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Cefadroxil monohydrate, an oral cephalosporin with a long half-life, was compared to erythromycin estolate for efficacy in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children. The study was carried out on forty patients, twenty receiving cefadroxil and twenty receiving erythromycin. Each drug was dosed at 50 mg/kg/day and was given every 12 hours in two equally divided doses. The complete cure rate was 95% for the cefadroxil group and 80% for the erythromycin group. Two patients originally in the erythromycin test group showed no improvement either bacteriologically or clinically after 3 days of treatment. It was found that these patients harboured S. aureus which had become resistant to erythromycin during the course of therapy. Both patients were shifted to cefadroxil treatment and achieved complete cures. Two patients in the erythromycin group and one in the cefadroxil group were diagnosed as having scarlet fever. All three responded clinically, yet cultures from the two treated with erythromycin showed persistence of bacteria while the one treated with cefadroxil proved to be cured both clinically and bacteriologically.
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The clinical pharmacology of orally administered antibiotics was investigated in 106 infants and children. The antibiotic suspensions studied were ampicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin estolate, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, penicillin G, and penicillin V. The feeding status of the patients was evaluated in relation to the concentrations of drugs in serum, saliva, and tears. Peak concentrations and area-under-the-curve values of cephalexin, penicillin V, and penicillin G were reduced 40% to 60% in patients given milk and drug concurrently. Absorption was enhanced when erythromycin ethylsuccinate was given milk. After administration of both erythromycin formulations, penicillin V and ampicillin, salivary concentrations exceeded the minimal inhibitory concentrations for most pneumococci and group A streptococci and for many meningococci. The clinical implications of these pharmacokinetic data are discussed.
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To determine whether erythromycin estolate chemoprophylaxis is effective in household contacts of children with culture-positive pertussis.
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Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were used to study the effects of the flavonoids diosmin and its main metabolite diosmetin on the cell membrane damage caused by erythromycin estolate (EE) and oxidative stress caused by tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP). The damage was evaluated by the leakage of intracellular enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate-aminotransferase and the residual cell content of a lysosomal marker acid phosphatase (AP). After treating the cells for 40 h with diosmetin EE induced less enzyme leakage. The content of AP was kept higher by diosmetin pretreatment after 6 h exposure to EE. Diosmin at the same concentrations had barely any effect. Diosmetin, but not diosmin, also protected against TBHP toxicity and this was related to lower lipid peroxidation and higher glutathione content caused by pretreatment with the flavonoid. When the cells were treated simultaneously with TBHP and diosmetin after 21 h of culture, the protection by the flavonoid was even higher. In fact the antioxidant activity of diosmetin was considerably greater than that of diosmin. After 40 h exposure to both flavonoids diosmin but not diosmetin was detectable in the cell membrane fraction, suggesting that the latter's protective effect is associated with its metabolites.
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X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) data for eight beta-lactam viz., ampicillin sodium, ampicillin trihydrate, penicillin G procaine, benzathine penicillin, benzyl penicillin sodium, cefalexin, cefotaxime sodium and ceftriaxone sodium; three tetracyclines viz., doxycycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline dihydrate and tetracycline hydrochloride; and two macrolide viz., azithromycin and erythromycin estolate antibiotic drugs were obtained using a powder diffractometer. The drugs were scanned from Bragg angles (2theta) of 10 degrees to 70 degrees. The obtained data were tabulated in terms of the lattice spacing (A) and relative line intensities (I/I(I)). This new information may be useful for identifying these drugs from confiscated materials, which has been frequently encountered in forensic laboratories.
Suitable antimicrobials given during the catarrhal stage of whooping cough can attenuate the course of the disease. The efficacy of antibiotics administered prophylactically during the incubation period remains controversial but appears to be beneficial. Currently, erythromycin given for two weeks is the antibiotic of choice for pertussis. No treatment failures were observed with erythromycin estolate. Erythromycin ethylsuccinate and stearate must be given at high dosages (50-60 mg/kg/day) in order to achieve sufficient concentrations in the respiratory secretions. With ampicillin and amoxicillin treatment failures have been observed. The role of josamycin and co-trimoxazole in pertussis remains open.
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An open comparative study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of 4 antibiotic regimens in eradicating acute bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Patients in each treatment group had similar physical parameters, severity of disease and bacterial pathogens, and were treated for 10 days with either erythromycin estolate, erythromycin stearate, ampicillin or oxytetracycline in the recommended dosage. Each patient was reviewed daily by physical examination and the bacteriological findings from throat swab and salivary washings. The results showed that erythromycin stearate produced more rapid bacterial eradication and clinical resolution of symptoms and fever than with the other antibiotic preparations, and was well tolerated by most patients.
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The absorption, excretion, and metabolism of propionyl erythromycin (PE) has been studied in the rat. The major routes of metabolism of PE are ester hydrolysis and N-demethylation. The rates of these two reactions have been examined in vivo using radiolabeled PE. The plasma half-life of the ester is 5.5 hr. The correlation of blood levels of radioactivity with 14CO2 production indicates that the ester is continually hydrolyzed after absorption. The half-life of the dimethyl-amino moiety of the desosamine sugar is estimated at 1.5 hr. This relatively short half-life compared to that of the ester is supported by the fact that at 3.5 hr after dosing there is twice as much desmethyl-PE in plasma as PE. After oral administration of either 14C-PE or 14C-erythromycin, 70% of the radioactivity is absorbed in 6 hr. The major route of excretion is via bile. Approximatley 40% of the absorbed dose is excreted in bile in the first 6 hr after dosing. Tissue levels of radioactivity after administration of 14C-erythromycin or 14C-PE indicate that PE or a metabolite accumulates in the tissue during chronic dosing, whereas erythromycin-related levels are similar after single or multiple doses.
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The pharmacokinetics of erythromycin estolate (500 mg) and erythromycin ethylsuccinate (600 mg) were compared in 12 healthy volunteers after single doses and after repeated oral doses (every 8 h). High-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used to determine concentrations in plasma and urine of estolate, ethylsuccinate, and erythromycin base. The maximum concentration of drug in the serum, the half-life, and the area under the curve for erythromycin estolate were significantly greater than those of erythromycin ethylsuccinate after both regimens. After single and multiple doses, the respective areas under the curve of erythromycin base generated by estolate formulation were 3 and 1.6 times greater (P less than 0.05) than those of ethylsuccinate. The lower percentage of hydrolysis of erythromycin estolate (41 versus 69%) combined with its longer half-life (5.47 versus 2.72 h) and its larger area under the curve (30.61 versus 4.68 micrograms/h/ml, after multiple doses) could explain these differences. This study underscores the need for a specific high-pressure liquid chromatography assay and the importance of wide variability, rate-limited processes, changes with multiple doses, and the appearance of a second peak when one studies the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin esters. The pharmacokinetic data presented in this study reinforce the clinical advantages of erythromycin estolate over erythromycin ethylsuccinate.
We sought to study the clinical features of PL in children followed up at our institution.
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Thirty-nine pregnant women admitted for therapeutic abortions during early or mid pregnancy were given erythromycin estolate, erythromycin base, or clindamycin hydrochloride orally in single or multiple doses. Peak serum levels of clindamycin were 3.4 to 9.0 mug/ml following a single dose of 450 mg, whereas peak serum levels of erythromycin were 0.29 to 7.2 mug/ml following 500 mg in a single dose. The individual variability of serum concentrations of erythromycin was greater than that reported in normal men and nonpregnant women, whereas the serum levels of clindamycin were rather uniform, and similar to what has been reported in nonpregnant individuals. Following multiple doses of each antibiotic, high serum levels were obtained in virtually all subjects, and urine levels were also higher. Following single doses the mean urinary recovery was 2% for erythromycin and 16.8% for clindamycin.
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A 53-year-old housewife who had developed severe cholestatic hepatitis following the administration of erythromycin estolate therapy two-and-a-half years previously, was studied by an in vitro "challenge" test in which peripheral venous lymphocytes were cultured in the presence of erythromycin estolate, erythromycin stearate and erythromycin base. Evidence of blastogenesis was observed in response to erythromycin estolate, but not to erythromycin stearate of erythromycin base. This test thus provided evidence that the patient was "sensitized" to erythromycin estolate without exposing her to the risk of in vivo challenge. Furthermore, in contrast to previous studies, the findings provide evidence that erythromycin estolate jaundice is mediated by immunological mechanisms.
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Under the conditions of this study, erythromycin estolate prevented culture-positive pertussis in household contacts of patients with pertussis but did not prevent clinical pertussis.
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Measure efficacy of erythromycin estolate chemoprophylaxis calculated by the proportion of households in each group with a member who developed a nasopharyngeal culture positive for Bordetella pertussis.
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A method is described for the determination of erythromycin estolate by liquid chromatography. A C18 reversed-phase column (25 x 0.46 cm i.d.) was used with acetonitrile-tetrabutylammonium sulphate (pH 6.5, 0.2 M)-phosphate buffer (pH 6.5, 0.2 M)-water [x:5:5:(90-x), v/v/v/v] as mobile phase. The proportion of acetonitrile (x) has to be adapted to the type of stationary phase used. For RSil C18 LL 42.5% (v/v) was used. The column was heated at 35 degrees C, the flow rate was 1.5 ml min-1 and UV detection was performed at 215 nm. The main component, erythromycin A propionate, was separated from all other components which were present in commercial samples. The impurities most frequently observed were the propionate ester of erythromycin C and the amide N-propionyl-N-demethyl-erythromycin A. Erythromycin A was shown to be present in specialties.
All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of antibiotics for treatment of and contact prophylaxis against whooping cough were included in the systematic review.
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Erythromycin acistrate is a new 2'-acetyl esther prodrug of erythromycin, whose structure resembles that of erythromycin estolate. However, in toxicological studies, it does not have the problems of hepatotoxicity. To assess its effects on hepatic functions in clinical practice, the liver parameters of patients with respiratory tract or skin infections were monitored during therapy. In total 1549 patients were treated for 7-14 days. In addition, 127 patients with suspected viral infections served as controls. There were no significant differences in serum aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) or alkaline phosphatase (APHOS) values between the erythromycin acistrate or control groups at the beginning or end of therapy. ASAT values increased moderately in 2.4% and clearly in 0.3% of patients treated, but also decreased in 2.0%. ALAT values were moderately increased in 9.9%, clearly increased in 0.6% and normalized in 3.5% of the patients. gamma-GT values increased moderately in 3.5% and and clearly in 0.3%, but decreased to normal in 3.3% of the patients. APHOS was moderately elevated in 1.0% of the patients and normalized in 1.3%. The correlation of changes between the different liver enzymes was poor. Only ten patients (0.6%) had two or more clearly elevated liver enzyme values by the end of the therapy, of whom five had increased liver enzyme activities before the treatment, two had underlying disease explaining the changes and in only three patients out of 1549 (0.2%) could hepatic changes be attributed to erythromycin acistrate therapy. These changes were reversible. The results demonstrate the hepatic safety of erythromycin acistrate in clinical practice. Concomitant food intake did not affect the safety profile.
A double-blind, randomized trial of four antimicrobial regimens was conducted in 383 infants and children with acute otitis media. The drugs used were penicillin V, amoxicillin trihydrate, erythromycin estolate, and erythromycin estolate with trisulfapyrimidines. Aspiration of middle ear fluid for culture was done before treatment and repeated during treatment if fluid persisted. Etiologic bacteria were most commonly pneumococci (31%) or Haemophilus sp (22%), and an additional 5% of patients had both organisms. Amoxicillin was the most effective in promoting initial response in pneumococcal infection. For Haemophilus infections, the cure rates with amoxicillin and the erythromycin-trisulfapyrimidines mixture were significantly better than with the other two regimens, and serous otitis did not occur during the follow-up period; however, new episodes of otitis were comparable in the four groups. Amoxicillin and the erythromycin estolate-trisulfapyrimidines combination appear to be somewhat more effective than penicillin V or erythromycin estolate.
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The effects of administration of macrolide antibiotics on cytochrome P-450 in liver microsomes of male rats were investigated. The macrolides tested were those with a 14-membered ring such as oleandomycin, troleandomycin, erythromycin and erythromycin estolate, and those with a 16-membered ring such as rokitamycin, leucomycin and josamycin. Cytochrome P-450-metabolite complex was detected with oleandomycin, troleandomycin, erythromycin and erythromycin estolate, whereas no such effect was observed with rokitamycin, leucomycin and josamycin. The content of uncomplexed cytochrome P-450 in liver microsomes remained unchanged with rokitamycin, leucomycin and josamycin, decreased with troleandomycin and oleandomycin, and increased with erythromycin and erythromycin estolate, indicating that oleandomycin, troleandomycin, erythromycin and erythromycin estolate also affect the amounts of other forms of cytochrome P-450. The administration of oleandomycin, troleandomycin, erythromycin and erythromycin estolate resulted in a dramatic decrease in the activities of testosterone 2 alpha- and 16 alpha-hydroxylases in liver microsomes. Supporting these results, a marked decrease (more than 75%) in the content of P-450-male, a major constitutive form of cytochrome P-450 in male rats, was noted with oleandomycin, troleandomycin, erythromycin and erythromycin estolate, while the decrease was rather small with rokitamycin and leucomycin. We conclude that the administration of the 14-membered ring macrolides may affect drug and steroid metabolism not only by formation of P-450-metabolite complex but also by decrease in the content of P-450-male.
Sesbania grandiflora, commonly known as 'sesbania', is widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of liver disorders. Oral administration of an ethanolic extract of S. grandiflora leaves (200 mg/kg/day) for 15 days produced significant hepatoprotection against erythromycin estolate (800 mg/kg/day)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The increased level of serum enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase), bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, free fatty acids, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides observed in rats treated with erythromycin estolate were significantly decreased in rats treated concomitantly with sesbania extract and erythromycin estolate. The sesbania extract also restored the depressed levels of antioxidants to near normal. The results of the study reveal that sesbania could afford a significant protective effect against erythromycin estolate-induced hepatotoxicity. The effect of sesbania was compared with that of silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective drug.
Two patients experienced hepatotoxicity associated with erythromycin estolate (Ilosone) usage, followed 13 and 15 years later by an hepatotoxic reaction with administration of erythromycin ethylsuccinate (E.E.S.). These cases provide further evidence for erythromycin ethylsuccinate-associated hepatotoxicity and demonstrate erythromycin cross-sensitivity after previous erythromycin estolate liver injury. Hepatotoxicity to both sensitivity after previous erythromycin estolate liver injury. Hepatotoxicity to both estolate and ethylsuccinate preparations of erythromycin stimulates speculation regarding the potentially hepatotoxic moiety of the erythromycin molecule. Furthermore, these cases suggest that all erythromycin preparations should be avoided or used only with careful monitoring in patients with previous erythromycin-associated liver injury.
The effect of acute and chronic endotoxin (LPS) treatment on the erythromycin estolate (EE) induced cholestasis, was studied using the isolated perfused rat liver. Addition of EE markedly reduced bile and perfusate flows in livers from control rats but did not alter these parameters in livers from endotoxin pretreated rats or in vitro treated with LPS. We suggest that changes in membrane organization induced by LPS may alter the diplay of EE toxicity.
The information reported in a variety of sources on drug interferences with routine laboratory tests (serum concentrations of sodim, potassium, carbon dioxide, chloride, glucose, BUN, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and SGOT) performed by a 12-channal autoanalyzer was reviewed. A determination was made whether or not the information was based on an evaluation of original articles, if the study was done in vitro or in vivo, what medium was used, if the drug level causing the interference would be encountered in a patient's serum, and if the reported conclusions were clinically significant. The review narrowed considerably the list of drug interactions with laboratory tests performed by 12-channel autoanalyzer methods. Clinically significant interactions were found for (1) aminosalicylic acid and the test for serum glucose; (2) gamma globulins and cholesterol measurement; (3) sulfonamides and paramethadione and the test for albumin; (4) albumin from placental sources and alkaline phosphatas measurement; (5) erythromycin estolate and aminosalicylic acid and the determination of SGOT; and, possibly (5) medications releasing bromide ions and the measurement of serum chloride. The study showed the need to determine the relevancy of drug interactions to the specific methods used in the laboratory of each medical institution.
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Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease. Infants are at highest risk of severe disease and death. Erythromycin for 14 days is currently recommended for treatment and contact prophylaxis, but is of uncertain benefit.
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A 43-year-old male developed abdominal pain and jaundice after the administration of erythromycin estolate. The diagnosis was strongly suspected on clinical grounds, but ultimate confirmation depends upon the demonstration of biochemical and morphological alterations after challenge with the drug.
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Combined antimicrobial drug treatment was recommended for foals with Corynebacterium equi pneumonia. The preferred combination is orally administered erythromycin estolate (25 mg/kg of body weight, QID) plus rifampin (10 mg/kg, BID). Erythromycin estolate also can be combined for synergistic effect with sodium benzyl penicillin given IV (100,000 IU/kg, QID) or with ampicillin given IV (11 to 15 mg/kg, QID). A third choice is sodium benzyl penicillin IV with gentamicin IM (2.2 mg/kg, TID) or with kanamycin IM (10 mg/kg, QID). Gentamicin should be combined with penicillin G or ampicillin and not used for longer than one week without monitoring for nephrotoxicosis. Rifampin should be used only in combination with erythromycin or penicillin. Erythromycin or rifampin and gentamicin give antagonistic interactions in vitro. Chloramphenicol or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole may be effective if given in high doses but are not preferred drugs. Treatment response should be monitored clinically and radiographically and treatment should be continued for 2 weeks after the foal is clinically and radiographically normal.
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Penicillin V, benzathine/procaine penicillin G, cefadroxil monohydrate, and erythromycin estolate were randomly assigned for therapy of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in 198 children. All patients improved with in 24 hours of initiating therapy. Reinfection with a new group A streptococcal serotype occurred in 13 patients, 12 developing 7 to 12 days after stopping therapy and 11 becoming symptomatic. Relapse with the same organism occurred in 16 patients, only 5 (31%) of whom were symptomatic. Antibody titer rises, antibiotic resistance of group A organisms, presence of penicillinase-producing staphylococci, and lack of compliance were not related to recurrent infections. There were no significant differences between the failure rates of the four test drugs: penicillin V, 12%; benzathine/procaine penicillin G, 12%; cefadroxil monohydrate, 5%; and erythromycin, 2%.
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We examined the vaginal washings from patients with nonspecific vaginitis (NSV) to seek biochemical markers and possible explanations for the signs and symptoms of this syndrome. Seven amines were identified including methylamine, isobutylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, and phenethylamine. These amines may contribute to the symptoms of NSV and may contribute to the elevated pH of the vaginal discharge. They may also be partly responsible for the "fishy" odor that is characteristic of vaginal discharges from these patients. Among the seven amines, putrescine and cadaverine were the most abundant and were present in all vaginal discharges from each of ten patients before treatment. These amines are produced in vitro during growth of mixed vaginal bacteria in chemically defined medium, presumably by decarboxylation of the corresponding amino acids. We hypothesize the anaerobic vaginal organisms, previously shown to be quantitatively increased in NSV, are responsible for the amine production, because metronidazole inhibited the production of amines by vaginal bacteria in vitro, and Haemophilus vaginalis did not produce amines. H. vaginalis did release high concentrations of pyruvic acid and of amino acids during growth in peptone-starch-dextrose medium, whereas, other vaginal flora consumed both pyruvic acid and amino acids in the same medium during growth. These findings suggest that a symbiotic relationship may exist between H. vaginalis and other vaginal flora in patients with NSV.
Livex, a compound herbal formulation, was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect in Wistar rats against erythromycin estolate induced toxicity. Oral administration of Livex significantly prevented the occurrence of erythromycin estolate induced hepatic damage. The increased level of serum enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase), bilirubin, serum and tissue cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids observed in rats treated with erythromycin estolate were very much reduced in rats treated with Livex and erythromycin estolate. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Results of this study revealed that Livex could afford a significant protection against erythromycin estolate induced hepatocellular damage.