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Indocin (Indomethacin)

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Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.


Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.


Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.


If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

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Six weeks following surgery, rats were divided randomly into the following groups: a sham group, a model group, an MHBFC 12 mg/kg/day group (MHBFC 12), an indomethacin 2 mg/kg/day group (Indo 2), and an Indo 2+ MHBFC 12 group. The MS 4000 organism signal system was used to record the rats' hemodynamic indices. Additionally, the heart weight was determined, and the cardiac remodeling index was calculated. HE and Masson's stains were utilized to perform histological analyses; the immunofluorescence was used to observe the microvessel density of myocardial tissue; the colorimetric method was used to determine the hydroxyproline content of cardiac tissue; the ELISA method was used to measure the plasma PGI2 content; and transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of the myocardium.

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This paper reports a new MEPS-HPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous analysis of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Furprofen, Indoprofen, Ketoprofen, Fenbufen, Flurbiprofen, Indomethacin, and Ibuprofen) in human plasma and urine. NSAIDs were resolved on a Gemini C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm; 5 μm particle size) using a gradient elution mode with a run time of 25 min, comprising re-equilibration, without further purification. The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 μg/mL for all the analytes both in human plasma and urine, using Benzyl 4-hydroxybenzoate as the internal standards. This method was successfully tested to NSAIDs analyses in real matrices, in order to check the method potentiality and the correct response. The results from assay validations show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 μg/mL for all analytes, and weighted-matrix-matched standard curves showed a good linearity up to 10 μg/mL. In order to check the correct response for over-range samples, parallelism tests were also assessed. In the entire analytical range the intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were ≤ 7.31% and ≤ 13.5%, respectively. For all the analytes the intra and inter-day trueness (Bias%) values ranged from -11.3% to 10.2%. To our knowledge, this is the first MEPS-HPLC-PDA based method that uses MEPS procedure for simultaneous determination of these seven NSAIDs in plasma and urine samples.

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Effects of leucine and related compounds on protein synthesis were studied in L6 myotubes. The incorporation of [(3)H]tyrosine into cellular protein was measured as an index of protein synthesis. In leucine-depleted L6 myotubes, leucine and its keto acid, alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), stimulated protein synthesis, while D-leucine did not. Mepacrine, an inhibitor of both phospholipases A(2) and C, canceled stimulatory actions of L-leucine and KIC on protein synthesis. Neither indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, nor caffeic acid, an inhibitor of lipoxygenase, diminished their stimulatory actions, suggesting no involvement of arachidonic acid metabolism. Conversely, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methylglycerol, an inhibitor of proteinkinase C, significantly canceled the stimulatory actions of L-leucine and KIC on protein synthesis, suggesting an involvement of phosphatidylinositol degradation and activation of protein kinase C. L-Leucine caused a rapid activation of protein kinase C in both cytosol and membrane fractions of the cells. These results strongly suggest that both L-leucine and KIC stimulate protein synthesis in L6 myotubes through activation of phospholipase C and protein kinase C.

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The release of reactive oxygen specie (ROS) by activated neutrophil is involved in both the antimicrobial and deleterious effects in chronic inflammation. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the effect of therapeutic plasma concentrations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the production of ROS by stimulated rat neutrophils. Diclofenac (3.6 microM), indomethacin (12 microM), naproxen (160 microM), piroxicam (13 microM), and tenoxicam (30 microM) were incubated at 37 masculineC in PBS (10 mM), pH 7.4, for 30 min with rat neutrophils (1 x 10(6) cells/ml) stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (100 nM). The ROS production was measured by luminol and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. Except for naproxen, NSAIDs reduced ROS production: 58 +/- 2% diclofenac, 90 +/- 2% indomethacin, 33 +/- 3% piroxicam, and 45 +/- 6% tenoxicam (N = 6). For the lucigenin assay, naproxen, piroxicam and tenoxicam were ineffective. For indomethacin the inhibition was 52 +/- 5% and diclofenac showed amplification in the light emission of 181 +/- 60% (N = 6). Using the myeloperoxidase (MPO)/H2O2/luminol system, the effects of NSAIDs on MPO activity were also screened. We found that NSAIDs inhibited both the peroxidation and chlorinating activity of MPO as follows: diclofenac (36 +/- 10, 45 +/- 3%), indomethacin (97 +/- 2, 100 +/- 1%), naproxen (56 +/- 8, 76 +/- 3%), piroxicam (77 +/- 5, 99 +/- 1%), and tenoxicam (90 +/- 2, 100 +/- 1%), respectively (N = 3). These results show that therapeutic levels of NSAIDs are able to suppress the oxygen-dependent antimicrobial or oxidative functions of neutrophils by inhibiting the generation of hypochlorous acid.

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Intravenous migraine therapy reduces PTH pain scores for children presenting within 14 days after mTBI. Further prospective work is needed to determine long-term benefits of acute PTH treatment in the ED.

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The leaf extract of Sedum dendroideum exhibited gastroprotective activity, potentially due to sulfhydryl compounds and antioxidant activity. Therefore, other studies are warranted to elucidate the antiulcer properties of these compounds.

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A head to head comparison study on renal function and ductal response between indomethacin and ibuprofen has rarely been conducted in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.

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The ethanolic extract and its fractions were given at a dose of 200 mg/kg po and 300 mg/kg po for testing their anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced hind paw edema. The analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract and its fractions has been carried out by tail-flick method and writhing test at a dosage of 300 mg/kg po. Gastric ulceration studies have been further carried out to study the antiulcer effect of the ethanolic extract and its various fractions at dose of 900 mg/kg body weight.

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The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of licofelone, a dual inhibitor of cycloxygenase1/2-5-lipoxygenase against indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats and mice in order to assess the role of leukotrienes if any, in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced gastrointestinal inflammation. Acute pretreatment with licofelone reversed the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, neutrophil adhesion in mesentery venules, neutrophil count in blood, lipid peroxides and vascularity in the stomachs of mice and rats. Further, chronic pretreatment of licofelone also prevented indomethacin-induced gastric morphological changes and cellular infiltration in mesentery venules. Moreover, acute administration of indomethacin elevated leukotriene B4 levels in gastric mucosa, which was reversed by pretreatment with licofelone The results suggest that licofelone offered gastroprotection against NSAIDs-induced gastropathy through its effect on leukotrienes and by inhibiting extravasation of neutrophils.

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A series of blends of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and indomethacin (IMC), containing 20-80 wt.% IMC were obtained and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction in order to observe the mutual influence of the two components. The main thermal transitions of PDMS remained un-changed. Both the solvent (tetrahydrofuran, THF) and the PDMS influenced the crystalline form of IMC. The blends were subsequently re-dissolved in THF, with or without cross-linking reagents added and precipitated into diluted aqueous solutions of siloxane-based surfactants. The resulted nanoparticles were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the particles had diameters between 200 and 300 nm. The surfactants, the IMC content and the cross-linking influenced the particles size and polydispersity, as well as the nanoparticle yield. The maximum drug release from selected aqueous formulations was 30%.

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Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extract of Wrightia arborea (MEWA) were examined using different models in rats. MEWA was given to rats orally upto 2000 mg kg(-1) b.wt. for acute toxicity study and observed for 14 days. Anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated in rats against Acetic acid induced writhing (chemically induced pain) and Tail immersion method (thermally induced pain). Acute anti-inflammatory activity of MEWA was also evaluated in Formaline-induced rat paw edema model and Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in rats. Results demonstrated that no mortality was found upto single dose of 2000 mg kg(-1) b.wt. in rats even after 14 days observation. In comparison to control group MEWA at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. showed highly significant anti-nociceptive activity against chemically (p < 0.001) as well as thermally (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001) induced pain as compared to standard drugs, indomethacin and nalbufin, respectively. In the formalin test, both the doses of 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) of extract significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) both in the neurogenic and inflammatory phases. MEWA (200 and 400 mg kg(-1) p.o.) also significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema in Carrageenan test (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). The results suggest that MEWA has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential which may be mediated by central and peripheral mechanism.

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The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of various micronized poorly water-soluble inorganic materials on the dissolution and de-agglomeration behaviour of a micronized, poorly water-soluble model drug, indomethacin, from lactose interactive mixtures. Dissolution of indomethacin was studied using the USP paddle method and the data were modelled with multi-exponential equations using a nonlinear least squares algorithm in order to obtain key parameter estimates. The dispersion of indomethacin mixtures was measured by laser diffraction. The addition of aluminium hydroxide and calcium phosphate to binary mixtures of indomethacin counter-intuitively improved the dissolution rate of indomethacin due to significant increases in both the estimated initial concentration and dissolution rate constant of dispersed particles of indomethacin. While some enhancement was due to pH changes in the dissolution medium, the presence of these poorly water-soluble inorganic salts caused de-agglomeration. Average particle size distributions indicated that the presence of aluminium hydroxide within the matrix of indomethacin had reduced the agglomerate concentration whilst increasing the dispersed particle concentration. These findings provide the first evidence of the ability of poorly water-soluble inorganic salts to enhance the de-agglomeration and dissolution of micronized powders, potentially translating to improved bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

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Inflammation promotes epidermal wound healing but is considered detrimental to recovery from central nervous system injury. Sick infants have increased levels of cytokines in their cerebrospinal fluid that correlate with poor neurological outcome. In this study, we investigated the role of neuroinflammation and more specifically interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the amplification of subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) neural precursors after neonatal brain injury.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the permeation of model drug indomethacin (IND) from various types of gels through several semipermeable membranes.

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BNP-guided treatment reduced the number of primary indomethacin doses. There was no increase in PDA persistence or associated morbidity.

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Indomethacin or placebo intravenously once daily for the first 3 days.

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Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and more recently carotid artery stenting are the treatments of choice for atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial carotid arteries; however, early restenosis caused by neointimal hyperplasia confounds surgical therapy. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of intimal hyperplasia. The authors hypothesized that ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol), a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that is a potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor, would decrease oxidative stress and thereby reduce intimal hyperplasia in a rat CEA model. Twenty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent CEA and were divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: (1) control (placebo), (2) 7.5 mg/kg Toradol, and (3) 10 mg/kg Toradol. Toradol treatment began 2 days before CEA and continued for 2 weeks. Two weeks after endarterectomy, carotid arteries were fixed, harvested, and examined for platelet activity (platelet reactive units), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and glutathione), and intimal hyperplasia (measured as percentage of luminal stenosis). Platelet activity, malondialdehyde and glutathione, and intimal hyperplasia were all significantly lowered in both 7.5- and 10-mg/kg doses of Toradol versus control. Toradol given daily beginning 2 days before CEA and ending 2 weeks after the procedure was effective at significantly reducing platelet activity, oxidative stress, and intimal hyperplasia development in the rat without any increase in bleeding. Although the mechanism of action of this reduction is not completely understood, one possible explanation may be through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production.

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Angiotensin II (AngII) is important in regulation of vascular resistance and control of blood flow among organs and tissues. The effect of AngII on the cerebral microvasculature may be mediated or altered by endothelial-derived signals. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that blood AngII dilates neonatal pial arterioles via an endothelial-dependent mechanism but brain AngII can constrict pial arterioles by activating smooth muscle AT1 receptors. Studies used anesthetized newborn pigs with surgically implanted closed cranial windows. AngII was given either by infusion into the carotid artery ipsilateral to the cranial window or topically. Intracarotid infusion of AngII dilated pial arterioles. The dilation was blocked by systemic administration of the AT1-receptor antagonist, losartan, but unaffected by topical losartan. Topical AngII also caused dilation, but this dilation was converted to constriction by topical losartan. In piglets pretreated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril, topical AngII constricted, rather than dilated, pial arterioles. In enalapril-treated piglets, light/dye endothelial injury blocked dilation to intracarotid AngII but did not affect constriction to topical AngII. Either indomethacin or l-nitroarginine methyl ester blocked the dilation to intraluminal AngII, but neither affected constriction to topical AngII. Chromium mesoporphyrin, that inhibits heme oxygenase, did not affect responses to either topical or intravascular AngII. These data are consistent with the hypotheses that: (a) circulating AngII dilates pial arterioles via endothelial AT(1) receptor-derived relaxing factors, notably prostanoids and nitric oxide; (b) direct AT(1) receptor activation on the brain side of the blood-brain barrier by AngII causes AT(1) receptor-mediated constriction that can mask underlying AT(1) receptor-independent dilation when ACE is inhibited. Clinical manipulation of the renin-angiotensin system will have disparate actions on cerebral circulation depending on the functional integrity of the intima and ACE.

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RAS inhibitors combined with indomethacin showed beneficial effect in our patient. Thus, this combination might be the initial treatment of patients with FS. If this treatment strategy was not satisfied for at least 3 months, then CsA would be considered to be administered taking account of the nephrotoxicity and the increased risk of malignancy. Further prospective study is required to clarify this issue.

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The present investigation provides evidence for the decreased responsiveness to both, ACh-endothelium-dependent and VIP-endothelium-independent vasorelaxation in rabbit facial artery after carotid occlusion. In addition, the data suggest that ischaemia alters contribution of endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) and prostaglandin to ACh, and vascular smooth muscle's cAMP and neuronal NO to VIP vasorelaxant effects.

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ELBW Infants that acquire SIP were more likely to have been exposed to early indomethacin and post-natal glucocorticoids. However, no association was found between SIP and ANS within a well-powered cohort.

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The ketorolac group consisted of 94 patients (100 eyes) and the nepafenac group, 89 patients (93 eyes). The between-group differences in visual outcomes and anterior chamber inflammation were not statistically significant (mean P = .33). There was a higher incidence of posterior capsule opacification in the nepafenac group (P = 0.019). Patient satisfaction, patient compliance, and postoperative pain control were statistically significantly better in the ketorolac group (P = .022, P = .023, and P = .025, respectively).

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After laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia using intravenous propofol, nitrous oxide and fentanyl 3, 40 patients were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous flurbprofen 50 mg or suppository indomethacin 50 mg. Visual analogue scales of postoperative pain at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min after surgery (at rest and at coughing), use of rescue analgesics, and the presence or absence of complications were recorded.

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EP4-selective agonist may prevent indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and promote healing of existing and indomethacin-aggravated gastric ulcers, via promoting proliferation and survival of mucous epithelial cells.

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Frequency and severity of the blunt chest injuries are increasing. Rather high letality is caused by the injury and following systemic inflammatory response.

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indocin gout medication 2015-12-13

Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1) is an integral membrane efflux protein that is implicated in multidrug resistance in cancer, but it is also expressed in normal tissues. The objective of this study was to determine the expression, localization and functional activity of MRP1 in primary cultured rat alveolar epithelial cells of types I- and II cell-like phenotypes. RT-PCR data showed 550-base pair fragments in both types I- and II-like pneumocytes that exhibited 99% identity to the rat MRP1 isoform. Significant levels of MRP1 protein were detected by western analysis of immunoprecipitates in both cell types, and immunofluorescence combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated basolateral localization of MRP1. Indomethacin (0-100 microM) increased fluorescein basolateral-to-apical transport, and accumulation of fluorescein in the cells, in a dose buy indocin -dependent manner. We therefore conclude that the MRP1 gene is present in primary cultured rat epithelial cells of both types I- and II-like phenotypes and its corresponding protein (MRP1) is localized in the basolateral membrane of these cells. Primary cultured monolayers of rat type II-like pneumocytes appear to be a useful tool for screening MRP1 substrates designed for pulmonary delivery/targeting.

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The phytochemical analysis showed that the extract contained flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, tannins and saponins. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract significantly reduced the number of writhes at 100 and 200 mg/kg but not so much at 50 mg/kg. In the formalin-induced paw lick test, the effect was similar to that of the acetic writhing test. The analgesic effects were comparable to that of indomethacin used at 10 mg/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test, the extract reduced the formation of oedema especially at a dose of 200 mg/kg. In the anti-oxidant test, the extract was found to possess a buy indocin free radical-scavenging property and is concentration related.

indocin gout medicine 2016-01-06

Ester prodrugs have the potential to eliminate the gastrotoxicity associated with the carboxylic acid group of indomethacin. 4,6-Bis-O-2'-[1'-(4″-chlorobenzoyl)-5'-methoxy-2'-methyl-1'H-indol-3'-acetyl]-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoacetate (2) was synthesised and evaluated as a COX-2 inhibitor. It adopts a conformationally restricted chair with two indomethacin groups in the sterically hindered 1,3-diaxial positions. Acid-induced cleavage of the orthoacetate lock of the prodrug leads to a ring flip of the myo-inositol ring with the two indomethacin groups now in 1,3 buy indocin -diequatorial positions. This increases the susceptibility of hydrolysis of the ester groups to release indomethacin under acidic conditions. The long half-life (152 min) of decomposition of (2) at ~pH 1-2 suggests that it may bypass the stomach with minimal hydrolysis upon oral administration. Indomethacin ester (2) was completely stable at pH 4.0-8.5 over 24h at 37°C and showed comparable activity to indomethacin in a COX-2 assay (pH 8.0).

indocin 50mg capsules 2016-03-28

In this study for developing potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory compounds, we synthesized 6-acyl-2-benzoxazolinone and 6-acyl-2-benzothiazolinone derivatives with acetic acid and propanoic acid side chain, and performed preliminary screening of their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at a single dose of 100 mg/kg inmice by a p-benzoquinone-induced writhing test and a Carrageenaninduced hind paw edema model, respectively. We also determined their gastric ulceration effects in the tested animals. Propanoic acid derivatives were generally found to have higher analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, and among them, 3-(6-benzoyl-2-benzothiazolinon-3-yl)propanoic acid (Compound 4 a) exhibited the highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. However, all compounds showed lower anti-inflammatory effects than we observed for indomethacin at 10 mg/kg dose. Consequently, 6-acyl-2-benzoxazolinone/2-benzothiazolinones having propanoic acid side chain might lead to further studies for developing better candidates buy indocin with potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects while acetic acid derivatives do not exhibit comparable satisfactory features.

indocin oral suspension 2015-01-07

Here we demonstrate that CRC patients have elevated levels of PGE(2) in peripheral blood, and CRC tissue samples and draining lymph nodes display increased numbers of FOXP3+ T(R) cells. Depletion of T(R) cells from PBMC enhanced anti-tumor T-cell responses to peptides from carcinoembryonic antigen. Furthermore, the COX inhibitor indomethacin and the PKA type I antagonist Rp-8-Br-cAMPS significantly buy indocin improved the anti-tumor immune activity.

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To examine whether a change in the buy indocin approach to managing persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) from early ligation to selective ligation is associated with an increased risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes.

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We have previously shown that expression of renal organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3 is diminished by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and that both transporters are downregulated after renal ischemia. Because PGE(2) is increased after renal ischemia and is generated by cyclooxygenases (COX), we investigated the effect of the COX inhibitor indomethacin on expression of Oat1/3 after ischemic acute kidney injury (iAKI). iAKI was induced in rats by bilateral clamping of renal arteries for 45 min. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally as soon as reperfusion started. Sham-treated animals served as controls. Oat1/3 were determined by qPCR and Western blot. PGE(2) in blood and urine was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Invasion of monocytes/macrophages was determined. Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were determined. All parameters were detected 24 h after ischemia. PAH net secretion, as well as clearance and secretion of PGE(2) were calculated. In clamped animals, indomethacin restored expression of Oat1/3, as well as PAH net secretion, PGE(2) clearance, or PGE(2) secretion. Additionally, indomethacin substantially improved kidney function as measured by glomerular filtration and PAH clearance. Indomethacin did not affect ischemia-induced invasion of monocytes/macrophages. In conclusion, our study indicates that low-dose indomethacin applied after ischemia prevents ischemia-induced downregulation of Oat1/3 during reperfusion and has a substantial protective effect on kidney function after iAKI. The beneficial effect of low-dose indomethacin on renal outcome is likely due to an effect different from inhibition of inflammation. In accordance to the decreased PAH net secretion, renal excretion of an endogenous organic anion (PGE(2)) is also impaired after ischemia buy indocin and reperfusion.

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Eleven randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. No differences were seen for admission to the neonatal intensive care unit when betamimetics were compared with placebo (relative risk (RR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 2.60; one RCT of terbutaline with buy indocin 140 women) or with magnesium (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.46; one RCT of 137 women). The rate of preterm birth (less than 37 weeks) showed no significant difference in four RCTs, two comparing ritodrine with placebo/no treatment and two comparing terbutaline with placebo/no treatment (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.32, 384 women). No differences between betamimetics and placebo, no treatment or other tocolytics were seen for perinatal mortality and morbidity outcomes. Some adverse effects such as tachycardia were more frequent in the betamimetics groups than the groups allocated to placebo, no treatment or another type of tocolytic.

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We examined the effects of SC- buy indocin 560 (a COX-1-selective inhibitor) or NS-398 (a COX-2-selective inhibitor) on recovery from the effects of cutaneous barrier disruption in mice induced by a wire brush, in terms of the skin prostaglandin (PG) levels.

indocin tablets uses 2015-01-09

The efficacy of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) IV inhibitor rolipram on antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice was evaluated in comparison with clinically used anti-arthritic drugs. To induce AIA, DBA/1 mice buy indocin were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) emulsified with CFA (day 0) followed by intra-articular injection of OVA on day 21. Rolipram and clinically used anti-arthritic drugs including indomethacin (IND), dexamethasone (DEX), methotrexate (MTX), auranofin (AUR), and D-penicillamine (D-PA) were orally administered daily from days 0 to 20. On day 22, anti-OVA IgG in serum, proliferative responses of spleen cells to the OVA, and anti-OVA IgG2a and interferon (IFN)-gamma as indicators of Th1 responses, as well as anti-OVA IgG1 and interleukin (IL)-10 as those of Th2 reactions, were measured. Treatment with rolipram was followed by inhibition of the early phase of AIA associated with downregulation of both OVA-specific splenocyte proliferation and decreases of IFN-gamma released from the spleen cells but no decreases of the amount of IL-10, or levels of anti-OVA IgG, IgG2a, and IgG1. All clinically used anti-arthritic drugs were more effective in suppressing the late phase of AIA compared with the early phase of joint inflammation. The suppression of AIA by clinically used anti-arthritic drugs was associated with down-regulation of not only Th1 but also Th2 responses. These results suggest that PDE IV inhibitors such as rolipram may exert their suppressive effects on AIA with relatively selective downregulation of antigen-specific Th1 responses compared with anti-arthritic drugs.

indocin tablets 2017-06-05

Wild-type (WT) and PP-null mice were injected with indomethacin. Twenty-four hours later, the cellular profiles and cytokine levels in the PPs, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and lamina propria (LP) of the small intestine were measured. WT and PP-null mice were given antibiotics before buy indocin indomethacin treatment to evaluate enteropathy. Naive CD4 T cells were co-cultured with CD103 or CD103 dendritic cells (DCs) to analyze the interleukin (IL)-10 expression levels. Finally, WT mice adoptively transferred with CD103 or CD103 DCs were injected with indomethacin.

indocin medication 2016-08-02

The red ear syndrome represents a rare symptom complex consisting of auricular erythema associated with painful and burning sensations. It has buy indocin been described in combination with tinnitus rarely. It has been hypothesized to be etiologically related to altered trigeminal afferent input, temporomandibular disorders, and thalamic dysfunction.

indocin renal dosing 2017-02-16

We previously reported that cyclooxygenase inhibitors improved storage function in rats with detrusor overactivity caused by cerebral infarction via C-fiber suppression buy indocin but the precise mechanism underlying this effect remained unclear. In this study we investigated the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on stretch evoked adenosine triphosphate and prostaglandin E(2) release from bladder epithelium.

indocin drug 2015-07-31

Exposure of the fetus to indomethacin by administration Lipitor Generic Dosage of the drug to the mother may cause many side effects, including premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. Hypoxia is a predisposing factor for premature ductal closure and often occurs after maternal indomethacin therapy. We present two sets of monozygotic twins with twin-to-twin transfusion, where in utero ductal closure occurred in the donor twin while the recipient twin appeared unaffected. This selective closure of the ductus arteriosus suggests that the affected twin was predisposed to hypoxia and thus was more susceptible to ductal closure in response to indomethacin exposure.

indocin sr dosage 2017-02-11

Understanding and overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) may be a promising strategy to develop more effective pharmacotherapies for malignant gliomas. In the present study, human malignant glioma cell lines (n=12) exhibited heterogeneous mRNA and protein expression and functional activity of the mdr gene-encoded P-glycoprotein (PGP) and MDR-associated protein (MRP). Correlation between mRNA expression, protein levels and functional activity was strong. Inhibition of PGP activity by verapamil or PSC 833 enhanced the Paracetamol Biogesic Medicine cytotoxic effects of vincristine, doxorubicin, teniposide and taxol. Inhibition of MRP activity by indomethacin or probenecid enhanced the cytotoxic effects of vincristine, doxorubicin and teniposide. The human cerebral endothelial cell line, SV-HCEC, exhibited the strongest PGP activity of all cell lines. Five primary human glioblastomas and one anaplastic astrocytoma displayed heterogenous protein levels of PGP and MRP-1 in tumor cells and of PGP in biopsy specimens in vivo, but no functional activity of these proteins upon ex vivo culturing. These data suggest that the glioma cell line-associated MDR-type drug resistance is a result of long-term culturing and that cerebral endothelial, but not glioma cells, may contribute to MDR-type drug resistance of gliomas in vivo.

indocin generic 2017-01-03

Ethanol extract from the stem bark of Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC (Bignoniaceae), given orally at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, was assessed for analgesic and antipyretic properties on different experimental animal models. Administration of ethanol extract Aricept Medicine of Stereospermum suaveolens (EESS) produced significant (p < .05, p < .001) dose-dependent analgesic effect in the tail flick, hot plate, and tail clip (central) as well as in acetic acid-induced writhing (peripheral) nociceptive tests in mice, suggesting the involvement of both central and peripheral mechanisms in alleviating the pain response. In the current study, indomethacin, aspirin, and morphine were used as the standard analgesic drugs. In addition, EESS also exhibited a significant (p < .05, p < .001) dose-dependent antipyretic response in Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats and the results were comparable with that of paracetamol, a standard antipyretic agent. These results showed that the EESS possesses potent analgesic and antipyretic activity by dose-dependent manner, in various experimental animal models.

indocin sr alcohol 2016-09-03

Yb(OTf)(3)-catalyzed equimolar condensation of the benzylated catechin with various 4-alkoxy catechin derivatives was studied. In particular, the reaction using 4-(2''-ethoxyethoxy)flavan derivative gave good Ilosone Generic Name yield with excellent stereoselectivity. The condensed product was successfully converted to procyanidin B3 (1). The anti-inflammatory effect of procyanidin B3 (1) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation of mouse ears was examined. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1 was stronger than that of indomethacin and glycyrrhetinic acid, the normally used anti-inflammatory agents.

indocin 1 mg 2017-12-25

The dependent variable in the model was the time between food rewards (pellets), or interfeeding interval (IFI). IFI was quantified after rats were trained to "bar-press" for food. To validate use of the IFI as a surrogate for temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain, we determined the impact of several manipulations, including changes in Lopid Overdose pellet size, the presence and severity of inflammation of the TMJ, masseter muscle, or skin (induced with complete Freund's adjuvant [CFA]), and the influence of preadministration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (4 mg/kg). Furthermore, in order to determine whether a change in IFI reflected an increase in the time rats spent eating, rats were videotaped, and the amount of time spent eating, grooming, and exploring was analyzed.

indocin reviews 2016-06-11

Compared with the control group, the indomethacin-treated rats showed a marked damage of the gastric mucosal surface and a high ulcer index Lasix 30 Mg . In the famotidine- and quercetin-treated groups, significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. The congestion, erosions, and necrosis were less with mild inflammatory cell infiltration while no major damage of endothelial cells was observed in the treated rats. The findings of the study show that quercetin had antioxidant effect and can protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration than famotidine.

indocin tablets dosage 2017-08-12

The anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of the lichen species Peltigera rufescens (Weis.) Humb (MEPR) (Peltigeraceae) on acute (carrageenan-induced) and chronic (cotton pellet granule) phases of inflammation were investigated. The MEPR was capable of reducing carrageenan-induced inflammation and showed a potent antiproliferative effect (63.5%) in the chronic inflammation model. Inflammation is related to neutrophil infiltration and the production of neutrophil-derived mediators and free radicals. The MEPR reduced the myeloperoxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities, which were increased by carrageenan injection. Carrageenan injection also increased the lipid peroxidation (LPO) as compared with untreated paw tissues. The administration of MEPR, diclofenac, and indomethacin reduced the LPO in paw tissues through amelioration of the antioxidant defense systems. Neutrophil infiltration and neutrophil-derived free radicals in tissues therefore appeared to play an important role in the inflammation process induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect of MEPR could be attributed to Glucotrol Max Dose its reducing effect on the neutrophil-derived free radicals and its ameliorating effect on the antioxidant defense systems.

indocin 15 mg 2015-01-28

Dyloject is a novel formulation of diclofenac intended for intravenous (IV) administration. This formulation employs the solubilizing agent hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin to permit bolus IV administration. The efficacy and safety of 5 dose levels of IV diclofenac were compared with IV ketorolac and placebo following third molar extraction. This was a single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and comparator-controlled, parallel-group study. Norvasc Reviews Hypertension A total of 353 subjects with moderate to severe pain received placebo; ketorolac 30 mg; or IV diclofenac 3.75, 9.4, 18.75, 37.5, or 75 mg (N  =  51 for all groups, except N  =  47 for ketorolac). The primary endpoint was total pain relief over 6 hours (TOTPAR6) as measured by the visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary endpoints included multiple measures of pain intensity and relief; patient global evaluation; and times to pain relief and rescue medication. Dropouts and adverse effects (AEs) were also monitored. IV diclofenac was superior to placebo as measured by TOTPAR6 (P < .0001 for all doses except 3.75 mg, for which P  =  .0341). IV diclofenac 3.75 mg was statistically superior to placebo for TOTPAR2 and TOTPAR4. IV diclofenac at both 37.5 and 75 mg was superior to placebo (P < .05) at the earliest (5 minute) assessments of pain intensity and pain relief, but ketorolac was not. The proportion of patients reporting 30% or greater pain relief at 5 minutes was significantly greater after IV diclofenac 37.5 and 75 mg than after ketorolac 30 mg or placebo. Secondary endpoints confirmed the primary findings. Treatment-related AEs were generally mild to moderate and were typical for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The more rapid onset of action of IV diclofenac compared with the reference injectable NSAID ketorolac suggests additional clinical benefit. If confirmed in larger series, these findings may improve the safety and efficacy of postoperative NSAID analgesia.

dosage of indocin 2015-10-12

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is a key protein in glucose homeostasis and a pharmacological target in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study explored whether the novel adipokine soluble DPP4 (sDPP4) can cause endothelial dysfunction, an early marker of impaired vascular reactivity.

indocin capsules 2017-06-21

To report the novel use of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of refractory cystoid macular edema (CME) following cataract extraction.

indocin 150 mg 2017-11-03

This is a cross-sectional survey of 60 patients who underwent cystoscopic ureteral stent removal under intravenous analgesics (group 1, n = 20), midazolam induction (group 2, n = 20), and propofol (group 3, n = 20). Procedural pain and post-procedure satisfaction were determined, and cost differences between the approaches were clarified.

indocin pain medication 2016-12-07

Tablets of amorphous indomethacin were compressed at 10, 25, 50, or 100 MPa using either an unlubricated or a lubricated die and stored individually at 35 °C in sealed Mylar pouches. At selected time points, tablets were analyzed by two-dimensional X-ray diffractometry (2D-XRD), which enabled us to profile the extent of drug crystallization in tablets, in both the radial and axial directions. To evaluate the role of lubricant, magnesium stearate was used as "internal" and/or "external" lubricant. Indomethacin crystallization propensity increased as a function of compression pressure, with 100 MPa pressure causing crystallization immediately after compression (detected using synchrotron radiation). However, the drug crystallization was not uniform throughout the tablets. In unlubricated systems, pronounced crystallization at the radial surface could be attributed to die wall friction. The tablet core remained substantially amorphous, irrespective of the compression pressure. Lubrication of the die wall with magnesium stearate, as external lubricant, dramatically decreased drug crystallization at the radial surface. The spatial heterogeneity in drug crystallization, as a function of formulation composition and compression pressure, was systematically investigated. When formulating amorphous systems as tablets, the potential for compression induced crystallization warrants careful consideration. Very low levels of crystallization on the tablet surface, while profoundly affecting product performance (decrease in dissolution rate), may not be readily detected by conventional analytical techniques. Early detection of crystallization could be pivotal in the successful design of a dosage form where, in order to obtain the desired bioavailability, the drug may be in a high energy state. Specialized X-ray diffractometric techniques (2D; use of high intensity synchrotron radiation) enabled detection of very low levels of drug crystallization and revealed the heterogeneity in crystallization within the tablet.

indocin dosage chart 2015-02-06

A 52-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with the complaint of severe, aching, constant eye pain radiating to the V1 area for 1 week with associated ptosis and photophobia of the left eye. Ocular examination revealed involvement of cranial nerves II, III, V, and VI. Additional symptoms included ipsilateral lacrimation, eyelid edema, and rhinorrhea. Extensive medical work-up showed normal results. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed with multiple cranial nerve involvement; the headache component became chronic with periodic exacerbations of autonomic symptoms evolving to a diagnosis of hemicrania continua. The patient was intolerant to traditional indomethacin treatment, and the headache was successfully treated with onabotulinumtoxinA injections.

indocin buy online 2015-07-10

The role of macrophages acting as immunologic antitumor effectors and promoters of tumor growth are poorly understood as yet. We investigated the role of macrophage in model of concomitant immunity (CI), a phenomenon of secondary tumor rejection during the primary tumor growth. It has been shown that the period of CI weakening can coincide with appearance of tumor metastases. We used mammary carcinoma (MC) artificial lung metastases to evaluate the influence of macrophages from various period of CI on the development of metastases in mice. Our results indicated that macrophages are responsible for the late period of CI weakening and suppression. To investigate weather prostaglandins can mediate suppressive effect of macrophages we used experiments with indomethacin and we found that inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis by indomethacin restored antimetastatic effect of concomitant immune macrophages.