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Peripheral opioid receptor targeting has been well established as a novel target in clinical pain management for acute and chronic peripheral inflammatory pain. The physiochemical properties of the peripheral mu-opioid receptor agonist, loperamide HCl, limit the use of the free drug as an analgesic or anti-inflammatory agent, particularly for dermal delivery across intact skin.
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We hypothesised that the depletion of propylene glycol from topical formulations applied at clinically relevant doses (approximately mg/cm2) would limit its penetration enhancement effect. The in vitro percutaneous permeation of a model drug-loperamide hydrochloride-in formulations containing propylene glycol was therefore investigated under finite dose conditions. The flux of loperamide and propylene glycol across dermatomed human skin was measured. The first study examined the effect of topical loading of a gel containing 12% propylene glycol. The second study investigated the effect of propylene glycol content in creams containing 15 and 40%. Both studies showed a correlation between the amount of propylene glycol dosed on the skin and the amount of drug that had permeated. The substantial permeation of propylene glycol and relatively small permeation of loperamide, strongly suggests, that the time dependent permeation of the drug was due to the depletion of propylene glycol at the skin surface and not to the depletion of the drug itself. As often doses applied in in vitro skin permeation experiments do not match the intended clinical dosage-they are usually much greater-this study suggests that the penetration enhancement effect of propylene glycol can be overestimated in in vitro studies.
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The freeze dried extracts of B. biternata had significant antidiarrheal effects in the castor oil induced diarrhea model (p<0.01) with the highest activity being observed at the 400mg/kg dosage level (1.66±0.81g vs. 4.54±0.51g control, p=0.01). B. biternata extract had significant effects on intestinal motility in the charcoal meal test compared to the control group (43.61±4.42% vs. 60.54±3.33%: p<0.05). B. biternata extract had a significant effect on PGE2 induced enteropooling (3.06±0.07ml vs. 4.74±0.10ml; p<0.001). The freeze dried extracts of B. biternata had a significant negative effect on the contractility of the isolated rabbit jejunum (p<0.001). The effects of the extract were significantly attenuated by tamsulosin (53.94±4.20% vs. 80.57±4.09%; p<0.01) and naloxone (53.94±4.20% vs. 73.89±7.26%; p<0.05). Yohimbine (p>0.05) and propranolol (p>0.05) however did not have any significant effect on the contractile activity of the extract.
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Diarrhea is a prominent feature of fluorouracil (5FU) gastrointestinal toxicity, especially when 5FU is combined with leucovorin (LV) or interferon (IFN). No treatment for this condition has been well defined, although drugs, such as diphenoxylate or loperamide, generally are used. The efficacy of octreotide in the treatment of 5FU-induced diarrhea recently has been reported. We performed a randomized trial that compared octreotide with loperamide, the drug most commonly used for therapy for this disorder.
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The in vivo pharmacodynamics of the opioid neuropeptide beta-endorphin (a major endogenous agonist at the mu-opioid receptor) is difficult to determine in non-human primate models with translational value, or in humans. The present studies therefore employed a neuroendocrine biomarker assay, prolactin release, to systematically compare the in vivo profile of i.v. beta-endorphin (0.01-0.32 mg/kg; i.v.) in gonadally intact male rhesus monkeys (n=4) to that of the peripherally selective mu-agonist loperamide (0.01-0.32 mg/kg; i.v.) and the centrally penetrating mu-agonist fentanyl (0.0056-0.018 mg/kg; i.v.). Studies utilized a standardized time course design (measuring prolactin levels 5-120 min after agonist administration). Beta-endorphin displayed only limited effectiveness in causing prolactin release when tested over this 30-fold dose range, compared to loperamide or fentanyl. Furthermore, two of the four subjects were only minimally responsive to beta-endorphin. This differential responsiveness was not due to the presence of a previously described single nucleotide polymorphism at the OPRM1 gene (C77G), known to affect beta-endorphin pharmacodynamics in vitro. In vivo biotransformation studies with MALDI-mass spectrometry determined that full-length beta-endorphin was detectable in all subjects up to at least 5 min after i.v. administration. Thus, the relative ineffectiveness of i.v. beta-endorphin in this assay does not appear to be principally due to rapid generation of non-opioid fragments of this neuropeptide.
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RCTs comparing racecadotril with placebo or other interventions.
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The effect of loperamide on tachykinin NK(2)- and NK(3)-receptor-mediated 5-HT outflow from guinea pig colonic mucosa was investigated in vitro. The selective tachykinin NK(2)-receptor agonist [beta-Ala(8)]-neurokinin A(4-10) (betaAla-NKA) or the selective NK(3)-receptor agonist senktide elicited an increase in 5-HT outflow from whole colonic strips, but not from mucosa-free muscle layer preparations. The enhancing effect of betaAla-NKA and senktide was prevented by the selective NK(2)-receptor antagonist GR94800 or the selective NK(3)-receptor antagonist SB222200. Loperamide concentration-dependently suppressed the senktide-evoked 5-HT outflow, but failed to affect the betaAla-NKA-evoked 5-HT outflow. The kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine or the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole displaced the concentration-response curve for the suppressant action of loperamide to the right without significant depression of the maximum. However, the mu-opioid receptor antagonist CTOP did not affect the suppressant effect of loperamide. We concluded that the NK(3) receptor-triggered 5-HT release from colonic mucosa is suppressed by loperamide-sensitive mechanisms, whereas the NK(2)-receptor-triggered 5-HT release is loperamide-insensitive. Our data also suggest that the suppressant effect of loperamide is probably mediated by the activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors located on intrinsic neurons.
This article describes drug loading validation of nanoparticles. Ultracentrifugation was avoided because of problems arising from small-sized particles. Ultrafiltration was adopted in two different modes followed by monitoring of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), dextran sulfate (DS), and loperamide HCl contents. Diafiltration centrifugation removed all PVA at the fourth cycle and provided significantly (p = .000, .017) higher drug loading values compared with tangential flow filtration (TFF). This was due to residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles. TFF enabled satisfactory dry weight recovery (101.66 +/- 4.45%, n = 3) of nanoparticles during extended purification. Indirect drug loading (from the purification curve) was not significantly different (p = .450, .487) to the direct drug loading values. Encapsulation parameters were obtained from the purification curve once quantitative estimation of the all formulation components was established.
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The dose-limiting toxicity of irinotecan (CPT-11; Camptosar) is delayed-onset diarrhea, with an incidence at the grade 3 to 4 level of 20% to 35%. SN38, its active moiety, is responsible by a direct effect on mucosal topoisomerase-I. The aim of this study was to assess whether activated charcoal (AC), possibly by adsorbing free lumenal SN38, can reduce irinotecan-induced diarrhea (CID) and optimize its dose-intensity.
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To present evidence-based recommendations on traveling abroad safely so family physicians can advise travelers on how to reduce risk of accidents, diarrhea, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and how to treat diarrhea themselves if medical care is unavailable.
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Antimicrobial and antimotility agents are not recommended for the treatment of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection. In our study, many persons with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157 infection took antimicrobial (62%) and antimotility agents (32%); 43 (29%) of 146 reported commencing antimicrobial treatment after laboratory confirmation. Efforts are needed to promote practice guidelines.
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In contrast with the Parkinson's-like effects associated with the mitochondrial neurotoxin N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and the neuroleptic agent haloperidol, there exist no reports on adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects with the structurally related N-substituted-4-arylpiperidin-4-ol derivative and antidiarrheal agent loperamide. Although this difference can be attributed to loperamide's P-glycoprotein substrate properties that prevent it from accessing the brain, an alternative possibility is that loperamide metabolism in humans is different from that of MPTP and haloperidol and does not involve bioactivation to a neurotoxic pyridinium species. In the current study, loperamide bioactivation was examined with particular focus on identification of pyridinium metabolites. A NADPH-dependent disappearance of loperamide was observed in both rat and human liver microsomes (human t(1/2) = 13 min; rat t(1/2) = 22 min). Loperamide metabolism was similar in human and rat and involved N-dealkylation to N-desmethylloperamide (M3) as the principal metabolic fate. Other routes of loperamide biotransformation included N- and C-hydroxylation to the loperamide-N-oxide (M4) and carbinolamide (M2) metabolites, respectively. Furthermore, the formation of an additional metabolite (M5) was also discernible in human and rat liver microsomes. The structure of M5 was assigned to the pyridinium species (LPP(+)) based on comparison of the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry characteristics to the pyridinium obtained from loperamide via a chemical reaction. Loperamide metabolism in human microsomes was sensitive to ketoconazole and bupropion treatment, suggesting P4503A4 and -2B6 involvement. Recombinant P4503A4 catalyzed all of the loperamide biotransformation pathways in human liver microsomes, whereas P4502B6 was only responsible for N-dealkylation and N-oxidation routes. The wide safety margin of loperamide (compared with MPTP and haloperidol) despite metabolism to a potentially neurotoxic pyridinium species likely stems from a combination of factors that include a therapeutic regimen normally restricted to a few days and the fact that loperamide and perhaps LPP(+) are P-glycoprotein substrates and are denied entry into the CNS. The differences in safety profile of haloperidol and loperamide despite a common bioactivation event supports the notion that not all compounds undergoing bioactivation in vitro will necessarily elicit a toxicological response in vivo.
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A loperamide simethicone combination formulation has recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical advantages compared to loperamide alone in the relief of diarrhoea and related symptoms. The product visualisation technique of gamma scintigraphy has been used to investigate the interaction of the formulation with the heterogenous environment of the human gut in a group of 12 healthy volunteers. The results suggest that changes in the intestinal kinetics of loperamide from the combination product, e.g. jejunal coating, could be contributing to the improved efficacy.
In the present study we observed that mice anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital were far more susceptible to gastrointestinal challenge with Listeria monocytogenes than were unanaesthetized mice. The effect of pentobarbital anesthesia was transient (gone within 2 h) and did not alter the severity of infection following i.v. challenge with L. monocytogenes. Treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of gastric acidity (i.e. cimetidine and omeprazole), or intestinal motility (loperamide), did not duplicate the effect of pentobarbital on gastrointestinal listeriosis. These findings suggest that sodium pentobarbital anesthesia causes a short-lived but striking diminution in resistance to gastrointestinal listeriosis in mice, via an undefined mechanism.
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In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), disturbance of bowel motility is associated with infiltration of inflammatory mediators and cytokines into the intestine, such as neutrophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-α), and lipid peroxide.
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Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), named 'pointed gourd' in English, is a dioecious climber grown in India. This study was aimed at evaluating the laxative activity of the aqueous extract of T. dioica root (TDA) in Swiss albino mice. The laxative activity of TDA (100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight per os) was evaluated by assessing the excretory bowel activities in naive (non-constipated) and in drug (loperamide)-induced constipation in mice. Further, the gastrointestinal transit was measured in both naive and in constipated mice. Castor oil (0.5 mL/mouse per os) was used as the reference. TDA significantly and dose-dependently increased all the excretory bowel activities and gastrointestinal transit in both naive and constipated mice. TDA at 200 mg kg(-1) body weight was found to be the most active, causing diarrhoea in mice. Thus, T. dioica root demonstrated stimulant laxative activity in Swiss mice, validating its traditional usage in India.
The fitted steady-state Vmax values from the analysis correlated to within a factor of 2-3 with the values predicted from the elementary parameters. However, the fitted Km value could be generated by a wide range of underlying "molecular" Km values. This is because of the convolution of the drug passive permeability kinetics into the fitted Km. This implies that Km values measured in simpler systems, e.g., microsomes or proteoliposomes, even if accurate, would not predict the Km values for the confluent monolayer system or, by logical extension, in vivo. Reliable in vitro-in vivo extrapolation seems to require using the elementary rate constants rather than the Michaelis-Menten steady-state parameters.
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Radiation-induced diarrhea results from a variety of different pathophysiological mechanisms including malabsorption of bile salts and lactose, imbalances in local bacterial flora and changes in the intestinal patterns of motility. Up to date acute radiation diarrhea is predominantly treated symptomatically using opioide derivates (loperamide) or adsorbants of bile salts such as smectite. Clinical trials have been performed using L. acidophilus, smectite or sucralfate for diarrhea prophylaxis with moderate reduction of acute symptoms.
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Tariquidar did not significantly affect loperamide's central effects (median reduction in pupil diameter area under the curve, 6.9% [interquartile range, -1.4 to 12.1%]; P = 0.11) or plasma loperamide concentrations (P = 0.12) but profoundly inhibited P-glycoprotein in lymphocytes by 93.7% (95% confidence interval, 92.0-95.3%).
To assess the consequences of multiple inhibitors and differential inhibition mechanisms on the prediction of 12 gemfibrozil drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In addition, qualitative zoning of transporter-related gemfibrozil and cyclosporine DDIs was investigated.
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Between 2002 and 2013, the number of yearly calls to the poison control system regarding loperamide cases ranged from 12-19 (mean 16.4, median 17.5 calls). In 2014, a sharp increase to 41 calls was noted. On completion of the study (November 10, 2015), 27 calls had been recorded. Medical outcomes of loperamide exposure for each patient were classified in accordance with the American Association of Poison Control Center's classification system as minor, moderate, or severe. For those patients with known outcomes, 3 resulted in death, 9 had major effects, 49 had moderate effects, and 36 had minor effects. We identified nine reports of patients who developed cardiotoxicity, with eight of them occurring between 2012 and 2015. A spike in the number of cases of loperamide toxicity reported in 2014 and 2015 coincided with an abundance of online instructions on how to abuse this drug. Almost all cases of recorded cardiotoxicity occurred over the last 3 years. Cardiotoxicity from loperamide abuse has only recently been recognized as a potential complication during the last few years, so earlier cases of cardiotoxicity resulting from loperamide abuse were likely missed.
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Loperamide, an antidiarrhea drug, is a peripheral opiate agonist. Some other opiate agonists have been shown to promote cell apoptosis. In this research, we studied the apoptosis-inducing and cytotoxic activities of loperamide. MTT assay was used to determine its cytotoxicity on nine established human tumor cell lines. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Hypodiploid cells and cell cycles were analyzed by propidium iodide (PI) staining, while early apoptotic cells were detected by annexin V-FITC/PI staining. It was found that loperamide could inhibit the proliferation of the tested tumor cell lines. The IC₅₀ values for SMMC7721, MCF7, SPC-A1, SKOV3-DDP, H460, HepG2, SGC7901, U2OS, and ACHN cells were 24.2±2.1 μM, 23.6±2.5 μM, 25.9±3.1 μM, 27.1±2.5 μM, 41.4±2.1 μM, 23.7±1.3 μM, 35.4±3.5 μM, 11.8±2.8 μM, and 28.5±3.4 μM, respectively. Loperamide was more effective to the human osteosarcoma U2OS cells with an IC₅₀ value of 11.8±2.8 μM. Meanwhile, it could induce cell apoptosis and cause G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest. The apoptotic cells could be found when treating with loperamide for 6h and most of them belonged to early apoptosis. In loperamide-treated cells, activation of caspase-3 was found, namely that caspase-3 was involved in the loperamide-induced apoptosis. The results of these studies indicate that loperamide is a potential antitumor agent. To our knowledge, this is the first report on antitumor activity of loperamide.
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retrospective study in patients 18 years old or less, with intestinal failure and Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) required. Simple frequencies and percentages were used for qualitative variables, and central tendency and dispersion measures were used for quantitative variables.
One hundred ninety CPT-11 courses were administered as a 30-minute intravenous (IV) infusion every 3 weeks (100 to 750 mg/m2). Grade 3 to 4 nonhematologic toxicities included diarrhea (16%; three hospitalizations), nausea and vomiting (9%), asthenia (14%), alopecia (53%), elevation of hepatic transaminases (8%), and one case of skin toxicity. An acute cholinergic syndrome was observed during CPT-11 administration. Diarrhea appeared dose-limiting at 350 mg/m2, but this was circumvented by using a high-dose loperamide protocol that allowed dose escalation. Dose-dependent, reversible, noncumulative granulocytopenia was the dose-limiting toxicity (nadir, days 6 to 9; median recovery time, 5 days). Grade 3 to 4 anemia was observed in 9% of patients. One patient died during the study, 8 days after CPT-11 treatment. Two complete responses (cervix, 450 mg/m2; head and neck, 750 mg/m2) and six partial responses in fluorouracil (5-FU)-refractory colon cancer were observed (260 to 600 mg/m2). Pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and active metabolite SN-38 were performed in 60 patients (94 courses). CPT-11 plasma disposition was bi- or triphasic, with a mean terminal half-life of 14.2 +/- 0.9 hours (mean +/- SEM). The mean volume of distribution (Vdss) was 157 +/- 8 L/m2, and total-body clearance was 15 +/- 1 L/m2/h. The CPT-11 area under the plasma concentration versus time curves (AUC) and SN-38 AUC increased linearly with dose. SN-38 plasma decay had an apparent half-life of 13.8 +/- 1.4 hours. Both CPT-11 and SN-38 AUCs correlated with nadir leukopenia and granulocytopenia, with grade 2 diarrhea, and with nausea and vomiting.
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Patients with chronic severe diarrhoea after truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty are often difficult to treat using conventional antidiarrhoeal drugs and remain severely disabled. We examined the effect of two drugs, codeine phosphate and loperamide, on upper intestinal transit and carbohydrate absorption, measured non-invasively by serial exhaled breath hydrogen monitoring, in patients with postvagotomy diarrhoea who had previously failed to gain relief from drug therapy. Orocaecal transit was consistently faster in these patients than a group of controls and was associated with malabsorption of glucose. Codeine phosphate 60 mg significantly delayed transit in patients and controls and was associated with a reduction in glucose malabsorption and improvement in symptoms. Loperamide also delayed transit and improved symptoms, but the doses required for this effect (12-24 mg) were higher than usually considered necessary in secretory diarrhoea. These studies indicate that rapid intestinal nutrient transit and associated malabsorption is a factor in the development of diarrhoea postvagotomy and that symptomatic relief can be achieved in most patients by more rational use of existing drugs.
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That ABCB1 mut/mut dogs have increased depth and duration of sedation after acepromazine IV compared to normal dogs (nor/nor).