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Treatment with escitalopram (mean daily dose 18.62 mg, SD 5.15) and memantine (mean daily dose 13.62 mg, SD 6.67) was associated with improvement in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores over the 48-week study period. Patients demonstrated significant improvement in the primary outcome of cognitive performance (Selective Reminding Test total immediate recall; SRT-IR) over the 48-week treatment period (p = 0.0147). Significant improvement was also observed in measures of naming and verbal fluency but not in the other cognitive domains. One of the 35 patients (2.9%) converted to Alzheimer's disease over the 48-week treatment period. In the amnestic mild cognitive impairment subsample (n = 22), the conversion rate was 4.5%, a rate lower than in other reports of patients with DEP-CI.
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90 outpatients with schizophrenic disorder (DSM-III-R) who were on a stable regimen of psychotropic medication and showed a stable clinical state were included in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Data were collected and blood tests taken at the baseline interview. The plasma levels were obtained for 52 patients.
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The aim of this work was to compare the likelihood that patients initiating treatment with branded escitalopram, rather than with any of 3 SSRIs (ie, citalopram, fluoxetine, and paroxetine) that are available in generic or branded formulations, would continue therapy with the initial medication after 2 and 6 months.
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Citalopram is a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that has been prescribed to >30 million patients in >70 countries. The purpose of this focused overview is to summarize the data from well-controlled clinical trials and published literature relative to the safety of citalopram in patients with depression and depressive symptoms. This overview is based mainly on 3 sources: (1) data from clinical trials sponsored by Forest Laboratories, (2) published clinical studies, and (3) case reports. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions were scrutinized, as were data on special populations and safety concerns. The available data suggest that citalopram 20-60 mg once daily is safe for patients with depression. Few drugs appear to interact with citalopram in a clinically meaningful way. Well-designed short- and long-term trials demonstrate an overall safety/side effect profile consistent with other SSRIs. The more frequent adverse events (nausea, somnolence, dry mouth, increased sweating) are mainly transient, mostly mild to moderate in severity, and observed consistently across studies at rates similar to other SSRIs. Analysis of laboratory values, ECG, and vital signs revealed no unusual findings. Only a small, clinically unimportant reduction in heart rate was observed, similar to that seen with other SSRIs. Citalopram treatment did not increase risk of suicide, overdose, seizure, or arrhythmia. Thus, the pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and safety profiles of citalopram demonstrate that it is safe for use in adults with depression and depressive symptoms, including the elderly and patients with mild to moderate renal and hepatic disease.
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One marker was found to be associated with TESI in this sample at the experiment-wide adjusted P less than 0.05 level (marker rs11628713, allelic P = 6.2x10, odds ratio = 4.7, permutation P = 0.01). A second marker was associated at the experiment-wide adjusted P = 0.06 level (rs10903034, allelic P = 3.02x10, odds ratio = 2.7, permutation P = 0.06). These markers reside within the genes PAPLN and IL28RA, respectively. PAPLN encodes papilin, a protoglycan-like sulfated glycoprotein. IL28RA encodes an interleukin receptor.
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A total of 219 inpatients with a DSM-III diagnosis of major depression, 150 women and 69 men, were followed prospectively for 3-10 years and mortality was recorded. The patients were previous participants in psychopharmacological multicenter trials, which were carried out for the purpose of comparing the antidepressant effect of newer 5-HT reuptake inhibitors with that of the tricyclic antidepressant drug, clomipramine. The study comprised patients with a total Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of > or = 18 and/or a Hamilton subscale score of > or = 9. Diagnostic classification according to the Newcastle I Scale in endogenous and nonendogenous depression was performed. The observed mortality was significantly greater than that expected. The increased mortality was essentially due to suicides and mainly found among women. Patients scored as nonendogenously depressed had a significantly higher suicide rate than endogenously depressed patients. The excess number of suicides in the nonendogenous group largely occurred within the first year of observation. No association was found between response to the antidepressant treatment in the trial and the suicide risk in the first 3 years of observation.
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Seventeen women with no improvement in symptoms after two menstrual cycles on an SSRI were given open-label citalopram (20-40 mg/day). Eleven subjects received half-cycle dosing, and 6 subjects received full-cycle dosing. Scores on the 17-item daily symptom report (DSR) and on each of five DSR symptom clusters were used to measure citalopram efficacy.
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We found no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group in the change in BDNF mRNA expression and whole-blood BDNF levels. Post hoc analyses showed a statistically significant negative correlation between plasma escitalopram concentration and change in whole-blood BDNF levels in the escitalopram-treated group.
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The generalizability should be considered since this study conducted in a single center.
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Citalopram significantly enhanced the increase in salivary cortisol produced by waking, while the effect of reboxetine treatment was indistinguishable from placebo. There was no change in basal salivary cortisol levels sampled in a standard pattern throughout the day.
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Primary: Investigate at the human (h)SERT, at clinical relevant doses, whether R-citalopram antagonizes escitalopram-induced 5-HTExt elevation. Secondary: Investigate whether abolishing the putative allosteric site affects escitalopram-induced 5-HTExt elevation and/or modulates the effect of R-citalopram.
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Twelve trials were eligible for inclusion, with ten providing usable data. At 8-12 weeks, there was evidence that children and adolescents 'responded' to treatment with SSRIs (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.41). There was also evidence of an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behaviour for those prescribed SSRIs (RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.72). Fluoxetine was the only SSRI where there was consistent evidence from three trials that it was effective in reducing depression symptoms in both children and adolescents (CDRS-R treatment effect -5.63, 95% CI -7.38 to -3.88), and 'response' to treatment (RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.32). Where rates of adverse events were reported, this was higher for those prescribed SSRIs.
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This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active comparator-controlled study, in which patients (> or = 18 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) received duloxetine 60 mg once daily (QD; N = 273), escitalopram 10 mg QD (N = 274), or placebo (N = 137) for 8 weeks. The primary objective was to compare the onset of antidepressant efficacy, by testing the hypothesis that the percentage of duloxetine-treated patients achieving onset criteria at Week 2 was not inferior to that in the escitalopram group.
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The sodium-ion coupled transporters for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), noradrenaline and dopamine function to reduce extracellular levels of biogenic amines. Over the past fifteen years selective inhibitors of these transport systems have been developed including fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine, litoxetine (for 5HT), nisoxetine, desipramine, maprotiline (for noradrenaline) and GBR-12935 (for dopamine). Some of these inhibitors, including drugs selective for noradrenaline transport and particularly those selective for the 5HT transport system are currently widely used in the clinical management of affective disorders. Selective biogenic amine uptake inhibitors have, in addition, provided tools to undertake molecular pharmacological and biochemical studies of their respective transporters. By this means, the rat brain 5HT and dopamine transporters have been identified as polypeptides with relative molecular masses of 73,000 and 80,000, respectively, using affinity-chromatographic purification and photoaffinity-labelling techniques. Recently, the biogenic amine transporters have been cloned and a comparison of their predicted amino acid sequences reveals that these proteins share a considerable degree of similarity with notably 12-13 transmembrane spanning domains. Perspectives for future fundamental and clinical research on biogenic amine transport systems using molecular biological techniques are discussed.
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Both the escitalopram group and the bupropion group showed improvement on all clinical symptom scales after 6 weeks of treatment compared to the observation group. Additionally, the bupropion group showed greater improvement on scores for the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, the Young Internet Addiction Scale, the ADHD Rating Scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition Scale than the escitalopram group.
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Recently a new 5-hydroxytryptamine1B (5-HT1B)-receptor antagonist, AR-A000002, was described. It was shown that this compound dose dependently increased 5-HT metabolism and release in guinea pig brain following a single injection.
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This cost-utility model that incorporated the costs of titration and impact of side-effects comparing escitalopram 10-20 mg per day and sertraline 50-200 mg per day shows that escitalopram appeared to be less costly and produced efficacy (utility) at least as good as and maybe slightly better than that of sertraline.
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Both escitalopram and R-fluoxetine were potent inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (Ki=1,1 and 1,4 nmol/L, respectively). escitalopram was the most serotonin transporter-selective compound tested and was approximately 30 fold more potent than R-citalopram.
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The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning stating that patients older than 60 years are not recommended to receive doses of citalopram exceeding 20 mg daily due to concerns of corrected QT (QTc) prolongation. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the FDA warning on prescribing patterns of citalopram in patients 60 years of age and older.
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This article reviews evidence-based pharmacotherapy for children and adolescents with depression. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support the use of fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood and adolescent depression as well as escitalopram in the treatment of adolescent depression. To date, one RCT has demonstrated the effectiveness of sertraline or citalopram for the treatment of major depressive disorder in youth. Only a small number of RCTs for depression have included children, and none of these trials were adequately powered to detect differences in the efficacy of medication between children and adolescents.