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Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is useful as a potential therapeutic agent for hepatic and renal fibrosis and cardiovascular diseases through inducing proliferation of epithelial and endothelial cells. HGF inducers may also be useful as therapeutic agents for these diseases. However, there have been no reports on induction of HGF production by plant extracts or juices. An extract of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) pulp markedly induced HGF production. There was a time lag of 72 h before induction of HGF production after the extract addition. Its stimulatory effect was accompanied by upregulation of HGF gene expression. Increases in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were observed from 72 h after the extract addition. Inhibitors of MAPKs suppressed the extract-induced HGF production. The extract also stimulated cell proliferation. Both activities for induction of HGF production and cell proliferation were eluted together in a single peak with 14,000 Da on gel filtration. The results indicate that bitter melon pulp extract induced HGF production and cell proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and suggest that activation of MAPKs is involved in the HGF induction. Our findings suggest potential usefulness of the extract for tissue regeneration and provide an insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the wound-healing property of bitter melon.
Eight cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides called goyaglycosides-a, -b, -c, -d, -e, -f, -g, and -h and three oleanane-type triterpene saponins termed goyasaponins I, II, and III were isolated from the fresh fruit of Japanese Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) together with five known cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides momordicosides A, C, F1, I, and K. The structures of goyaglycosides and goyasaponins were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.
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An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.
This study examined the impact of maternal high-fructose intake and if metabolic control in the offspring could benefit from supplementing bioactive food components such as bitter melon (BM) to the maternal diet. In Expt. 1, virgin female rats received control (C), high-fructose (F; 60%), or BM-supplemented fructose (FBM; 1%) diet before conception until d 21 of lactation. Weaned male offspring were fed the C diet for 11 wk, forming C/C, F/C, and FBM/C groups. The F/C group had elevated serum insulin, TG, and FFA concentrations and hepatic lipid alterations compared with the C/C and FBM/C groups (P < 0.05). The 2 latter groups did not differ. Expt. 2 had similar dam treatment groups, but offspring were weaned to the C or F diet, forming C/C, C/F, F/F, and FBM/F groups, and the dietary treatment was extended to 20 wk. The hepatic levels of stearyl-CoA desaturase and microsomal TG transfer protein mRNA were lower, but that of PPARγ coactivator 1-α and fibroblast growth factor 21 mRNA and fatty acid binding protein 1 protein were higher in the FBM/F group compared with the C/F and F/F groups (P < 0.05), indicating that maternal BM supplementation may reduce lipogenesis and promote lipid oxidation in offspring. The FBM/F group had significantly higher activities of liver glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase than the F/F group. The results indicate that supplementing BM to dams could offset the adverse effects of maternal high-fructose intake on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in adult offspring.
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To develop an HPLC for determination of aglycone of momordicoside L in Momordica charantia.
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Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinal plants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the review also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants and reported during 2001 to 2005. Many kinds of natural products, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and some others, have shown antidiabetic potential. Particularly, schulzeines A, B, and C, radicamines A and B, 2,5-imino-1,2,5-trideoxy-L-glucitol, beta-homofuconojirimycin, myrciacitrin IV, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid (Glucosol), 4-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose have shown significant antidiabetic activities. Among active medicinal herbs, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminoceae), and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Leguminosae) have been reported as beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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This explorative survey emphasizes the need to preserve and document the traditional healing practices for managing DSD inviting for more imminent scientific research on the plants to determine their efficacy as well as safety. With the help of statistical analysis (DCI), we propose 10 priority plants for DSD in present work. Systematic pharmacological study with these plants may contribute significant result.
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A multitude of plants have been used extensively for the treatment of cancers throughout the world. The protein, α, β momorcharin has been extracted from the plant Momordica charantia (MC), and it possesses anti-cancer and anti-HIV properties similar to the crude water and methanol soluble extract of the plant. This study investigated the anti-cancer effects and the cellular mechanisms of action of α, β momocharin (200-800 μM) on 1321N1, Gos-3, U87-MG, Sk Mel, Corl-23 and Weri Rb-1 cancer cell lines compared to normal healthy L6 muscle cell line measuring cell viability using MTT assay kit, Caspase-3 and 9 activities, cytochrome c release and intracellular free calcium concentrations [Ca(2+)]i. The results show that α, β momorcharin can evoke significant dose-dependent (P < 0.05; Student's t test) decreases in the viability (increases in cell death) of 1321N1, Gos-3, U87-MG, Sk Mel, Corl-23 and Weri Rb-1 cancer cell lines compared to healthy L6 muscle cell line and untreated glioma cells. α, β momorcharin (800 μM) also evoked significant (P < 0.05) increases in caspase-3 and 9 activities and cytochrome c release. Similarly, α, β momorcharin elicited significant (P < 0.05) time-dependent elevation in [Ca(2+)]i in all five glioma cell lines compared to untreated cells. Together, the results have demonstrated that α, β momorcharin can exert its anti-cancer effect on different cancer cell lines by intracellular processes involving an insult to the mitochondria resulting in cellular calcium over loading, apoptosis, cytochrome release and subsequently, cell death.
Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed.
Medicinal plants play a major role in the life of Turkish people and of late medicinal plant usage has increased in many countries. Green plants in general contain mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, but there is little information about the biological activities of herbal medicine. In the present study, therefore, various Turkish medicinal herbs were investigated for their genotoxic potential in the Salmonella typhimurium microsomal activation assay and the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) assay. Extracts from these medicinal herbs and some fractions of these extracts were examined. The species investigated were Arctium minus, Ecballium elatterium, Momordica charantia, Plantago major, Urtica dioica, Viscum album, Salvia triloba, Euphorbia rigida, Stachys lavandulifolia, Acteoside, Abies nordmannia. They are used for various immune disorders and are applied either topically or taken orally as a herbal tea. Of the 19 samples of the extracts and fractions investigated, none produced a positive response in strains TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic activation, but all produced an increase above negative control values in the COMET assay. Some extracts were investigated further and produced dose-related increases. In the case of Urtica and Euphorbia species, where two fractions from these plants were examined, one fraction produced a greater response than the other. It is suggested that the lesser response of the fractions might be due to less DNA strand-breaking agents in the fractions or they may have antigenotoxic properties. The breaks that are detected in the COMET assay could be alkali-labile AP-sites and intermediates in base- or nucleotide-excision repair and are difficult to interpret in terms of hazard for man. Further studies with additional genotoxicity assays would be required to make such a prediction.
Allergenicity of three plant abortifacient proteins, trichosanthin (TCS), alpha-momorcharin (alpha-MMC) and beta-momorcharin (beta-MMC) and the kinetics of IgE antibody response against these proteins were studied in C57BL/6N and BALB/cAn mice. These proteins were purified from Chinese medicinal herbs, characterized by biochemical and immunological procedures and found to be homogeneous by PAGE, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) different levels of IgE antibody responses against TCS, alpha-MMC and beta-MMC were induced when they were injected i.p. as antigen adsorbed onto AI(OH)3 gel into BALB/cAn or C57BL/6N mice on day 0 and day 28; 2) the allergenicity of the proteins was in the order of beta-MMC greater than alpha-MMC greater than TCS; 3) two injections of 10 micrograms or 50 micrograms of TCS or alpha-MMC given at 4 weeks interval without adjuvant elicited a low or undetectable PCA titer, while the same dose given weekly for 5 weeks resulted in high levels of IgE production; and 4) on the basis of PCA observations, no cross immunological reactivity among these three proteins was found, it seemed to support that TCS, alpha-MMC and beta-MMC may be alternately used for inducing abortion.
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Following on from impressive economic development and urbanization, China is currently experiencing a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome suffer from the "The Deadly Quartet" of hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, and central (or upper body) obesity. Current treatment strategies directed towards metabolic syndrome tend to be limited to just one of these four conditions, so developing novel drugs to target multiple metabolic abnormalities could be preferable to current approaches. New insights suggest benefits of natural agents as treatments for metabolic syndrome. Herein, we review the evidence for using nine such agents developed on the basis of traditional medicine or herbal preparations.
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We documented 50 plants species belonging to 29 families used for treating 22 human and 4 veterinary ailments. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (40%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. Leaves were most frequently used plant parts. The consensus analysis revealed that the dermatological ailments have the highest FIC (0.56) and the gastro-intestinal diseases have FIC (0.43). FIC values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in dermatological and gastro-intestinal ailments category among the users. Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically rare and endangered species used as disinfectant for cleaning wounds and parasites like leeches and lice on livestocks. Two plant species (Illicium griffithii and Rubia cordifolia) are commonly used for traditional dyeing of clothes and food items. Some of the edible plants recorded in this study were known for their treatment against high blood pressure (Clerodendron colebrookianum), diabetes mellitus (Momordica charantia), and intestinal parasitic worms like round and tape worms (Lindera neesiana, Solanum etiopicum, and Solanum indicum). The Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh have traditionally been using Daphne papyracea for preparing hand-made paper for painting and writing religious scripts in Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures.
Pakistan is rich in medicinally important plants and has ancient herbal treatment methods. Present work is based on the study of six indigenous plants Eugenia jambolana, Lawsonia inermis, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum graecum which show the inhibitory effect of glucose utilization, and are in use as hypoglycemic agents of varying degree in traditional system of medicine. The glucose uptake activity of (methanolic extracts) of these plants was tested in vitro and glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method. The results in three different media revealed that, hypoglycemic activity is more prominent in neutral and basic media as compared to acidic medium.
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Protein synthesis by a rabbit reticulocyte lysate is inhibited by the haemagglutinating lectins from Momordica charantia and Crotalaria juncea seeds and from the roe of Rutilus rutilus, and by a commercial preparation of the mitogenic lectin from Phytolacca americana. The haemagglutinins from the seeds of Ricinus communis and of Vicia cracca acquired inhibitory activity after their reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol.
The control group (I) was provided daily 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the experimental groups II and III were given daily 400 and 800 mg dry matter/kg body weight of the extracts dissolved in 1 ml DMSO via the esophageal route. All groups were administered for 42 days (day 42). Changes in body weight, fertility, reproductive characteristics, testicular histopathology and levels of seminal and plasma testosterone among three groups were compared.
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This was studied by measuring the contents of total sugar, uronic acid, amino sugar, and sulfate in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
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We present two cases of extreme neglect with injuries. These are perfect examples of gender bias. Our first case is a 20-day-old female neonate was brought to the pediatric emergency department with multiple rat bites to the face. A 9-month-old female infant was brought to the emergency care division with multiple rat bites on the eyes and upper extremities. These cases point towards the existing gender bias and extreme social neglect of females in the Indian society.
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In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs.
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Treatment of insulin resistance is a critical strategy in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The crude extracts from all parts of Momordica charantia L. have been reported by many studies for the effective treatment of diabetes and related complications. However, the exact ingredients responsible for the hypoglycemic effect and the underlying mechanism of their actions have not been well characterized because of the lack of a proper assay and screening system. A new cell-based, nonradioactive, and nonfluorescent screening method was demonstrated in this study to screen for natural products from the stem of M. charantia, aiming to identify hypoglycemic components that can overcome cellular insulin resistance. The results suggest triterpenoids being potential hypoglycemic components of the plant and the mechanism underlying their action involving AMP-activated protein kinase.
Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem.
Alcoholic extract of whole fruit of Momordica charantia was prepared. Adult healthy albino rats were divided into four groups and received a dose of 6 mg/l00 gm. body weight of alloxan monohydrate. Animals of group I served as diabetic control group. The animals of II, III, and IV groups received 25 mg, 50 mg and 75 mg doses of the extract respectively for different durations. 75 mg dose showed increase in body weight. All doses of alcoholic extract of M. charantia were able to decrease the blood sugar level significantly. Extract feeding showed definite improvement in the islets of Langerhans. No toxic effect was observed in the liver The significant features of the study have been blood glucose once lowered by the treatment with M. charantia fruit extract remained static even after discontinuation of drug for 15 days. Blood sugar never fell below normal values even with a high dose, in pancreatic islets, beta cells showed definite improvement.
A method for determination of metrafenone residues in bitter gourd and soil was developed. All samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, purified with the glass column of florisil and NH2-SPE column, analyzed by gas chromatography with electronic capture detector (GC-ECD). The results showed that it had good linearity in the range of 0.01-2 mg/L and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9999. The average recoveries of metrafenone in bitter gourd and soil were 83.51-91.75% and 84.76-91.72% with the relative standard deviation of 3.48-9.18% and 4.23-7.25%, respectively. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.005 mg/kg, the minimum concentration of detection in bitter gourd and soil was 1 × 10(-2) mg/kg.
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The chemical study of Momordica charantia fruits led to the isolation of three new cucurbitane triterpene glycosides, momordicosides U, V, and W (1-3). The structures of these compounds were determined to be (19R, 23R)-5beta, 19-epoxy-19-methoxycucurbita-6,24-diene-3beta, 23-diol 3-O-beta-D-allopyranoside (1), (23R)-5beta, 19-epoxycucurbita-6,24-diene-3beta, 23-diol 3-O-beta-D-allopyranoside (2), and (19R)-5beta, 19-epoxy-19,25-dihydroxycucurbita-6,23(E)-diene-3beta-ol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), by chemical and spectroscopic methods.
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Our results suggest that the MC accessions and the harvesting times or the weather during harvest play significant roles in high content of polypeptide-P.
This is the first report of cloning and expression of the MC polypeptide-P gene. The cloned gene could be helpful for exploring the mechanisms of polypeptide-P gene expression and regulation in MC. Furthermore, this gene could be used as a potential tool both for screening MC varieties with high hypoglycaemically active substance content and for breeding new varieties of MC with high economic value, which could in turn be beneficial to farmers.
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Of 50 plants screened six extracts tested for their anti-MTB activity yielded positive results with varying degrees of inhibition. Mammea americana showed the greatest inhibitory activity suggesting that certain plant species yield valuable anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis substances. The procedures employed in this study, including the BACTEC 460 modified method, are useful for in vitro screening of plant extracts with potential antitubercular activity.
The protein from Thai bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) fruit pulp was extracted and studied for its hypoglycemic effect. Subcutaneous administration of the protein extract (5, 10 mg/kg) significantly and markedly decreased plasma glucose concentrations in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. The onset of the protein extract-induced antihyperglycemia/hypoglycemia was observed at 4 and 6 h in diabetic and normal rats, respectively. This protein extract also raised plasma insulin concentrations by 2 fold 4 h following subcutaneous administration. In perfused rat pancreas, the protein extract (10 microg/ml) increased insulin secretion, but not glucagon secretion. The increase in insulin secretion was apparent within 5 min of administration and was persistent during 30 min of administration. Furthermore, the protein extract enhanced glucose uptake into C2C12 myocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Time course experiments performed in rat adipocytes revealed that M. charantia protein extract significantly increased glucose uptake after 4 and 6 h of incubation. Thus, the M. charantia protein extract, a slow acting chemical, exerted both insulin secretagogue and insulinomimetic activities to lower blood glucose concentrations in vivo.