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To demonstrate through the use of a case study, the application of cognitive psychotherapy in the treatment of resistant depression.
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A total of 375 patients that met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and the stage 2 TRD criteria (described by Thase & Rush) were enrolled. Anxious depression was defined as MDD with a HRSD-17 anxiety/somatization factor score ≥7. Data were derived from an earlier study, designed to compare efficacy and tolerability of fixed dosage of extended-release venlafaxine, mitazapine, paroxetine, and risperidone, sodium valproate, buspirone, trazodone or thyroid hormone augmenting to paroxetine in those patients. Treatment outcomes were compared between patients with anxious and nonanxious TRD.
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No appreciable change in the utilization pattern for venlafaxine was observed after generic availability when no appreciable demand-side activities by the regions (counties) were implemented to encourage its use. The utilization of venlafaxine significantly increased after prescription restrictions for duloxetine. Generic venlafaxine was dispensed once available, reaching 99.6 % of total venlafaxine (DDD basis) by August 2011. There was an appreciable fall in expenditure for newer antidepressants in Sweden after generic venlafaxine despite increased utilization, helped by a 90 % reduction in expenditure/DDD for venlafaxine by the end of the study versus prepatent loss prices.
Bupropion had an effect on the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine but not those of the SSRIs. Further investigation of combination treatments under randomized, double-blind conditions is recommended.
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This study demonstrates that 1H MRS can measure changes in GABA levels following pharmacologic treatment. The increase in GABA levels, although significant, is modest compared to other MRS studies of depression or epilepsy associated with clinical improvements. The failure to see larger increases in GABA levels and an associated reduction in cocaine consumption may reflect the relatively low doses of medication used.
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The aim of the study is to measure changes in GABA levels in CD subjects at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment with pramipexole, venlafaxine, or placebo.
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There was a significant improvement in the mean intensity of pain (F = 14.3; p = 0.0001) and in the disability caused by fibromyalgia (F = 42.7; p = 0.0001) from baseline to week 12 of treatment. The depression and anxiety scores also decreased significantly from baseline to week 12. The improvement in the FIQ scores did not correlate with the decrease of scores in both patient- and physician-rated depression and anxiety inventories. Change in pain scores also was not correlated with the change in depression and anxiety scores.
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While selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first-line treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), approximately 40% of patients fail to respond to SSRIs. Venlafaxine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) that might be effective in the treatment of OCD, even among those who have failed previous SSRI trials.
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Severe hepatic adverse drug reactions have been occasionally reported in the literature for the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), venlafaxine and nefazodone. In addition, a few case reports have suggested a possible association between SSRI treatment and pancreatitis. To further investigate this issue, a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network (BCPNN) method was applied on the World Health Organization database of adverse drug reactions. This method identifies whether a drug/adverse drug reaction combination is reported more frequently to the database than expected on the basis of chance alone compared to general reporting in the database. A statistically significant unexpected high number of reports were found for nefazodone and hepatic injury, relative to the generality of the dataset but, for the other drug/adverse drug reaction combinations, no such association was found. The nefazodone finding is in accordance with data from other publications, suggesting that the risk of hepatic injury is increased. However, because of the nature of the BCPNN, the negative findings do not necessarily prove that there is no excess risk for hepatic injury/pancreatitis during treatment with drugs other than nefazodone. Further studies are required using alternative methodologies to demonstrate whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or venlafaxine may cause hepatic injury or pancreatitis.
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Cardiovascular side effects from antidepressant drugs, including clinically significant blood pressure changes, conduction disturbances, and arrhythmias may complicate long-term therapy. Cardiovascular effects are most common with tricyclic antidepressants, but occur rarely with most antidepressants. Venlafaxine is a unique antidepressant with a broad spectrum of antidepressant activity and a safety profile that resembles serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors.
The objective of this exploratory analysis was to use a repeated measures modeling approach to identify potential predictors of improved mood over time in patients with major depression. Fifty-one subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) were enrolled in a 1-week single blind placebo lead-in, followed by an 8-week, double-blind placebo-controlled treatment with either fluoxetine or venlafaxine. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to identify baseline and placebo lead-in predictors of change in repeated measures of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) during treatment. Non-specific predictors of improved mood included decreased prefrontal activity during placebo lead-in as measured by quantitative electroencephalographic cordance, lower pretreatment depressed mood on the HDRS, shorter duration of current episode, increased verbalization of suicidal thoughts, no family history of mood disorders, less severe middle insomnia, higher guilt, lower somatic anxiety, and younger age. Moderators of improved mood included somatization, paranoid ideation, and self-reported depressed mood. We also found that change in prefrontal cordance after randomization mediated the effects of middle insomnia, suicidal thoughts, and family history of mood disorders. We recommend the use of repeated measures modeling, and the exploration of relationships among biological and psychological factors, for future analyses of clinical trial data.
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The TPH1 218A/C allele frequencies differed significantly between healthy controls and MDD patients in Taiwan, with a higher prevalence of the A allele in the patient group (p = 0.025). The odds ratio of the A allele to the C allele was 0.507 for the subjects with MDD. There was no significant correlation between the percentage change in HAM-D score and either TPH1 218A/C genotype or TPH1 allele frequencies.
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The mean number of prior antidepressant and mood stabilizer exposures was significantly higher in venlafaxine non-responders versus responders (p=0.02). There was no significant association between response to lithium and the number of prior antidepressant and mood stabilizer exposures (p=0.38). The odds of responding to venlafaxine or lithium therapy decreased with an increasing number of prior antidepressant exposures (p=0.04). Response was not significantly affected by the number of prior mood stabilizer exposures (p=0.30). Adjustment for clinical and demographic covariates sharpened the estimated impact of prior antidepressant exposure on treatment outcome.
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Neuropathic pain constitutes a serious therapeutic problem. In most cases polytherapy is necessary. Tramadol and antidepressants have common mechanisms of action and are frequently used together in clinical practice, thus interaction between them is very important. In the present study isobolographic analysis for equivalent doses of drugs was applied to examine the nature of interaction between tramadol and doxepin or venlafaxine in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Allodynia and hyperalgesia were assessed after intraperitoneal administration of each drug alone or in combination. Dose response curves were obtained and ED(50) doses were calculated. All drugs were effective in reducing thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, however doxepin was more effective than venlafaxine. Combined administration of tramadol and doxepin demonstrated synergistic action in reducing thermal hyperalgesia and additive action in reducing mechanical allodynia. Combined administration of tramadol and venlafaxine showed additive action in reducing hyperalgesia and allodynia. Moreover, combined administration of tramadol and doxepin was more effective than combined administration of tramadol and venlafaxine. The experiments demonstrated that the nature of interaction between tramadol and doxepin is synergistic, which is not the case for tramadol and venlafaxine, what provides a valuable information referring to clinical practice, rationalizing administration of such drug combination.
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Data on 150 women exposed to venlafaxine during pregnancy in seven pregnancy counseling centers were compared with data from studies of pregnant women who 1) received selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) (N=150) and 2) who received nonteratogenic drugs (N=150).
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Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have been reported in wastewater effluent at the nanogram to low microgram-per-liter range, and include bupropion (BUP), fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER), and venlafaxine (VEN). To assess the effects of antidepressants on reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 21 days either to a single concentration of the antidepressants FLX, SER, VEN, or BUP, or to an antidepressant mixture. The data demonstrated that exposure to VEN (305 ng/L and 1104 ng/L) and SER (5.2 ng/L) resulted in mortality. Anatomical alterations were noted within the testes of fish exposed to SER and FLX, both modulators of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Additionally, FLX at 28 ng/L induced vitellogenin in male fish--a common endpoint for estrogenic endocrine disruption. Significant alterations in male secondary sex characteristics were noted with single exposures. Effects of single compound exposures neither carried over, nor became additive in the antidepressant mixtures, and reproductive behavior was not affected. Analysis of brain tissues from the exposed fish suggested increased uptake of FLX, SER and BUP and minimal uptake of VEN when compared to exposure water concentrations. Furthermore, the only metabolite detected consistently in the brain tissues was norfluoxetine. Similar trends of uptake by brain tissue were observed when fish were exposed to antidepressant mixtures. The present study demonstrates that anatomy and physiology, but not reproductive behavior, can be disrupted by exposure to environmental concentrations of some antidepressants. The observation that antidepressant uptake into fish tissues is selective may have consequences on assessing the mode-of-action and effects of these compounds in future studies.
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The present investigation is concerned about the development of floating bioadhesive drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride which after oral administration exhibits a unique combination of floating and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time and increase drug bioavailability within the stomach. The floating bioadhesive tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using different ratios of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4MCR) and Carbopol 934PNF as polymers. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and citric acid were used as gas (CO2) generating agents. Tablets were characterized for floating properties, in vitro drug release, detachment force, and swelling index. The concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and Carbopol 934PNF significantly affects the in vitro drug release, floating properties, detachment force, and swelling properties of the tablets. The optimized formulation showed the floating lag time 72 ± 2.49 seconds and duration of floating 24.50 ± 0.74 hr. The in vitro release studies and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at pH 1.2. Different drug release kinetics models were also applied. The in vitro drug release from tablets was sufficiently sustained (more than 18 hr) and the Fickian transports of the drug from the tablets were confirmed. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets remained buoyant and altered position in the stomach of albino rabbit and mean gastric residence time was prolonged (more than > 6 hr).
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Retrospective cohort study.
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No study has simultaneously investigated the impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms (PPS) among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The study aimed to investigate this issue.
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Aripiprazole augmentation of standard ADT results in significant, clinically meaningful changes in the core symptoms of depression. It is also associated with significant change in anxiety, insomnia, and drive components of the 17-item HAM-D.
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An 18-year-old woman ingested 22 g of venlafaxine with suicidal attempt. At admittance two hours after ingestion she had serotonine syndrome, repeated seizures and hypotension. After eight hours malignant arrythmias culminated in cardiac arrest, which was successfully resuscitated. Progressive liver and cardiac failure lead to fatal outcome after 48 hours. It is discussed whether early lipid infusion should be given in case of ingestion of high doses of venlafaxine, before myoclonia, seizures, hypotension, rhabdomyolysis and liver failure developed, since these can only be treated symptomatically.
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Duloxetine hydrochloride is a dual reuptake inhibitor of both serotonin and norepinephrine. In the present open-label study, the safety of duloxetine at a fixed-dose of 60 mg twice daily (BID) for up to 52 weeks was evaluated and compared to routine care in the therapy of patients diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP).
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The objective of this analysis was to determine the efficacy of venlafaxine in comparison with that of placebo during long-term treatment. A pooled analysis of relapse rates in outpatients with major depression continuing long-term treatment (up to 12 months) after responding to short-term treatment (6 weeks) was performed combining the data from four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Relapses were defined as two consecutive Clinical Global Impression (CGI) severity scores greater than 3 (mildly ill), as a CGI severity score greater than 3 at withdrawal regardless of the reason for withdrawal, or as withdrawal due to lack of efficacy. Data from 304 patients (185 venlafaxine, 119 placebo) well balanced for baseline characteristics were included in the pooled analysis. Percentages of patients completing the long-term phase were 38% venlafaxine and 26% placebo (p = 0.034). Cumulative relapse rates by 6 months of long-term treatment were 11% venlafaxine and 23% placebo (p = 0.019). Cumulative relapse curves for the venlafaxine and placebo groups over the 1-year long-term treatment differed significantly (p = 0.022). The results from this analysis indicate that long-term treatment with venlafaxine in patients with major depressive disorder is effective in maintaining the initial response compared with placebo and suggest that venlafaxine will be effective in the prevention of relapse.
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A total of 397 participants received at least one dose of sertraline; 181 nonresponders (LSAS score >50) at week 10 were randomly assigned to sertraline plus clonazepam, switch to venlafaxine, or sertraline plus placebo. Overall, 21% of patients achieved remission (LSAS score ≤30) at the endpoint, and 27% of patients assigned to sertraline plus clonazepam achieved remission compared with patients assigned to sertraline plus placebo (17%) or venlafaxine (19%), but the differences did not reach significance. Sertraline plus clonazepam was associated with a significantly greater drop in LSAS severity (p=0.020) and disability (p=0.0028) compared with sertraline plus placebo; no significant differences were observed on these parameters between venlafaxine and either sertraline plus placebo or sertraline plus clonazepam. In supplemental analysis, the overall response rate (LSAS score ≤50) was 46%, including a significantly greater proportion of patients in the sertraline plus clonazepam group (56%) compared with the sertraline plus placebo group responding (36%; p=0.027); differences did not reach significance between venlafaxine and sertraline plus placebo or sertraline plus clonazepam.
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Venlafaxine demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of depressive alcoholic patients. Furthermore, it seems to be useful to decrease the severity of problems related with the alcohol use.
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These data suggest that suppression of serotonin (but not noradrenaline or dopamine) reuptake by SSRIs and SNRIs modifies circadian locomotor activity rhythms in hamsters. Further, they support the notion that an inhibitory influence upon the early-morning light-induced advance in circadian activity contributes to the therapeutic effects of serotonin uptake inhibitors in certain depressed patients.
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To study the health impact on adult New Zealand patients who switch from originator brand to generic venlafaxine.
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All consenting eligible patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder completed the Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, version 1 (SFQ) and were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) prior to and after 8 or 14 weeks of antidepressant therapy. Analyses were carried out to examine the effect of gender, drug type, pretreatment level of sexual dysfunction, and drug response on reported sexual dysfunction.