamoxifen for one year (RT+Tam) or tamoxifen only (Tam). Information on admission to hospital, mortality and causes of death was obtained from national registers.

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Thus, idarubicin cannot be used instead doxorubicin even if its dose is escalated to achieve similar hematotoxicity. Doxorubicin remains the standard anthracycline for the treatment of aggressive NHL.

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The records of 60 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases who received treatment with CYC were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the rate of severe infections that occurred during CYC therapy and the 3 subsequent months.

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The combination of metronomic cyclophosphamide, imatinib, and bevacizumab is safe and tolerable without significant drug interactions. A subset of patients experienced prolonged stable disease independent of dose level.

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The median progression-free survival (PFS) of patients carrying the Lys/Lys and Lys/Gln+Gln/Gln genotype of the XPC Lys/Gln polymorphism were 25 and 12 months, respectively (P=0.039); and the mean overall survival (OS) of patients was 31.1 and 27.8 months, respectively (P=0.048). Cox's multivariate analysis suggested that patients with epithelial ovarian cancer with the Gln allele had an increased risk of death (HR=1.75; 95% CI=1.06-2.91) compared to those with the Lys/Lys genotype. There are no associations between the XPC PAT+/-, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln, and XPD Asp312Asn, Lys751Gln polymorphisms and the survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer when treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

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To compare benefits and harms of lupus nephritis (LN) induction and maintenance treatments.

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Treatment with metronomic chemotherapy in combination with bevacizumab and erlotinib was effective in HER2(-), estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-poor advanced breast cancer.

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We conducted a prospective analytical study on the implementation of a CPOE system at the Pharmacy Department of the Hospital Ramon y Cajal (Madrid, Spain). The study comprised three phases: a pre-implementation phase, an implementation phase conducted in the Haematology Department and a post-implementation phase, which was conducted 5 years after the implementation of the CPOE system. One hundred and fifty prescriptions per pre- and post-implementation phase were consecutively included in the study. A previously described classification scheme was used to detect and classify MEs.

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This study examined whether the laser-capture microdissection (LCM) method can achieve separation of urothelial cells from detrusor cells or superficial urothelial cells from intermediate/basal urothelial cells, using α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). In addition, we investigated the changes in expression of muscarinic receptors in laser-captured urothelial and detrusor cells in rats with chronic cystitis.

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Drug-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated in tumor recurrence following chemotherapy. However, the contribution of CSCs to drug-resistance in colorectal cancer is unclear and CSC-intrinsic drug-resistance mechanisms are ill-defined. Here, we address these issues by proteomic analysis of the secretomes of CSCs and isogenic differentiated tumor cells (DTCs) isolated from three distinct metastasized colon tumors. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics identified 1254 unique proteins in the conditioned media of the paired CSC and DTC cultures. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that proteins governing 'Cell Death' were most significantly enriched in the CSC secretome. The vast majority of these (37/43) promote cell survival. The CSC secretome is also characterized by a pro-survival Nrf2 antioxidant signature. Interestingly, proteome-maintenance networks are highly enriched in the CSC secretome. CSCs also secrete high levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1) and bleomycin hydrolase (BLMH). We show that these enzymes cause extracellular detoxification of maphosphamide and bleomycin respectively. We conclude that colorectal CSCs are characterized by extensive survival and anti-oxidant networks, which are likely to contribute to CSC-intrinsic drug-resistance. In addition, CSCs may modulate drug responses in nearby tumor cells by detoxifying chemotherapeutic drugs in the extracellular space.

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Plasma cyclophosphamide concentrations and blood cell G-NOR-G amounts were measured.

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The diagnosis is established by blood counts, blood smears, and immunophenotyping of circulating B-lymphocytes, which identify a clonal B-cell population carrying the CD5 antigen as well as B-cell markers.

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Seventeen studies comprising 23 trial arms met the inclusion criteria. The analysis recruited a total of 2257 patients. The study period ranged from 1976 to 2006. Using univariate analysis, the planned dosage and DI of methotrexate and ifosfamide correlated with better 5-year EFS (P = 0.001 for methotrexate dosage; P = 0.030 for ifosfamide dosage; P < 0.001 for methotrexate DI; and P = 0.033 for ifosfamide DI). There was a trend toward worse 5-year EFS with increase of doxorubicin DI (P = 0.055). Based on the partial regression analysis, the association of doxorubicin DI and ifosfamide dosage and DI with EFS became no longer statistically significant, and the planned total dosage and DI of methotrexate remained significantly correlated with better 5-year EFS (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively).

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The patient was a 68-year-old woman who received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy(4 courses of weekly paclitaxel plus bevacizumab and 4 courses of 5-fluorouracil epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide)for cT1N1M0, Stage II A right-sided triplenegative breast cancer(TNBC). Right breast-conserving surgery with axillary lymph-node dissection was performed. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was a complete response. Six months after surgery, the patient developed lower and right-sided back pain. Detailed examination revealed multiple metastases to the liver, bone, lymph nodes of the mediastinum, and bile duct. The recurrence was treated with biweekly paclitaxel plus bevacizumab. The patient's pain dramatically improved. However, the duration of the response was only 3 months. The patient received eribulin as a second-line treatment, but did not respond and subsequently died. TNBC is considered to have relatively good outcomes if a pathological complete response(pCR)is obtained after preoperative chemotherapy. However, recurrence occurred after only 6months in our patient. In patients with TNBC, physical examinations and simple laboratory tests should be performed every 1 to 2 months after surgery, even if a pathological complete response is obtained. We used paclitaxel plus bevacizumab to treat recurrence of TNBC. Although this treatment did not prolong overall or disease-free survival, the patient temporarily responded, and her quality of life was maintained. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of TNBC and to develop more effective treatments.

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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can be classified by gene expression profiling into germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes with different prognoses after rituximab-CHOP. The importance of previously recognized prognostic markers, such as Bcl-2 protein expression and BCL2 gene abnormalities, has been questioned in the new therapeutic era. We analyzed Bcl-2 protein expression, and BCL2 and MYC gene abnormalities by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 327 patients with de novo disease treated with rituximab-CHOP. Isolated BCL2 and MYC rearrangements were not predictive of outcome in our patients as a whole, but only in those with the germinal center subtype of lymphoma. The prognostic relevance of isolated MYC rearrangements was weaker than that of BCL2 isolated translocations, but was probably limited by the rarity of the rearrangements. Seven of eight patients with double hit lymphoma had the germinal center subtype with poor outcome. The germinal center subtype patients with isolated BCL2 translocations had significantly worse outcome than the patients without BCL2 rearrangements (P=0.0002), and their outcome was similar to that of patients with the activated B-cell subtype (P=0.30), but not as bad as the outcome of patients with double hit lymphoma (P<0.0001). Bcl-2 protein overexpression was associated with inferior outcome in patients with germinal center subtype lymphoma, but multivariate analysis showed that this was dependent on BCL2 translocations. The gene expression profiling of patients with BCL2 rearrangements was unique, showing activation of pathways that were silent in the negative counterpart. BCL2 translocated germinal center subtype patients have worse prognosis after rituximab-CHOP, irrespective of MYC status, but the presence of combined gene breaks significantly overcomes the prognostic relevance of isolated lesions.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease with different clinical forms of presentation, including a wide range of severity and organic involvement. Such circumstance, along with the fact of the uncommon nature of the disease and the absence of clinically representative response criteria, make it difficult to design controlled clinical trials in SLE patients. As a result, observational studies have a special relevance, being a source of valuable information of SLE prognosis and outcome as well as of the efficacy and adverse effects of the different therapies. Herein we update some of the main treatments used in SLE. Steroids may have more risks than benefits if used at high doses. New mechanisms of action have been described, supporting the use of lower doses, possibly with the same efficacy and less adverse effects. Intravenous pulses of cyclophosphamide still have a role in the treatment of proliferative lupus nephritis and other serious SLE manifestations. Mycophenolate mofetil has shown its efficacy both as induction and maintenance therapy of selected cases of lupus nephritis. Biological therapies have emerged as new promising options. Although clinical trials have not confirmed a clear superiority of rituximab in SLE, observational studies have shown good response rates in severe SLE manifestations or refractory forms. Belimumab has recently been added to the therapeutic armamentarium of SLE; although its place in clinical practice is not well-defined, it may be recommended in active patients with no response or good tolerance to standard therapies. Hydroxichloroquine improves survival, decreases the risk of thrombosis and flares and is safe in pregnancy, and should be considered the baseline therapy in most SLE patients.

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We describe a case of severe leukocytosis caused by leukemic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), complicated by leukostasis with myocardial infarction in which leukapheresis was used in the initial management. A 73-year-old male presented to the emergency department because of fatigue and thoracic pain. Blood count revealed 630 × 10(9)/L WBC (white blood cells). The electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with an increase of troponin and creatinine kinase. The diagnosis was ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) induced and complicated by leukostasis. Immunophenotyping, morphology, cytogenetic and fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization analysis revealed the diagnosis of a blastoid variant of MCL. To remove leukocytes rapidly, leukapheresis was performed in the intensive care unit. Based on the differential blood count with 95% blasts, which were assigned to the lymphocyte population by the automatic hematology analyzer, leukapheresis procedures were then performed with the mononuclear cell standard program on the Spectra cell separator. The patient was treated with daily leukapheresis for 3 days. The WBC count decreased to 174 × 10(9)/L after the third leukapheresis, with a 72% reduction. After the second apheresis, treatment with vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisolone was started. The patient fully recovered in the further course of the treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on blastoid MCL with leukostasis associated with a STEMI that was successfully treated by leukapheresis. Effective harvest of circulating lymphoma cells by leukapheresis requires adaptation of instrument settings based on the results of the differential blood count prior to apheresis.

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Patients with double-hit lymphoma treated with CODOX-M/IVAC+R followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation can achieve durable remissions, although disease progression before transplantation remains a significant problem.

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This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of an extract of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), an antioxidative medicinal plant, against CP-induced oxidative lung damage in mice.

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Nasal extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, which is a highly aggressive disease, is more frequently seen in Asia than in Western countries. No consensus has been reached on the management of the disease and the survival depends on the stage of the disease. Localized NK/T-cell lymphoma often responds to radiotherapy well. However, patients with advanced disease or recurrence after chemoradiotherapy, similar to our patient, have a very poor prognosis. In this article, we present a 52-year-old male patient with early recurrence and who was refractory to chemotherapy. The management of the disease was reviewed in the light of the recent literature data.

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Immunosuppression by biologic response modifiers (BRM) is a crucial component for successful organ transplantation. In addition to their variable effectiveness in the prevention of organ rejection, these medications have safety concerns that complicate therapeutic outcomes in organ transplant patients.

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Radiation therapy (RT) has been described as the most effective single agent in the treatment of lymphoma; however, contemporary lymphoma treatment rarely relies on single agents. In the modern era, the selection of appropriate patients for combined modality therapy has become increasingly complex over the last decade with the transition to immunochemotherapy, the emergence of functional imaging for response evaluation, and the improvement in conformal avoidance of normal tissues when delivering RT. Recent evidence demonstrates that selected patients with DLBCL have significantly better outcomes when RT is added to immunochemotherapy; however, there are important knowledge gaps regarding the use of functional imaging to facilitate treatment selection. This article will review the current evidence regarding the optimal use of combined modality therapy for DLBCL.

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Conventional chemotherapy is the mainstay of adjuvant systemic treatment for most patients with early triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). At present, comparisons between adjuvant chemotherapy regimens are retrospective in nature, and so the optimal drugs or drug combinations have not been established for patients with early TNBC. In retrospective subgroup analyses, taxanes are more effective than 5-fluorouracil in combination with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. Classical CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil) has shown efficacy, whereas few data on the role of anthracyclines are available. An unplanned subgroup analysis of one randomised study suggests that capecitabine adds efficacy to a taxane-anthracycline regimen, but this observation requires confirmation. High-dose adjuvant chemotherapy is considered experimental. Ongoing trials are comparing standard adjuvant regimens with regimens that integrate an anti-angiogenic agent, a platin or maintenance capecitabine. Inhibitors of DNA repair or specific tyrosine kinases have not yet been addressed in the adjuvant setting. In the absence of data from prospective trials that focus on adjuvant therapy of early TNBC, several regimens, such as a taxane and an anthracycline-containing regimen or classical CMF may be considered reasonable choices.

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cytoxan oral medication 2015-11-11

The low-molecular weight dipeptide bestatin is a potent inhibitor of aminopeptidase N and has been demonstrated to have antitumor and immunomodulatory effects. The effects of bestatin on interleukin (IL)-1β synthesis and release by peritoneal buy cytoxan macrophages stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli, the phagocytic and oxidative burst activity from peripheral blood monocytes and granulocytes and the number of blood leukocytes and blood picture in cyclophosphamide-treated mice were tested. Bestatin at doses of 1 and 0.1 mg/kg was injected into cyclophosphamide-treated mice ip five times on alternating days or ten times at 24 h intervals. The first dose of bestatin was administered 24 h after a single injection of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 350 mg/kg. It was found that bestatin administered at doses of 1 and 0.1 mg/kg five times on alternating days increased the synthesis and release of IL-1β by resident peritoneal murine macrophages stimulated in vitro with LPS in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. The immunocorrecting action of bestatin on the picture of peripheral blood in cyclophosphamide-treated mice was primarily observed with young forms of neutrophilic granulocytes. The changes were observed irrespective of the dosage and the number of subsequent doses applied. Moreover, the administration of bestatin after pharmacological immunosuppression partially prevented the suppressive effects of cyclophosphamide on the oxidative burst activity of peripheral blood monocytes and stimulated the phagocytic activity of granulocytes.

cytoxan generic 2017-11-19

Morbidly buy cytoxan obese patients who accomplish substantial weight loss often display a long-term decline in their resting metabolism, causing even relatively restrained caloric intake to trigger a relapse to the obese state. Paradoxically, we observed that morbidly obese mice receiving chemotherapy for cancer experienced spontaneous weight reduction despite unabated ingestion of their high fat diet (HFD). This response to chemotherapy could also be achieved in morbidly obese mice without cancer. Optimally dosed methotrexate (MTX) or cyclophosphamide (CY) enabled the mice to completely and safely normalize their body weight despite continued consumption of obesogenic quantities of HFD. Weight reduction was not attributable to decreased HFD intake, enhanced energy expenditure or malabsorption. MTX or CY dosing significantly depleted both adipose tissue and preadipocyte progenitors. Remarkably, however, despite continued high fat feeding, a compensatory increase in hepatocyte lipid storage was not observed, but rather the opposite. Gene microarray liver analyses demonstrated that HFD mice receiving MTX or CY experienced significantly inhibited lipogenesis and lipid storage, whereas Enho (energy homeostasis) gene expression was significantly upregulated. Further metabolic studies employing a human hepatocellular line revealed that MTX treatment preserved robust oxidative phosphorylation, but also promoted mitochondrial uncoupling with a surge in proton leak. This is the first report that certain optimally dosed chemotherapeutic agents can induce weight loss in morbidly obese mice without reduced dietary intake, apparently by depleting stores of adipocytes and their progenitors, curtailment of lipogenesis, and inconspicuous disposal of incoming dietary lipid via a steady state partial uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

cytoxan 100 mg 2017-02-20

Detailed data on clinical phenotype were collected at baseline and at regular clinic reviews and annual followup assessments in 232 patients from 14 centers across the UK over 4.5 years. Patients with SLE were identified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria. The present cohort comprised children with juvenile buy cytoxan SLE (n=198) whose diagnosis fulfilled ≥4 of the ACR criteria for SLE.

cytoxan iv dosing 2015-11-25

Median follow-up was 12 years (39 days-20 years). Fifty-one percent had died. Incidence of CHF was 2.6/1000/year and equal in the treatment groups. In the sample, buy cytoxan individuals who had received CEF showed no cardiac impairment when compared to individuals who received CMF. NT-proBNP-levels were within normal limits but higher in the CEF-group than in the CMF-group (confidence limits 105-226%, p = 0.03). Results of our study seem reassuring regarding the long-term risk of cardiotoxicity following low-dose adjuvant epirubicin treatment. However, larger, longitudinal studies are needed to establish the clinical implications.

cytoxan iv cost 2017-09-25

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by a proliferation of tumor cells within buy cytoxan the lumina of small to medium-sized vessels. Because there are few or no concomitant solid lesions, a diagnosis of IVLBCL usually cannot be established by CT or MR imaging. Herein, we describe a case of IVLBCL involving the uterus, in which (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) was useful for diagnosis. A 47-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of fever and anemia. Laboratory examination demonstrated anemia and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed hemophagocytosis without involvement of lymphoma cells. Random skin biopsy did not demonstrate lymphoma involvement. FDG-PET/CT imaging showed FDG accumulation in the uterus. MR imaging demonstrated uterine leiomyoma only. Based on these findings, uterine endometrial biopsy was performed and histological diagnosis of IVLBCL involving the uterus was established. She received 6 courses of R-CHOP therapy and high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. At present, she remains in complete remission after 33 months.

cytoxan maximum dose 2017-10-08

There are insufficient toxicity data available to guide treatment decisions in patients with ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody buy cytoxan )-associated vasculitis. The objective of this study was to obtain expert input related to available treatment options.

cytoxan chemotherapy drug 2017-04-18

To assess whether high-molecular-weight proteins excretion predicts outcome and therapy-responsiveness in patients with FSGS and buy cytoxan nephrotic syndrome.

cytoxan 750 mg 2017-08-15

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of HA280 and DNA280 immunoadsorption (IA) column in treating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and buy cytoxan provide the basis for seeking cost-effective solution for SLE.

cytoxan user reviews 2015-07-27

Bisphosphonates prevent skeletal-related events in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Their effect in buy cytoxan early breast cancer is controversial. Ibandronate is an orally and intravenously available amino-bisphosphonate with a favorable toxicity profile. It therefore qualifies as potential agent for adjuvant use.

cytoxan mg 2015-01-31

The clinical efficacy of dexamethasone, methotrexate combined buy cytoxan with cyclophosphamide for treatment of patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma has been confirmed to be satisfactory and it may be used in clinic.

cytoxan drug company 2015-11-26

GFW has buy cytoxan an effect on inhibiting tumor metastasis to some extent.

cytoxan 50 mg 2016-11-08

To evaluate the effect of CHOP-like-14 (with or without rituximab) compared to standard CHOP-like -21 on overall survival ( buy cytoxan OS), disease control and toxicity of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

cytoxan tablets 2017-08-22

Mouse model is an appropriate tool for pathogenic determination and study of host defenses during the fungal infection. Here, we established a mouse model of candidiasis with concurrent oral and vaginal mucosal infection. Two C. albicans strains sourced from clinical candidemia (SC5314) and mucosal infection (ATCC62342) were tested in ICR mice. The different combinational panels covering estrogen and immunosuppressive agents, cortisone, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide were used for concurrent oral and vaginal candidiasis establishment. Prednisolone in combination with estrogen proved an optimal mode for concurrent mucosal infection establishment. The model maintained for 1 week with fungal burden reached at least 10(5) cfu/g of tissue. This mouse model was evaluated by in vivo pharmacodynamics of fluconazole and host mucosal immunity of IL-17 and IL-23. Mice infected by SC5314 were cured by fluconazole. An increase in IL-23 in both oral and vaginal homogenates was observed after infection, while IL-17 only had a prominent elevation in oral tissue. This model could properly mimic complicated clinical conditions and provides a valuable means buy cytoxan for antifungal assay in vivo and may also provide a useful method for the evaluation of host-fungal interactions.

cytoxan iv dosage 2016-07-05

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) International Prognostic Index (IPI) is an enhanced buy cytoxan prognostic tool that has identified some specific extranodal sites as a poor prognostic factor. We retrospectively analyzed 148 Taiwanese patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP)-like regimens from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Tri-Service General Hospital. In univarate analysis, ≥ 2 extranodal involved sites had no significant prognostic relevance (p = 0.108), although extranodal involvement of the lung/pleura, liver, lower urinary tract or bone marrow was a statistically significant poor prognostic factor (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, specific extranodal sites had a stronger predictive value for poor prognosis (relative risk 3.654, 95% confidence interval 1.514-8.815, p = 0.004) compared with the number of extranodal sites involved. This finding suggests that specific extranodal involved sites have prognostic value in the R era.

cytoxan low dosage 2017-04-29

We report two patients with previously diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia who developed Richter syndrome in the orbit as the sole extranodal site. The medical history, clinical findings, orbital imaging and histopathological features of the patients were reviewed. Treatment protocols and the outcomes were also assessed. The first patient developed Richter syndrome at the age of 64 years, 3 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The tumor was located at Buspar Patient Reviews the inferotemporal quadrant of the orbit. The second patient was 59 years old when Richter syndrome arose in the lacrimal gland, 4 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Incisional biopsy from the orbital tumors were performed. Histopathological findings included diffuse CD20, CD 23, CD5, bcl2, bcl6 positive lymphocytic infiltration. Both patients were treated with chemotherapy and rituximab. During 3 years of follow-up, there was no orbital or systemic recurrence of the disease. Richter syndrome may develop in the orbital soft tissue and the lacrimal gland, and the orbital disease appears to have a better prognosis compared to patients with systemic involvement.

cytoxan tablet strength 2016-06-22

The long- Sinemet Overdose term clinical outcome of peripheral neuropathy in patients with EGPA receiving initial corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide combination therapy was favorable with a very low relapse rate.

cytoxan oral tablets 2016-11-17

To evaluate the benefit of low-dose cyclophosphamide and Motrin Infant Dosing methotrexate (CM) maintenance, which previously demonstrated antitumor activity and few adverse effects in advanced breast cancer, in early breast cancer.

cytoxan pill dosage 2017-04-09

Our data suggest that acquired resistance cannot be explained by genetic alterations. Based on integration of transcriptional profiles with transcription factor binding data, we hypothesize that resistance is driven Famvir Maintenance Dose by epigenetic plasticity. We observed that the resistant cells had H3K27me3 and DNA methylation profiles distinct from those of the parental lines. Moreover, we observed DNA methylation changes in the promoters of genes regulated by E2a and members of the polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) and differentially expressed genes were enriched for targets of E2a. The integrative analysis considering H3K27me3 further supported a role for PRC2 in mediating resistance. By integrating our results with data from the Immunological Genome Project (Immgen.org), we showed that these transcriptional changes track the B-cell maturation axis.

cytoxan drug class 2017-09-16

Although rituximab added to CHOP (cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone) is the standard chemotherapy for untreated DLBCL, its therapeutic effect is limited in younger patients with high-intermediate risk or high-risk disease according to the age-adjusted international prognostic index. In Trental Dosage fact, the efficacy and safety of HDT plus rituximab followed by ASCT for such patients remain unclear.

cytoxan oral dosage 2016-08-27

This preliminary study Valtrex 300 Mg allows us to consider implementing the dose banding concept in order to optimize the chemotherapy circuit at our institution.

cytoxan storage 2017-01-14

Recent bortezomib combinations have induced remission in approximately 90% of patients newly diagnosed, with moderate frequency of adverse effects.

cytoxan pills 2015-04-04

Antibodies to complement factor H are an uncommon cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Information on clinical features and outcomes in children is limited. In order to explore this we studied a multicenter cohort of 138 Indian children with anti-complement factor H antibody associated HUS, constituting 56% of patients with HUS. Antibody titers were high (mean 7054 AU/ml) and correlated inversely with levels of complement C3, but not complement factor H. Homozygous deletion of the CFHR1 gene was found in 60 of 68 patients. Therapies included dialysis in 119 children, 105 receiving plasma exchanges and 26 intravenous immunoglobulin. Induction immunosuppression consisted of 87 children receiving prednisolone with or without intravenous cyclophosphamide or rituximab. Antibody titers fell significantly following plasma exchanges and increased during relapses. Adverse outcome (stage 4-5 CKD or death) was seen in 36 at 3 months and 41 by last follow up, with relapse in 14 of 122 available children. Significant independent risk factors for adverse outcome were an antibody titer over 8000 AU/ml, low C3 and delay in plasma exchange. Combined plasma exchanges and induction immunosuppression resulted in significantly improved renal survival: one adverse outcome prevented for every 2.6 patients treated. Maintenance immunosuppressive therapy, of prednisolone with either mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine, significantly reduced the risk of relapses. Thus, prompt use of immunosuppressive agents and plasma exchanges are useful for improving outcomes in pediatric patients with anti-complement factor H-associated HUS.

cytoxan medication 2015-12-02

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are rare lymphomas with mostly poor outcome with current treatment. The addition of etoposide to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) and upfront consolidation with autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) have shown promising results but have never been tested in randomized trials. As a complement to retrospective analyses of clinical trials, we aimed at analyzing prognostic factors and outcome in an unselected, population-based cohort. Through the Swedish Lymphoma Registry, we identified 755 PTCL patients diagnosed during a 10-year period. In addition to International Prognostic Index factors, male gender was associated with an adverse overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.28; P = .011) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 1.26; P = .014). In an intention-to-treat analysis in 252 nodal PTCL and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma patients (excluding anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), upfront auto-SCT was associated with a superior OS (HR, 0.58; P = .004) and PFS (HR, 0.56; P = .002) compared with patients treated without auto-SCT. The addition of etoposide to CHOP resulted in superior PFS in patients ≤60 years (HR, 0.49; P = .008). This study is the largest population-based PTCL cohort reported so far and provides important information on outcome in PTCL outside the setting of clinical trials.