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Kemadrin (Procyclidine)
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Kemadrin

Generic Kemadrin is a synthetic antispasmodic compound of relatively low toxicity. In Parkinson's disease, the deficiency of dopamine causes overactivity of acetylcholine. This causes some of the symptoms of the disease. Generic Kemadrin works by blocking the receptors that acetylcholine acts on.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Sinemet, Requip

 

Also known as:  Procyclidine.

Description

Generic Kemadrin is used to treat parkinsonism and extrapyramidal dysfunction caused by tranquilizer therapy.

In Parkinson's disease, the deficiency of dopamine causes overactivity of acetylcholine. This causes some of the symptoms of the disease. Generic Kemadrin works by blocking the receptors that acetylcholine acts on. This reduces the activity of the acetylcholine and helps restore the balance of acetylcholine and dopamine in the brain. In this way, Generic Kemadrin helps to control some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

Generic name of Generic Kemadrin is Procyclidine.

Brand name of Generic Kemadrin is Kemadrin.

Dosage

Take Generic Kemardin tablets orally.

Take Generic Kemadrin with or without food.

Do not drink alcohol during Generic Kemadrin usage.

Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert while using Generic Kemadrin.

The dosage and the kind of medicine depend on the disease and its prescribed treatment.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Kemadrin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Kemadrin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Kemadrin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Kemadrin if you are allergic to Generic Kemadrin components.

Be careful with Generic Kemadrin if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Kemadrin if you have closed angle glaucoma, have obstruction of the stomach or intestines, have urinary retention.

Generic Kemardin is not recommended for children.

Be careful if you are elderly aged person.

Be careful with Generic Kemadrin if you have decreased kidney function, have decreased liver function; have the risk of glaucoma.

Be careful with Generic Kemadrin if you take amantadine; antihistamines, eg. brompheniramine, chlorphenamine; antispasmodics, eg. hyoscine; antipsychotics, eg. chlorpromazine, clozapine; certain antisickness medicines, eg. promethazine, prochlorperazine, meclozine, cyclizine; certain medicines for abnormal heartbeats (antiarrhythmics), eg. disopyramide, propafenone; MAOI antidepressants, eg. Phenelzine; medicines for urinary incontinence, eg. oxybutynin, flavoxate, tolterodine, propiverine, trospium; memantine; muscle relaxants, eg baclofen; nefopam; other anticholinergics, eg. trihexyphenidyl, orphenadrine; tricyclic or related antidepressants, eg. amitriptyline, maprotiline.

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful when you are driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Kemadrin taking suddenly.

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Various concentrations of atropine, pirenzepine, dexetimide, scopolamine, tropicamide, benztropine, dicyclomine, gallamine, mepenzolate, oxyphenonium, propantheline, procyclidine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP), hexahydro-sila-difenidol (HHSiD), p-fluorohexahydro-sila-difenidol (pf-HHSiD), methoctramine, AFDX-116, and quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) were injected into goggled eyes of Leghorn cockerels three times at 48-hour intervals. Fellow control eyes received saline. Control animals received saline in both eyes. Twenty-four hours after final injections, refraction, eye weight, and axial length were measured, and eyes were prepared for microscopy.

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Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response refers to a reduction in response to a strong stimulus (pulse) if this is preceded shortly by a weak non-startling stimulus (prepulse). Consistent with theories of deficiencies in early stages of information processing, PPI is found to be reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotics are found to be more effective than typical antipsychotics in improving PPI in this population. Anticholinergic drugs are often used to control extrapyramidal symptoms induced by antipsychotic medication, especially by typical antipsychotics, in schizophrenic patients and are known to disrupt cognitive functions in both normal and schizophrenic populations. The effect of anticholinergics on PPI in schizophrenia has not yet been examined. This study determined the effects of procyclidine, an anticholinergic drug, on PPI in patients with schizophrenia given risperidone or quetiapine and not on any anticholinergic drugs, employing a placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Under double-blind conditions, subjects were administered oral 15 mg procyclidine and placebo on separate occasions, 2 weeks apart, and tested for acoustic PPI (prepulse 8 dB and 15 dB above the background and delivered with 30-ms, 60-ms and 120-ms prepulse-to-pulse intervals). Procyclidine significantly impaired PPI compared to placebo (assessed as percentage reduction) with 60-ms prepulse-to-pulse trials and increased the latencies to response peak across all trials. The use of anticholinergics needs to be carefully controlled/examined in investigations of information processing deficits using a PPI model and reduced to the minimum level in clinical care of schizophrenia.

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The combined effects of physostigmine and procyclidine (antagonizing muscarinic, nicotinic, and NMDA receptors) were tested against various doses of soman. Physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) in combination with procyclidine doses of 1, 3, or 6 mg/kg effectively prevented the development of convulsions and hippocampally monitored seizures when the doses of soman were 1.3, 1.6, or 2 x LD50, respectively. Results from [(3)H]MK-801-binding experiments showed that procyclidine inhibits the phencyclidine site at the NMDA receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. Physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) and procyclidine in a dose of 1 mg/kg did not prevent convulsions or seizures when the soman dose was 1.6 x LD50. Subsequent treatment with scopolamine in doses of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg immediately after (3 min) seizure onset showed that only the highest dose produced a reliable termination. When scopolamine (1 mg/kg) was given later (10 min) after onset of seizures, no effect was obtained. The sustained seizures were subsequently treated with diazepam (10 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) and finally terminated 25 min after onset. In rats given inadequate prophylaxis, both modified convulsions and seizures were seen. It is suggested that moderate doses of prophylactics should be preferred to avoid adverse effects on cognitive functions because insufficient prophylaxis can be compensated for by adjunct treatment.

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This study determined the effects of procyclidine, an anticholinergic drug, on PPI in healthy male volunteers, employing a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design.

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Systemic administration does not allow a clear differentiation between the anticonvulsant properties of GABAA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) modulators. For this reason, various GABAA modulators have previously been micro-infused into seizure controlling substrates (area tempestas, substantia nigra) in the rat brain as a screening method for potential systemic administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the anticonvulsant impact of the GABAergic modulators muscimol, ethanol, and propofol (screened by micro-infusions) when each drug was combined with procyclidine and administered systemically. The results showed that all 3 combinations could effectively terminate soman-induced (100 microg/kg s.c.) seizures when administered 30-35 min after onset. Procyclidine and propofol were considered as the most relevant double regimen to replace a previous triple regimen (procyclidine, diazepam, pentobarbital) against soman-induced seizures. Additionally, it was shown that unilateral implantation of hippocampal electrodes resulted in increased resistance to aphagia/adipsia and neuropathology, but not to lethality following soman. Efficient pharmacological treatment of soman-induced seizures at an early stage (< 20 min) is crucial to avoid neuropathology and cognitive deficits.

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Of 55 aftercare patients receiving long-term treatment with antipsychotic and antiparkinson (AP) drugs, 37 were switched to being given placebo, and 18 remained on a regimen of procyclidine hydrochloride. The dose of antipsychotic was kept constant. After three weeks extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) developed in 54% of those patients receiving placebo and in none of those receiving procyclidine (P less than .002): Twenty-seven percent of the placebo group had EPS without akinesia, and in the same percentage akinesia developed (P = .003). We believe the risk-benefit ratio favors the routine use of AP drugs for prophylaxis and maintenance so as to avoid misdiagnosing as psychopathology, unspontaneity due to akinesia, and to reduce unreliable pill-taking due to EPS.

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The study presented here shows that GC-MS with ion trap detection can be used for screening post mortem blood. The method described was used to simultaneously screen for unknowns, identify basic drugs present and semi-quantitate 14 drugs commonly encountered in coroner's toxicology (i.e. was used to determine whether the drugs were present in sub-therapeutic, therapeutic or greater than therapeutic amounts). The equipment used included a Varian Saturn 2000 GC-MS operating in full scan mode, a CP-3800 GC, a CP-8400 autosampler and Saturn GC-MS workstation Version 5.5 software. Post mortem blood samples were extracted using a standard liquid-liquid procedure; diethylether followed by back extraction into 0.1 M HCl. Standard curves for the 14 drugs which were semi-quantitated (amitriptyline, citalopram, clozapine, cocaine, cyclizine, diazepam, dihydrocodeine, dothiepin, methadone, mirtazapine, procyclidine, sertraline, tramadol, venlafaxine) were prepared covering the concentration range 0-1.0 ug/mL. The procedure is in routine use for coroners toxicology; semi-quantitation has been used (i) to speed-up the through put of cases where drugs are an incidental finding and (ii) for cases where the amount of sample submitted for analysis was too small to allow for screening, identification and quantitation on separate sample volumes.

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Atropine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) had no significant effect on 24-h water consumption on day 1 of treatment; on subsequent days the rats showed a significant increase. Procyclidine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) had a similar effect, except that the increase in daily water consumption began on the third day of treatment. Methylatropine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) markedly depressed water consumption on day 1; from the second day on no significant effects on 24-h water consumption were seen. The results suggest that the dipsogenic actions of cholinergic blocking agents on 24-h water consumption involve central rather than purely peripheral actions.

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A new technique for investigating drug-protein binding was developed employing capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)(3) (2+)] electrochemiluminescence (ECL) (CE-ECL) detection after equilibrium dialysis. Three basic drugs, namely pridinol, procyclidine and its analogue trihexyphenidyl, were successfully separated by capillary zone electrophoresis with end-column Ru(bpy)(3) (2+) ECL detection. The relative drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) for each single drug as well as for the three drugs binding simultaneously was calculated. It was found that the three antiparkinsonian drugs compete for the same binding site on HSA. This work demonstrated that Ru(bpy)(3) (2+) CE-ECL can be a suitable technique for studying drug-protein binding.

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A treatment regimen consisting of HI-6, scopolamine, and physostigmine (termed the physostigmine regimen) has been based on the serendipitous discovery that it exerts powerful antidotal effects against high levels of soman poisoning if it is administered 1 min after exposure. A medical therapy with corresponding efficacy, but without the time limitation of the latter regimen, has been developed through studies of microinfusions of anticonvulsants into seizure controlling sites in the forebrain of rats. From these studies procyclidine emerged as the most potent anticonvulsant, and its potency was further enhanced when being combined with the antiepileptic levetiracetam during systemic administration. In the present study, the capacity of HI-6, levetiracetam, and procyclidine (termed the procyclidine regimen) was tested against that of the physostigmine regimen. The results showed that both regimens were very effective against supralethal doses of soman (3, 4, 5 × LD₅₀) when given 1 and 5 min after intoxication. When the treatments were administered 10 and 14 or 20 and 24 min after soman exposure, only the procyclidine regimen was able to terminate seizures and preserve lives. When used as prophylactic therapies, both regimens protected equally well against seizures, but only the procyclidine regimen provided neuroprotection. The procyclidine regimen has apparently capacities to serve as a universal therapy against soman intoxication in rats.

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Based on potencies relative to scopolamine, the potency of the drugs could be ranked as follows: scopolamine > trihexyphenidyl > biperiden > azaprophen > procyclidine > benactyzine > atropine > aprophen. The comparison of drug effects on activity may be useful in selecting anticholinergic drug therapies with a minimal range of side effects. In addition, these data may reduce the number of anticholinergic drugs that need to be tested in comparison studies involving more complex behavioral tests.

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A case is described in which a patient developed acute pancreatitis following an overdose of amoxapine and procyclidine. Pancreatitis is not at this time a recognized complication of the use or abuse of these two drugs. Other drugs were used in the medical management of the complications of the overdose, but none of these are drugs known to be associated with pancreatitis. Amoxapine is probably, but not certainly the cause of the pancreatitis. Possible mechanisms for this unusual and serious complication are described.

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In an attempt to obtain more selective antagonists acting at muscarinic M2-receptors, analogues of 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide (4-DAMP methobromide) have been synthesized. These were tested, along with silabenzhexol, procyclidine, sila-procyclidine and AFDX-116, in dose-ratio experiments with guinea-pig isolated atria at 30 degrees C and ileum at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The agonist was carbachol and the selectivity was assessed from the difference between log K for receptors in ileum and log K for receptors in atria. The selectivity was not related to the affinity and some weakly active compounds retained appreciable selectivity but no compound had greater selectivity than 4-DAMP methobromide or pentamethylene bis-(4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidinium) bromide. Structure-activity relations are discussed. There seem to be steric limits to affinity but there are no obvious indications of the structural features associated with selectivity. It is suggested that more selective drugs may be obtained by introducing groups which may reduce affinity.

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This study evaluated the effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on movement disorders, cognition and general psychopathology after a 4-week taper in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotics.

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It has been demonstrated that a triple regimen consisting of procyclidine (6 mg/kg), diazepam (10 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) can effectively terminate soman-induced (1 x LD50) seizures/convulsions in rats when administered 30-40 min following onset. However, convulsive activity lasting for only 45 min can result in marked neuronal pathology. The purpose of the present study was to examine potential cognitive impairments of such brain lesions. The results showed that the neuronal pathology (assessed with Fluoro-Jade B) varied from none at all to 30% damage in the index areas (hippocampus, amygdala, piriform cortex). Cognitive deficits were seen in a novelty test (11 days post-exposure) and retention of a brightness discrimination task (28 days post-exposure) among the rats with neuropathology. Furthermore, significant correlations between neuropathology scores and behavioral measures were found for the animals that convulsed. Among these rats, the mortality rate was relatively high (60%) compared with rats in a previous study that had undergone implantation of hippocampal electrodes (17%). Neither the soman poisoning in the absence of convulsions nor the triple regimen alone affected behavior. It is concluded that early management of soman-induced convulsions is of major importance in preventing neuropathology and accompanying cognitive impairments.

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Low volatile organophosphorous nerve agents such as VX, will most likely enter the body via the skin. The pharmacokinetics of drugs such as oximes, atropine and diazepam, are not aligned with the variable and persistent toxicokinetics of the agent. Repeated administration of these drugs showed to improve treatment efficacy compared to a single injection treatment. Because of the effectiveness of continuous treatment, it was investigated to what extent a subchronic pretreatment with carbamate (pyridostigmine or physostigmine combined with either procyclidine or scopolamine) would protect against percutaneous VX exposure. Inclusion of scopolamine in the pretreatment prevented seizures in all animals, but none of the pretreatments affected survival time or the onset time of cholinergic signs. These results indicate that percutaneous poisoning with VX requires additional conventional treatment in addition to the current pretreatment regimen. Decontamination of VX-exposed skin is one of the most important countermeasures to mitigate the effects of the exposure. To evaluate the window of opportunity for decontamination, the fielded skin decontaminant Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) was tested at different times in hairless guinea pigs percutaneously challenged with 4× LD50 VX in IPA. The results showed that RSDL decontamination at 15 min after exposure could not prevent progressive blood cholinesterase inhibition and therefore would still require additional treatment. A similar decontamination regimen with RSDL at 90 min showed that it still might effectively increase the time window of opportunity for treatment. In conclusion, the delay in absorption presents a window of opportunity for decontamination and treatment. The continuous release of VX from the skin presents a significant challenge for efficacious therapy, which should ideally consist of thorough decontamination and continuous treatment.

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Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is an adverse reaction to dopamine receptor antagonists, characterised by hyperpyrexia, extrapyramidal rigidity and impaired autonomic function. It might result from central dopamine receptor blockade that causes severe muscle contraction.

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Eighty-eight subjects took part in two studies, 37 IBS patients (Rome II), 14 depressed patients, and 37 healthy volunteers. Eighteen IBS patients had diarrhea predominant IBS, 14 were alternators, and 5 were predominantly constipated. In study 1, blood was drawn for baseline measurement of growth hormone (GH) and cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. Pyridostigmine 120 mg was administered orally and further blood sampling took place for 180 min. In study 2, patients with IBS, depressed patients, and healthy subjects underwent the pyridostigmine test on two separate occasions with procyclidine (antimuscarinic) pre-treatment on one test occasion. Both GH and IL-6 were monitored.

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Procyclidine (up to 20 mg/kg i.p.) did not influence the electroconvulsive threshold per se, but when given in a dose of 10 mg/kg, it potentiated the protective activity of carbamazepine, diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital and valproate, and in a dose of 20 mg/kg, that of diazepam against maximal electroshock-induced convulsions in mice. Ifenprodil increased the threshold for electroconvulsions when applied at 20 and 40 mg/kg (i.p.), but surprisingly, when combined with all antiepileptics tested, it did not influence their anticonvulsant actions. The chimney test in mice revealed, that application of procyclidine at 10 mg/kg together with phenobarbital and valproate, and procyclidine at 20 mg/kg with diazepam resulted in motor impairment. However, when procyclidine was applied at 10 mg/kg together with carbamazepine or diphenylhydantoin, no motor impairment was noted. The combined treatment of procyclidine (10 mg/kg) with carbamazepine, diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital or valproate, as well as procyclidine (20 mg/kg) with diazepam caused significant worsening of long-term memory. Finally, procyclidine did not alter the total plasma levels of carbamazepine, diazepam, diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital and valproate. It may be concluded that not all agents interfering with NMDA receptor complex-mediated events lead to the potentiation of the anticonvulsant activity of antiepileptic drugs.

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In a double-blind, between-patient clinical trial carbamazepine (CBZ) (n = 8) was compared to haloperidol (HP) (n = 9) in patients presenting with mania (DSM III). Seven patients on HP and 2 on CBZ failed to complete 4 weeks treatment. In 4 of the HP group this was because of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). Two patients on CBZ and 2 on HP were withdrawn because of lack of efficacy. Statistically significant clinical improvement was seen in both groups within the first 2 weeks of treatment with HP acting more quickly. In addition to EPS which occurred in HP patients, drowsiness was experienced in 4 on CBZ and 3 on HP, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 3 on CBZ. No serious haematological changes, nor abnormalities in clinical chemistry occurred in either group. We conclude that CBZ appears to be a potentially useful drug in the treatment of acute mania.

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Current treatment of nerve agent poisoning consists of prophylactic administration of pyridostigmine and therapy using atropine, an oxime and a benzodiazepine. Pyridostigmine does however not readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier giving ineffective protection of the brain against centrally mediated seizure activity. In this study, we have evaluated donepezil hydrochloride, a partial reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) clinically used for treating Alzheimer's disease, in combination with procyclidine, used in treatment of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, as prophylaxis against intoxication by the nerve agent soman. The results demonstrated significant protective efficacy of donepezil (2.5 mg/kg) combined with procyclidine (3 or 6 mg/kg) when given prophylactically against a lethal dose of soman (1.6 x LD(50)) in Wistar rats. No neuropathological changes were found in rats treated with this combination 48 h after soman intoxication. Six hours after soman exposure cerebral AChE activity and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration was 5% and 188% of control, respectively. The ACh concentration had returned to basal levels 24 h after soman intoxication, while AChE activity had recovered to 20% of control. Loss of functioning muscarinic ACh receptors (17%) but not nicotinic receptors was evident at this time point. The recovery in brain AChE activity seen in our study may be due to the reversible binding of donepezil to the enzyme. Donepezil is well tolerated in humans, and a combination of donepezil and procyclidine may prove useful as an alternative to the currently used prophylaxis against nerve agent intoxication.

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Atropine, azaprophen, biperiden, scopolamine, and trihexyphenidyl increased both ambulations and fine motor activity significantly during the first hour post-injection, but the increased activity levels returned to vehicle control levels within 2-6 h post-injection. Benactyzine and procyclidine only increased fine motor activity significantly above vehicle control levels and activity levels returned to vehicle control levels within 2-3 h. Finally, aprophen and diazepam generally did not increase measures of activity significantly above vehicle controls at the dose ranges examined.

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Didepil seems to be an effective antiepileptic agent in maximal generalized seizures as well as in temporal lobe seizures.

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After pretreatment of adult male Wistar rats with phenobarbital, a well-known cytochrome P-450 inductor, the liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 content increased significantly compared to that of control rats. At the same time the amount of procyclidine, metabolized by the 9000 g supernatant fraction of rat liver homogenate fortified with a NADPH generating system, increased significantly as well. However when related to the liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 content, the amount of metabolized procyclidine does not differ anymore between phenobarbital treated and control rats. Therefore phenobarbital induces the in vitro metabolism of procyclidine.

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The critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT) is thought to index alertness and cortical arousal. Sedative drugs reduce CFFT while psychostimulants increase it. Procyclidine is an anticholinergic that is used to control the extrapyramidal side-effects of antipsychotics in schizophrenia. This study examined the effects of clinically relevant doses of oral procyclidine administration on CFFT and heart rate in two separate experiments (Experiment 1, drug dose: 10 mg, n = 16; Experiment 2, drug dose: 15 mg, n = 12) involving healthy subjects using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 10 mg procyclidine had no significant effect on CFFT, heart rate or self-ratings of mood, but the 15 mg dose significantly lowered CFFT at 1 h and 2 h after procyclidine administration, increased drowsiness ratings and produced a drop in heart rate. The effects observed in this study may have implications for treatment compliance of schizophrenic patients, choice of antipsychotics, prescribing to patients with heart disease and monitoring of cardiac function under treatment. Further investigations are required to quantify the effects of procyclidine on CFFT and cardiac function in patients with schizophrenia.

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In order to facilitate direct comparisons of anticholinergic drug effects on activity, nine drugs were tested in one laboratory using a standardized procedure.

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kemadrin 5mg tab 2015-08-26

Nasal absorption of procyclidine, a synthetic anticholinergic compound, was investigated in Wistar rats and Beagle dogs. The dosing solution was prepared by dissolving 14C-procyclidine in 50% ethanolic saline. The dosing solution buy kemadrin was administered intravenously and intranasally to rats at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg (i.e., 60 microl/kg in the form of a 1% w/v solution), and intravenously, orally and intranasally to dogs at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg (i.e., 6 microl/kg in the form of a 5% w/v solution). Blood samples were taken from an artery of the animals through the catheter for periods of 1200 (for rats) and 1,440 min (for dogs), and the radioactivity in the samples was determined by liquid scintillation counting. The nasal bioavailability of procyclidine in rats and dogs, based on the radioactivity, was calculated to be 81.1 and 98.6%, respectively. In both rats and dogs, the plasma profiles of procyclidine following nasal administration were very close to those following intravenous administration, leading to nearly superimposable profiles between the two protocols. In dogs, nasal administration resulted in significantly higher plasma concentrations during the first 30 min period compared to oral administration, suggesting the superiority of the nasal route over the oral route in terms of a prompt expression of the pharmacological effect of the drug. The results obtained in this study indicate that procyclidine is rapidly and nearly completely absorbed via the nasal route. In conclusion, nasal administration represents a viable alternative to intravenous administration in the case of procyclidine.

kemadrin tablet cost 2015-01-16

In a 12-week controlled study ethopropazine was compared to benztropine in the treatment of parkinsonism induced by fluphenazine enanthate in 60 schizophrenic outpatients. Ethopropazine and benztropine were found to be equally effective in controlling parkinsonian symptoms and were as efficacious as procyclidine, their previous antiparkinsonian drug. However, benztropine treated patients had a significant increase in tardive dyskinesia compared to their condition during procyclindine buy kemadrin treatment, and significantly more anxiety and depression than ethopropazine treated patients. This suggests that benztropine is not the anticholinergic drug of choice in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonian symptoms, because of its more toxic central and peripheral atropinic effect.

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A transdermal patch system containing procyclidine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist possessing anticholinergic action, and physostigmine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, was developed, and its prophylactic efficacy against soman intoxication was investigated. Male rhesus monkeys were shaved on the buy kemadrin dorsal area, attached with a matrix-type patch with various sizes (2×2 to 7×7 cm) for 24 or 72 h, and challenged with 2×LD₅₀ doses (13μg/kg) of soman. The smallest patch size for the protection against lethality induced by soman intoxication was 3×3cm, resulting in blood procyclidine concentration of 10.8 ng/ml, blood physostigmine concentration of 0.54 ng/ml, which are much lower concentrations than maximum sign-free doses, and blood cholinesterase inhibition of 42%. The drug concentrations and enzyme inhibition rate corresponding to a diverging point of survivability were presumably estimated to be around 7 ng/ml for procyclidine, 0.35 ng/ml for physostigmine, and 37% of enzyme inhibition. Separately, in combination with the patch treatment, the post treatment consisting of atropine (0.5 mg/kg) plus 1-[([4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinio]methoxy)methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium (HI-6, 50 mg/kg) exerted protection against 5×LD₅₀ challenge of soman, which means the posttreatment remarkably augmented the efficacy of the patch. Additionally, it was found that brain injuries induced by soman toxicity were effectively prevented by the patch treatment according to histopathological examinations. These results suggest that the patch system could be an effective alternative for diazepam, an anticonvulsant, and the current pyridostigmine pretreatment, and especially in combination with atropine plus HI-6, could be a choice for quality survival from nerve-agent poisoning.

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A case is described in which a patient developed acute pancreatitis following an overdose of amoxapine and procyclidine. Pancreatitis is not at this time a recognized complication of the use or abuse of these two drugs. Other drugs were buy kemadrin used in the medical management of the complications of the overdose, but none of these are drugs known to be associated with pancreatitis. Amoxapine is probably, but not certainly the cause of the pancreatitis. Possible mechanisms for this unusual and serious complication are described.

kemadrin drug classification 2016-04-21

Excitatory amino acid antagonists possess anticonvulsant properties in many experimental models of epilepsy and were shown to potentiate the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Combined treatments of valproate with either D,L-(E)-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid or dizocilpine (NMDA antagonists), which provided a 50% protection against maximal electroshock, produced no side-effects, as measured in the chimney test (motor coordination) or passive avoidance task (long-term memory). Valproate alone at its ED50 against maximal buy kemadrin electroshock, induced severe adverse effects. The NMDA antagonists, D-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid, memantine, procyclidine, and trihexyphenidyl also potentiated the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics but these treatments were associated with considerable side-effects. The non-NMDA receptor antagonists, 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(F)quinoxaline and 1-(amino-phenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine, also enhanced the anticonvulsive action of antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock, and these combinations generally resulted in no adverse effects. The potential clinical importance of some combinations of common antiepileptics with excitatory amino acid antagonists is postulated.

kemadrin generic 2016-04-16

The authors administered haloperidol 4.5 mg t.i.d. to 33 drug-free schizophrenic patients. Ten patients did not receive anything else (group HPL), while ten patients received procyclidine 5 mg t.i.d., and 13 patients were given promethazine 25 mg t.i.d. (groups HPRC and HPRM respectively) in addition. Seven patients dropped out of the HPL group and three out of the HPRM group, but none out of the HPRC group. These drop outs were buy kemadrin due to the development of early extrapyramidal side effects, which were absent in the HPRC group. The findings suggest that antiparkinson prophylaxis is useful during commencement of therapy with high-potency neuroleptic agents.

kemadrin overdose 2015-06-21

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in combination with an anticholinergic, particularly anticholinergics with antiglutamatergic properties, can effectively protect against nerve agent-induced seizures and lethality. The objective of the present study was to examine potential behavioral side effects of the anticholinesterases physostigmine (0.1mg/kg), galantamine (3mg/kg), huperzine (0.5mg/kg), and donepezil (2.5mg/kg) alone or each drug in combination with anticholinergic procyclidine (3mg/kg). The results showed that rats injected intraperitoneally with galantamine displayed a mild cognitive deficit in terms of reduced preference for novelty that was similarly found among animals treated with procyclidine combined with either galantamine or donepezil. Locomotor activity and rearing were radically depressed in all groups treated with anticholinesterases as well as in combination with procyclidine. Reductions in activity were most prominent for rats injected with galantamine alone. Equalizing effects of cholinesterase inhibitors and anticholinergics were absent in the present context. Findings from previous studies that both systemic and local (amygdala) application of physostigmine cause increased fear-motivated freezing response in rats, may explain the marked reductions in activity among the present rats. In view of these findings, use of anticholinesterases (crossing the blood-brain barrier) as prophylactics against buy kemadrin nerve agents must be carefully examined to avoid severe side effects.

kemadrin 5 mg 2017-07-29

Since 1976 a group of 229 patients with schizophrenic or other paranoid illness (9 patients) were treated for about 14 weeks with intramuscular or intravenous injections of fluphenazinedecanoate. During the first 2 weeks, three injections of 250 mg were given after which time the injections were given at three weekly intervals with slowly decreasing dosage. The patients also received tablets of procyclidine and 100-150 mg of amitriptyline per os. After the initial intensive phase the patients received an average of 145 mg i.m. every 3 weeks. A total of 209 patients could be followed up. Of those, 127 had for various reasons not continued with oral medication. The course of their illnesses was compared with that of the patients who had complied. The present report which represents a 3-year follow-up study confirms the findings of an earlier paper which showed the rapid onset and stability of remission, the absence of relapses buy kemadrin among the patients who were under continued treatment, and the relative freedom from relapses among the patients who did not continue to have further neuroleptic medication. The anticipation that the initial high-dosage medication would have deleterious effects on the personality, producing robots or zombies, was shown to be groundless.

kemadrin medicine 2016-04-10

1. A variety of atropine-like drugs effective in the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal syndromes have been investigated with regard to their interaction with dopamine-containing neurones in rat brain.2. Under some conditions benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, atropine and ethopropazine significantly antagonized the chlorpromazine-induced increase in subcortical concentrations of homovanillic acid.3. Most of the atropine-like drugs investigated also decreased the turnover of dopamine in the subcortex as measured by following the disappearance of dopamine after administration of alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine.4. These findings are suggestive that an imbalance between a dopaminergic and cholinergic system might be closely linked to the pathogenesis of extra-pyramidal movement buy kemadrin disorders.

kemadrin drug 2015-01-02

A case of recurrent neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) occurring in a 29-year-old man with mild mental handicap and a superadded psychotic disorder is described. The case illustrates a number of unusual features such as recurrent episodes and resolution with administration of intravenous Procyclidine. The possibility of NMS occurring buy kemadrin in people with mental handicap, who have a high level of neuroleptic drug prescription, must be borne in mind.

kemadrin tablet 2015-08-04

A treatment regimen consisting of HI-6, scopolamine, and physostigmine (termed the physostigmine regimen) has been based on the serendipitous discovery that it exerts powerful antidotal effects against high levels of soman poisoning if it is administered 1 min after exposure. A medical therapy with corresponding efficacy, but without the time limitation of the latter regimen, has been developed through studies of microinfusions of anticonvulsants into seizure controlling sites in the forebrain of rats. From these studies procyclidine emerged as the most potent anticonvulsant, buy kemadrin and its potency was further enhanced when being combined with the antiepileptic levetiracetam during systemic administration. In the present study, the capacity of HI-6, levetiracetam, and procyclidine (termed the procyclidine regimen) was tested against that of the physostigmine regimen. The results showed that both regimens were very effective against supralethal doses of soman (3, 4, 5 × LD₅₀) when given 1 and 5 min after intoxication. When the treatments were administered 10 and 14 or 20 and 24 min after soman exposure, only the procyclidine regimen was able to terminate seizures and preserve lives. When used as prophylactic therapies, both regimens protected equally well against seizures, but only the procyclidine regimen provided neuroprotection. The procyclidine regimen has apparently capacities to serve as a universal therapy against soman intoxication in rats.

kemadrin generic name 2017-11-22

The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents buy kemadrin requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side effects in a small number of individuals. A comprehensive research on animals has been performed to clarify effects on behavior. The results from these studies are far from unambiguous, since pyridostigmine may produce adverse effects on behavior in animals in relatively high doses, but not in a consistent way. Other animal studies have examined the potential of drugs like physostigmine, galantamine, benactyzine, trihexyphenidyl, and procyclidine, but they all produce marked behavioral impairment at doses sufficient to contribute to protection against a convulsant dose of soman. Attempts have also been made to develop a combination of drugs capable of assuring full protection (prophylaxis) against nerve agents. However, common to all combinations is that they at anticonvulsant doses cause behavioral deficits. Therefore, the use of limited pretreatment doses may be performed without marked side effects followed by post-exposure therapy with a combination of drugs.

kemadrin injection dose 2017-06-28

The tolerance of five central muscarinic receptor antagonists has been studied in experimental animals. According to the effect on orientation-exploratory reaction, drugs were arranged in the following order of increasing toxicity: procyclidine < trihexiphenidyl < benactizine < atropine < scopolamine. For the same therapeutic index, trihexiphenidyl and benactizine were characterized by the maximum tolerance (TD50/ED50 > 10) in mice. Scopolamine and atropine exhibited anticonvulsant activity at doses exceeding the threshold values by a factor of 6.3 and 3.9, respectively. For procyclidine, buy kemadrin the average anticonvulsant dose was threefold lower than the threshold value. Benactizine and procyclidine had maximum tolerance levels in rats. The TD50/ED50 ratio for these drugs was greater than 3 (against 0.5 - 0.7 in groups treated with trihexiphenidyl, atropine and scopolamine).

kemadrin dose 2016-09-11

The post-column chemiluminescent reaction of six anticholinergic alkaloid compounds with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) (Ru(bpy)3(3+)) is applied to microbore high-performance liquid Cozaar Tabs 100mg chromatography (HPLC). At flow rates less than 200 microL/min, the capillary mixing cell in which Ru(bpy)3(3+) and the analyte are mixed directly allows for good light detection. In contrast, a diminished signal occurs at these low flow rates with conventional post-column mixing in a tee. Optimal chemiluminescent pH conditions for atropine, scopolamine, dicyclomine, cyclopentolate, cyclobenzaprine, and procyclidine are determined at moderately basic conditions (pH 7 to 9). 2-Butanone is found to be compatible with the chemiluminescent reaction, whereas tetrahydrofuran and propionitrile cause an increase in background noise and a chemiluminescent signal loss. As 2-butanone is more nonpolar than acetonitrile, it assists in the elution of these hydrophobic anticholinergic compounds. Five anticholinergic compounds are resolved successfully with a PRP-1 polymeric column and a slightly basic mobile phase, but a C8 silica column is better suited for the more hydrophobic compounds (cyclobenzaprine, procyclidine, and dicyclomine).

kemadrin dosage 2015-06-01

On the basis of the hypothesis that there is a common structural basis for central nervous system (CNS) drug action consisting primarily of an aromatic group and a nitrogen atom, a four-point model for a common pharmacophore is defined with use of five semirigid CNS-active drug molecules: morphine, strychnine, LSD, apomorphine, and mianserin. Two of the points of the model represent possible hydrophobic interactions between the aromatic group and the receptor, while the other two represent hydrogen bonding between the nitrogen atom and the receptor. The model is then extended by the inclusion of nine additional CNS-active drug molecules: phenobarbitone, clonidine, diazepam, bicuculline, diphenylhydantoin, amphetamine, imipramine, chlorpromazine, and procyclidine, each being chosen as a key representative of a different CNS-active drug class or neurotransmitter system. Consideration of all phenyl group and nitrogen atom combinations, as well as all feasible conformations, shows that all nine molecules closely fit the common model in low-energy conformations. It is proposed that the model may eventually be used Motilium Dose Ped to design CNS-active drugs by mapping the relative locations of secondary binding sites. It can also be used to predict whether a given structure is likely to show CNS activity: a search over 1000 entries in the Merck Index shows a high probability of CNS activity in compounds fitting the common structural model.

kemadrin maximum dose 2016-09-29

improvement was observed in cases of grand mal as well as temporal lobe seizures in 70% of patients, EEG improvement was found in 50% of patients. Side effects including oral dryness, accomodation disturbances developed in 17 patients but were usually slight and transient, in only 4 cases they were sufficiently severe as to justify reduction of dosage. Improvement of mood and contact with surroundings was noted in 60% Paxil Dosage Levels of cases.

kemadrin reviews 2016-10-27

Drugs that act at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex have the ability to terminate nerve agent-induced seizures and modulate the neuropathologic consequences of agent exposure. Drugs with mixed anticholinergic and anti-NMDA properties potentially provide an ideal class of compounds for development as anticonvulsant treatments for nerve agent casualties. The present experiment evaluated the potential NMDA antagonist activity of 11 anticholinergic drugs by determining whether pretreatment with the compound was capable of protecting mice from the lethal effects of NMDA. The following anticholinergic drugs antagonized NMDA lethality and are ranked according to their potency: mecamylamine > procyclidine = benactyzine > biperiden > trihexyphenidyl. The anticholinergics atropine, aprophen, azaprophen, benztropine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), and scopolamine failed to show NMDA antagonist properties. In addition, and unexpectedly, diazepam, ethanol, and pentobarbital were also shown to be capable of antagonizing NMDA lethality over a certain range of doses. The advantages and limitations of using antagonism of Cardura Maximum Dose NMDA lethality in mice as a bioassay for determining the NMDA antagonist properties of drugs are also discussed.

kemadrin storage 2016-11-28

Atropine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) had no significant effect on 24-h water consumption on day 1 of treatment; on subsequent days the Mysoline Drug Class rats showed a significant increase. Procyclidine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) had a similar effect, except that the increase in daily water consumption began on the third day of treatment. Methylatropine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) markedly depressed water consumption on day 1; from the second day on no significant effects on 24-h water consumption were seen. The results suggest that the dipsogenic actions of cholinergic blocking agents on 24-h water consumption involve central rather than purely peripheral actions.

buy kemadrin 2016-05-11

Procyclidine, 1-cyclohexyl-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol, was incubated with the 9000g supernatant fraction of rat liver homogenates, fortified with a NADPH generating system. Three major metabolites were isolated from the incubation mixture. They Dallas Botox Cost were identified as 1-(cis-4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol, 1-(trans-4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol, and (1R*, 3R*, 7S(R?)*)-1-(trans-3-hydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl) -1-propanol. The latter has not been detected previously in rat urine and probably represents an intermediate metabolite.

kemadrin alcohol 2017-09-11

Anticholinergic drugs were the first pharmacological agents Priligy Online Pharmacy used in the treatment of Parkinson"s disease. Although levodopa and other centrally acting dopaminergic agonists have largely supplanted their use, they still have a place in treatment of the disease. As a therapeutic class, there is little pharmacokinetic information available for these drugs, which is inclusive of benztropine, biperiden, diphenhydramine, ethopropazine, orphenadrine, procyclidine and trihexyphenidyl. Pharmacokinetic information is largely restricted to studies involving young health volunteers given single doses. In general, this class of drugs is rapidly absorbed after oral administration to humans. Oral bioavailability is variable between the different drugs, ranging from 30% to over 70%. Each of the drugs appears to possess a large Vd in humans and animals, and distribution to tissues is rapid. The drugs are all characterized by relatively low clearance relative to hepatic blood flow, and appear to be extensively metabolized, primarily to N-dealkylated and hydroxylated metabolites. The available information suggests that excretion of parent drug and metabolite is via the urine and bile. Although the existence of a plasma concentration vs. therapeutic effect relationship has not been explored, there is some evidence suggesting a relationship between concentration and peripheral side effects. Elderly tolerate the drugs less well than do younger patients. There is a notable lack of pharmacokinetic information for these drugs in the elderly. The lack of pharmacokinetic information for multiple dose administration and in the elderly may be a possible hindrance in the safe and effective use of these drugs in patients with Parkinson"s disease.

dose of kemadrin 2015-02-15

The results of evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of the new psychotropic drugs adepren, didepil, anq tempalgin made by the "Farmakhim" plant (the People's Republic of Bulgaria) are presented. Clinical trials revealed new facts that allowed to expand the scope of the indications for use formulated in the "Farmakhim" recommendations. It was found that Adepren could be used with success (in addition to the indications suggested by "Farmakhim") in the treatment of patients with depressive-paranoid paroxysms of periodic schizophrenia taking its course in the presence of general depression, as well as patients with somatogenic lingering astheno-depressive states. The therapeutic efficacy of didepil (an antiepileptic) was found to be in a direct relationship with the disease duration, character of the attacks, presence or absence of epileptic chandes of personality. The effect was the best in cases of a short duration of the disease and absence of gross epileptic personality changes, when the paroxysmal disorders were confined mostly to grand mals. A new scheme for arresting the epileptic status with didepil solution is offered. For the first time the efficacy of tempalgin in the treatment of patients suffering from alcoholic abstinence syndrome was substantiated. Optimal doses of the drugs have been determined with regard to the disease nosology and the leading syndrome. Contraindications to the use of the drugs have also been formulated.

kemadrin tablets 2016-09-28

The anticholinergic antiparkinsonian drugs biperiden, benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, methixene, and procyclidine were compared with atropine and pirenzepine, as well as with orphenadrine, amantadine and some standard antidepressives and neuroleptics in their ability to inhibit the binding of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) to the muscarinic receptors in rat brain cortical tissue. Most of the antiparkinsonian drugs studied were potent inhibitors of (-)3H-QNB binding, when compared to atropine (IC50-value = 0.22 microM), the IC50-values ranging from 0.0084 microM (biperiden) to 0.07 microM (procyclidine). Orphenadrine had a low and amantadine no evident affinity for muscarinic receptors. With the exception of pirenzepine and biperiden the inhibition curves were steep and parallel, giving linear Hill plots with coefficients close to unity. The binding profile of atropine, pirenzepine, and biperiden was further studied in heart and lung tissues, atropine showing only small divergences in its binding to the different tissues, but biperiden and pirenzepine having five to ten times lower affinity in the peripheral tissues than in the brain. The results confirm the high affinity of most of the antiparkinsonian drugs for brain muscarinic receptors. The dissociation constants agree with the average clinical doses of the drugs. It must be remembered, however, that the binding data may represent multiple events at receptor sites because most of the drugs used are mixtures of stereoisomers. Thus further studies using individual enantiomers are needed to compare more directly binding data between the compounds.