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Amlodipine/valsartan therapy plus hydration did not reduce the risk of CIN in chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 2 patients who underwent elective CAG using a low-osmolar nonionic contrast medium. This is because there was a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the Levey Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula in the amlodipine/valsartan group and CIN occurred at a higher frequency in this group; ARBs and CCBs may be withheld before CAG in high-risk patients.
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Angiotensin II receptor antagonist valsartan can suppress synthesis of collagen III and collagen V by downregulating TGF-beta1 mRNA and protein expression. Valsartan can decrease airway remodeling and could play a role in asthma therapy.
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The pharmacological efficacy of various monotherapy, single pill, and combination therapies of the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan have been established, mainly through randomized controlled trials that used similar methodological and statistical platforms and thus enabled synthesis of evidence. The real world effectiveness of valsartan has been studied extensively, but the relative lack of scientific and technical congruence of these studies render synthesis virtually impossible. To date, all have focused on blood pressure outcomes, despite evidence-based calls to grade antihypertensive treatment to patients' total cardiovascular risk. We review a T3 translational research program of seven studies involving valsartan monotherapy as well as single and separate pill combinations, and the determinants and effect on blood pressure and total cardiovascular risk outcomes. All seven studies examined not only the impact of valsartan-based regimens on blood pressure values and control, but also, within a statistical hierarchical approach, the physician- and patient-related determinants of these blood pressure outcomes. Two studies also investigated the determinants and outcomes of valsartan-based treatment on total cardiovascular risk - among the first studies to use this risk coefficient as an outcome rather than only a determinant. These seven studies included a total of 19,533 patients, contributed by 3434 physician-investigators in Belgium - a country particularly well-suited for observational effectiveness studies because of demographics and epidemiology. Each study used the same methodological and statistical platform. We summarize the impact of various valsartan regimens on such outcomes as blood pressure values and control, change in total cardiovascular risk, and reduction in risk by at least one category. We also review the results of statistical multilevel and logistic modeling of physician- and patient-related determinants on these outcomes, including the proportion of variance attributable to a physician class effect before patients enter the equation. In its different formulations, valsartan has major real-world benefits in lowering blood pressure and total cardiovascular risk within a 90-day period. It is essential to understand the physician- and patient-related determinants of blood pressure and total cardiovascular risk outcomes associated with valsartan treatment. Antihypertensive research should expand its historical focus on lowering blood pressure with an emphasis on lowering total cardiovascular research.
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Neointima volume and atherosclerosis progression 10 mm proximal and distal to the stented segment were analysed using repeat intravascular ultrasonography. baPWV and inflammatory markers such as interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor α, C-reactive protein and adiponectin were compared.
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The rate (per 100 patient-years) of the primary outcome of cardiovascular (CV) death or heart failure hospitalization (HFH) increased from 13.4 to 14.8 across the age categories. The LCZ696:enalapril hazard ratio (HR) was <1.0 in all categories (P for interaction between age category and treatment = 0.94) with an overall HR of 0.80 (0.73, 0.87), P < 0.001. The findings for HFH were similar for CV and all-cause mortality and the age category by treatment interactions were not significant. The pre-specified safety outcomes of hypotension, renal impairment and hyperkalaemia increased in both treatment groups with age, although the differences between treatment (more hypotension but less renal impairment and hyperkalaemia with LCZ696) were consistent across age categories.
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Outcomes were compared among patients who had prior hospitalization within 3 months of screening (n = 1,611 [19%]), between 3 and 6 months (n = 1,009 [12%]), between 6 and 12 months (n = 886 [11%]), >12 months (n = 1,746 [21%]), or who had never been hospitalized (n = 3,125 [37%]).
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Hemodynamic parameters showed no significant change during the measurement in hepatic, superior and right and left renal arteries. Valsartan induced a significant decrease (p<0.05) in portal vein diameter, in portal vein maximal flow velocity and in portal vein flow volume. The decrease in portal vein flow volume was 11.7% on day four and 24.4% on day eight. In two patients, a symptomatic hypotensive attack occurred. Serum potassium levels were increased significantly (p<0.05).
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Emerging drugs of abuse, belonging to many different chemical classes, are attracting users with promises of "legal" highs and easy access via internet. Prevalence of their consumption and abuse through wastewater-based epidemiology can only be realized if a suitable analytical screening procedure exists to detect and quantify them in water. Solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS/MS) was applied for rapid suspect screening as well as for the quantitative determination of 42 illicit drugs and metabolites in water. Using this platform, we were able to identify amphetamines, tryptamines, piperazines, pyrrolidinophenones, arylcyclohexylamines, cocainics, opioids and cannabinoids. Additionally, paracetamol, carbamazepine, ibersartan, valsartan, sulfamethoxazole, terbumeton, diuron, etc. (including degradation products as 3-hydroxy carbamazepine or deethylterbuthylazine) were detected. This method encompasses easy sample preparation and rapid identification of psychoactive drugs against a database that cover more than 2000 compounds that ionized in positive mode, and possibility to identify metabolites and degradation products as well as unknown compounds. The method for river water, influent and effluents samples was fully validated for the target psychoactive substances including assessment of matrix effects (-88-67.8%), recovery (42-115%), precision (<19%) and limits of quantification (1-100ngL(-1)). Method efficiency was thoroughly investigated for a wide range of waste and surface waters. Robust and repeatable functioning of this platform in the screening, identification and quantification of traditional and new psychoactive drugs biomarkers and other water contaminants is demonstrated.
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These results demonstrate that diabetes mellitus is associated with an increase in renal production of angiotensin II, while renal production of nitric oxide is reduced. The decrease in renal NO is reversed by AT1 receptor blockade.
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The results of the present study suggested that candesartan interacts at a higher number of binding sites compared to valsartan whereas losartan has a lower number of binding sites with the amino acid residues of the AT(1) receptor. These findings are consistent with the data of the radioligand-binding studies of the antagonists with the AT(1) receptor.
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High performance liquid chromatographic method was optimized, developed and validated as per the ICH guidelines. In this study the 20 mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile in the 57:43 ratio were used as mobile phase for the analysis of valsartan. Full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of variable factors. The responses were peak area, tailing factor and number of theoretical plates. The quadratic effect of flow rate and wavelength individually as well as in interaction were most significant (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0086, respectively) on peak area; the quadratic effect of pH of buffer was also most significant effect (p < 0.0001) on tailing factor (5%) whereas the quadratic effect of flow rate and wavelength individually was significant (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0265, respectively) on the number of theoretical plates. The high-performance liquid chromatographic separation was performed at the flow rate 1.0 min/mL, UV detector wavelength 250 nm and pH of the buffer 3.0 as optimized parameters using design of experiments. The retention time values of valsartan were found to be 10.177 min. Percent recovery in terms of accuracy for the prepared valsartan nanoparticles was found in the range of 98.57-100.27%.
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To study the effect of angiotensin II on phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt cascade in cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with hypertrophic scars.
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Acute deterioration of renal function is an important side-effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, especially if accompanied by other nephrotoxic events. Angiotensin II receptor(1) blockers (ARB) are thought to have fewer side-effects on renal perfusion and function. We examined the effects of valsartan (VAL) on kidney function as well as the contribution of the nitric oxide (NO) system in a rat model of ischaemic acute renal failure (ARF).
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Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a pivotal role in the prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) exert a renoprotective effect and attenuate the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms in the kidney remain to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to focus on the effect of local angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on the inflammatory reaction during the early stages of diabetic nephropathy.
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In male Wistar rats (n = 31), ischemia-reperfusion damage was induced by 20- to 25-min ligation of the left coronary artery. The AT1R blocker (11)C-2-butyl-5-methoxymethyl-6-(1-oxopyridin-2-yl)-3-[[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine ((11)C-KR31173) was injected intravenously at different times until 6 mo after surgery and sacrifice. Autoradiography, histology, and immunohistochemistry were performed for ex vivo validation. Additional in vivo PET was conducted in 3 animals. A second series of experiments (n = 16) compared untreated animals with animals treated with oral valsartan (50 mg/kg/d), oral enalapril (10 mg/kg/d), and complete intravenous blockage (SK-1080, 2 mg/kg, 10 min before imaging).
The use of the SPC of amlodipine/valsartan was associated with greater absolute BP reductions and fewer antihypertensive drug discontinuations because of side effects and noncompliance compared with the use of the individual drugs. Although the acquisition cost of the SPC was greater than that of the individual drugs, SPC combination therapy resulted in fewer clinic visits, laboratory tests, and electrocardiograms. As a result, the total cost of SPC therapy was significantly less than that associated with the use of the individual drug components.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the outpatient utilization of cardiovascular drugs in Croatia, during the period 2001-2005, using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification of drugs/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD) methodology.
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To evaluate the long-term tolerability and efficacy of the amlodipine/valsartan 5/320 mg once daily (o.d.) combination in hypertensive patients.
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This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study. Drug concentrations in plasma and urine, angiotensin II (Ang II) concentrations in plasma, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR) in the supine position and 3 min after passive head-up tilting, as well as safety parameters (ECG, clinical chemistry and hematology, renal water and electrolyte excretion) were measured over 24 h after the first dose (day 1) and at steady state on day 8.
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Among high-risk patients presenting with MI but without initial neurological symptoms, the risk of stroke 6 weeks thereafter is 0.94% (95% CI 0.78-1.09). Of the most powerful baseline predictors of stroke, DBP and AF are amenable to therapeutic interventions and thus merit special attention in these patients.
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In addition to the study treatment, 35% of patients in the A/V group and 49% in the L/H group received additional antihypertensive medication. Compared to baseline, both treatments reduced measures of LVH significantly after 52 weeks (e.g. LV mass index in the A/V group from 64.7 g/m(2) by -3.5 g/m(2), in the L/H group from 69.1 g/m(2) by -4.4 g/m(2), p < 0.01 for both). LV ejection fraction and LV volumes were not significantly changed by any regimen. A/V and L/H treatments were well tolerated.
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this is a case report involving a 37-year-old pregnant woman at 26 gestational weeks. This patient had history of chronic hypertension for more than five years that was being regularly treated with Losartan 50mg/day. After her first consultation losartan was promptly discontinued and substituted for methyldopa. However, scan evaluation demonstrated severe oligohydramnios associated with altered fetal biophysical profile and altered Doppler fluxometry (absent diastolic flow at umbilical arteries). Therefore, a cesarean-section was performed after corticoid administration for fetal lung maturation. At first moment some characteristic alterations as fetal limb contractures and craniofacial deformation were detected at the 1007g new-born. This baby went to death 36h after delivery due to severe lung hypoplasia.
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Pathogenic mechanisms underlying diabetes-induced retinal dysfunction are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to show the relationship of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin and neuronal activity in the diabetic retina.
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Angiotensin II has been shown to induce the synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin in vitro. In human beings, to our knowledge, no data on NO release in response to angiotensin II and on the influence of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade have been published.
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The efficiency of AT II antagonist therapy in being a cost-effective alternative for reducing clinical events in patients with hypertension requires further research. The combination of data from clinical trials with epidemiologic data about the natural history of the disease and factors such as patient compliance, side effects, acquisition costs or medication switch is needed to reflect costs in the "real-world" situation.
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NYHA-classification, quality of life and general condition improved after treatment with valsartan for 12 weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased dependent on dosage used. Incidende of adverse events was 0.2%.
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Candesartan cilexetil (4 mg day(-1)) or vehicle was given to healthy volunteers (n = 8) for 7 days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design with a 2-week washout period. Clinical gustometry using the filter-paper disc test and electrogustometry were sequentially performed before and at the end of each trial. Serum and salivary zinc concentrations were also measured.
121 472 patients were identified, and charts were randomly abstracted for 1600. Of these, 1293 patients were hypertensive at index. Baseline patient characteristics for the chart group were modestly different from the larger cohort. More patients treated with olmesartan (77.8%) than with losartan (66.5%), valasartan (68.8%), or irbesartan (68.8%) achieved JNC 7 BP goals. In pooled-dose comparisons, cost per patient reaching BP goal was $8964 (all-cause) and $2704 (hypertension-attributable) for olmesartan; compared with $10 848 and $3291 for losartan; $10 557 and $3577 for valsartan; and $13395 and $4325 for irbesartan, respectively. The trend was similar for the dose stratification analysis, except in the comparison between high-dose losartan and olmesartan, where losartan had a lower cost-effectiveness ratio.
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After eight-week drug treatment, hydrochlorothiazide group and valsartan group but not furosemide group had improved cardiac function (ejection fraction was 49.4±2.1%, 49.5±1.8% and 39.9±1.9%, respectively, compared with 40.1±2.2% in control group), reduced cardiac interstitial fibrosis and collagen volume fraction (9.7±1.2%, 10.0±1.3% and 14.1±0.8%, respectively, compared with 15.9±1.1% in control group), and decreased expression of AT1, TGF-β and Smad2 in the cardiac tissues. In addition, hydrochlorothiazide reduced plasma angiotensin II and aldosterone levels. Furthermore, hydrochlorothiazide inhibited angiotensin II-induced TGF-β1 and Smad2 protein expression in the neonatal rat ventricular fibroblasts.
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UK Heart and Renal Protection III (HARP-III) is a multicentre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg two times daily (an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor) with irbesartan 300 mg one time daily among 414 patients with CKD. Patients ≥18 years of age with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥45 but <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (uACR) >20 mg/mmol or eGFR ≥20 but <45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (regardless of uACR) were invited to be screened. Following a 4- to 7-week pre-randomization single-blind placebo run-in phase (during which any current renin-angiotensin system inhibitors were stopped), willing and eligible participants were randomly assigned either sacubitril/valsartan or irbesartan and followed-up for 12 months. The primary aim was to compare the effects of sacubitril/valsartan and irbesartan on measured GFR after 12 months of therapy. Important secondary outcomes include effects on albuminuria, change in eGFR over time and the safety and tolerability of sacubitril/valsartan in CKD.