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Micardis (Telmisartan)

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Micardis is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). This drug works by blocking the hormone angiotensin thereby relaxing blood vessels, causing them to widen. High blood pressure reduction helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Avapro, Benicar, Cozaar, Diovan, Teveten


Also known as:  Telmisartan.


Micardis is a member of a family of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), which includes losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), irbesartan (Avapro), and candesartan (Atacand). ARBs block the ability of the chemical angiotensin II to constrict or squeeze arteries and veins. As a result, the arteries and veins enlarge and blood pressure falls. The reduced pressure in the arteries also makes it easier for the heart to pump blood.

Generic name of Micardis is Telmisartan.

Micardis is also known as Telmisartan, Pritor, Kinzal, Telma, Telday, Teleact D.

Brand name of Micardis is Micardis.


Take Micardis orally, usually once a day.

You may take this drug with or without food.

Use Micardis regularly in order to get the most benefit from it.

To help you remember, use Micardis at the same time each day.

For the treatment of high blood pressure, it may take 4 weeks before the full benefit of this drug occurs.

It is important to continue taking this medication even if you feel well.

Most people with high blood pressure do not feel sick.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Micardis suddenly.


If you overdose Micardis and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Tablets should not be removed from the blisters until right before use. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Micardis are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Micardis if you are allergic to Micardis components.

Be very careful with Micardis if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. This drug can cause serious fetal harm (possibly death) if used during the last six months of pregnancy.

Be careful with Micardis if you have kidney disease, liver disease, high blood levels of potassium, heart problems, severe dehydration (and loss of electrolytes such as sodium), diabetes (poorly controlled), any allergies (especially to ACE inhibitors such as captopril, lisinopril).

To minimize dizziness and lightheadedness, get up slowly when rising from a seated or lying position.

Use Micardis with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Be careful with Micardis if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Micardis if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment.

Elderly patients should be careful with Micardis. They may be more sensitive to its effects.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop taking Micardis suddenly.

micardis 160 mg

In patients with ISH unselected for baseline albuminuria, telmisartan 20-80 mg after 6 weeks' treatment afforded significantly greater lowering of UAE than hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg, irrespective of the baseline UAE, and despite comparable reductions in systolic blood pressure with both drugs.

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Telmisartan was predicted to strongly antagonize (Ki asymptotically equal to 0.04 nmol) the VDR. The ARBs Olmesartan, Irbesartan and Valsartan (Ki asymptotically equal to10 nmol) are likely to be useful VDR antagonists at typical in-vivo concentrations. Candesartan (Ki asymptotically equal to 30 nmol) and Losartan (Ki asymptotically equal to 70 nmol) may also usefully inhibit the VDR. Telmisartan is a strong modulator of PPARgamma (Ki asymptotically equal to 0.3 nmol), while Losartan (Ki asymptotically equal to 3 nmol), Irbesartan (Ki asymptotically equal to 6 nmol), Olmesartan and Valsartan (Ki asymptotically equal to 12 nmol) also seem likely to have significant PPAR modulatory activity. Olmesartan and Irbesartan (Ki asymptotically equal to 9 nmol) additionally act as antagonists of a theoretical model of CCR2b. Initial validation of this CCR2b model was performed, and a proposed model for the Angiotensin II Type1 receptor (AT2R1) has been presented.

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Patients with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema are more likely to present with this adverse drug event during months when pollen counts are increased.

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Previous studies provide links between the nuclear factor of activated T lymphocytes (NFAT) signalling pathway and the development of hypertension. Our preliminary studies indicate that telmisartan can block Kv1.3 potassium channels and effectively inhibit potassium current densities, along with Kv1.3 mRNA and protein expression levels. This paper aims to investigate whether telmisartan has an inhibitory effect on the NFAT signalling pathway after activation and proliferation of peripheral blood T lymphocytes in Kazakh patients with essential hypertension (EH) from Xinjiang, China.

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Before telmisartan therapy, low preheparin LpL mass concentration was closely associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the presence of coronary atherosclerosis. Preheparin LpL mass concentration significantly increased after telmisartan therapy in subjects with a low preheparin LpL mass concentration (baseline/12 weeks after, 46 +/- 12 ng/mL/54 +/- 14 ng/mL, p=0.001).

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  Although the ambulatory blood pressure did not change, the PDMP levels were significantly decreased from baseline to week 24 (high dose ARB). In contrast, combination therapy reduced both blood pressure and PDMP levels compared with the baseline. Although the PDMP level was significantly correlated with the morning BP elevation at baseline and week 36 (combination therapy), this same relationship was not found at week 24. There were no significant differences in the blood pressure and PDMP levels between the two groups.

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We tested the hypothesis that renin-angiotensin system inhibition could reverse left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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These data indicate the first molecular evidence of the RAS-induced synaptophysin degradation and neuronal dysfunction in the diabetic retina, suggesting the possibility of the AT1R blockade as a novel neuroprotective treatment for diabetic retinopathy.

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AAAs were induced using either 1) Ang II subcutaneous infusion (1000 ng/kg/min) for 28 days in male ApoE(-/-) mice, or 2) transient intra-aortic porcine pancreatic elastase infusion in male C57BL/6 mice. One week prior to AAA creation, mice started to daily receive irbesartan (50 mg/kg), telmisartan (10 mg/kg), fluvastatin (40 mg/kg), bosentan (100 mg/kg), doxycycline (100 mg/kg) or vehicle alone. Efficacy was determined via serial in vivo aortic diameter measurements, histopathology and gene expression analysis at sacrifice. Aortic aneurysms developed in 67% of Ang II-infused ApoE(-/-) mice fed with standard chow and water alone (n = 15), and 40% died of rupture. Strikingly, no telmisartan-treated mouse developed an AAA (n = 14). Both telmisartan and irbesartan limited aneurysm enlargement, medial elastolysis, smooth muscle attenuation, macrophage infiltration, adventitial neocapillary formation, and the expression of proteinases and proinflammatory mediators. Doxycycline, fluvastatin and bosentan did not influence aneurysm progression. Telmisartan was also highly effective in intra-aortic porcine pancreatic elastase infusion-induced AAAs, a second AAA model that did not require exogenous Ang II infusion.

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Six weeks after randomization, hyperkalemia developed in 210 (2.7%) patients on dual therapy vs. 264 (1.6%) patients on monotherapy (p < 0.001 vs. dual therapy). Hypokalemia developed in 87 (1.1%) patients on dual therapy vs. 200 (1.2%)patients on monotherapy. Serum potassium was nonlinearly associated with cardiovascular and renal events with a nadir between 4.0-5.0 mmol/l for cardiovascular and 4.0-4.5 mmol/l for renal events such that subjects above or below these values exhibited higher risks. This association was independent of age, gender, diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate, systolic blood pressure and diuretic use.

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Vascular smooth muscle cells were derived from the thoracic aorta of Wistar-Kyoto rat. Northern and Western blotting analysis were used to examine AT1R mRNA and protein expression, respectively. The DEAE-dextran method was used for transfection, and the promoter activity of AT1R was examined by luciferase assay.

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Telmisartan and valsartan have angiotensin II receptor blocking activity. Because telmisartan has also an agonistic action for peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor (PPAR)-γ, it is speculated that an effect of telmisartan on insulin sensitivity is different from that of valsartan, which lacks of PPAR-γ agonistic activity. To address the issue, effects of telmisartan and valsartan on insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines and PPAR-γ target genes were evaluated in obese diabetic mice. KK-A(y) mice were treated with telmisartan (5mg/kg) and valsartan (15 mg/kg), once daily for 3 weeks. Insulin tolerance test was performed on day 14, and plasma adiponectin concentration and mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in adipose tissues were measured on day 21. Time-course of plasma glucose level after the injection of insulin in mice with telmisartan was not significantly different from that of animals with valsartan. In addition, PPAR-γ antagonist did not diminished the improvement of insulin sensitivity by telmisartan. Telmisartan and valsartan elevated plasma adiponectin concentration and suppressed the mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 in adipose tissues. These variables of the telmisartan- and valsartan-treated groups did not significantly differ. Influence of telmisartan on the PPAR-γ target genes (ap2 and fatty acid synthase) mRNA expressions was not detected in adipose tissues under the present condition. These data suggest that the effect of telmisartan on insulin sensitivity is similar to that of valsartan, and a role of PPAR-γ-mediated stimuli is small in the telmisartan-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity.

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A decrease of 8-iso-PGF2a levels vs baseline was observed only in the RT group (-8.6%; p = 0.02). A trend for decrease vs. baseline was observed in the RI (-5.7%; p = 0.40) and RO (-3.7%; p = 0.60) groups. Changes of 8-iso-PGF2a levels between groups were not significantly different (p = 0.70).

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In Dahl S rats, high salt intake causes hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis, associated with an apparent increase in activity of tissue RAAS. In the current study, we assessed the effects of two AT1-receptor blockers (ARB) on AT1- and AT2-receptors and ACE densities and salt-induced cardiovascular changes. The hydrophilic ARB losartan (30 or 100 and the lipophilic ARB telmisartan (10 or 30 were administered once daily, and a high-salt diet was provided from 5 to 9 weeks. In Dahl S but not R rats, the high-salt diet caused marked hypertension, cardiac and kidney hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Both ARBs dose-dependently inhibited binding of Ang II to AT1-receptors and reversed the salt-induced increases in AT2-receptor densities in the CNS. Both ARBs at regular doses attenuated the salt-induced hypertension and, at high doses, prevented the increase in BP during the day but not during the night. Both ARBs similarly prevented high-salt-induced interstitial and perivascular fibrosis in the LV and RV as well as fibrosis in the aorta and renal tubules. RV hypertrophy was also prevented, but LV hypertrophy only partially, and kidney hypertrophy not at all. In Dahl S rats, AT1-receptor stimulation seems to play a critical role in salt-induced hypertension and fibrosis, but a lesser role in tissue hypertrophy.

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Testicular damage is a common clinical problem in diabetic individuals that severely affects the quality of life. The present study investigates the possible protective mechanisms of telmisartan, an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist in the germ cell of diabetic rat. Male SD rats were used and randomized into six groups: control, telmisartan control, diabetic control and diabetic group treated with telmisartan at the doses of 3, 6 and 12mg/kg/day, per oral for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by injecting a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ), (55mg/kg) dissolved in ice-cold 10mM citrate buffer; pH 4.4 and administered i.p. immediately after preparation to the SD rats. At the end of the study, rats were sacrificed and the levels of nitrite, superoxide, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (reduced and peroxidase) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Germ cell toxicity was evaluated by using sperm count, sperm comet assay, histology of testes and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Further to confirm the oxidative and nitrosative damage, immunohistological quantification of 8-oxo-dG (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and 3-nitrotyrosine were evaluated respectively. Results showed that telmisartan significantly restored the levels of nitrite, superoxide, malondialdehyde, and glutathione and superoxide dismutase in diabetic testes. Further, telmisartan significantly increased the sperm counts, reduced apoptotic cell death, sperm DNA damage, oxidative and nitrosative damage in diabetic rat. Western blot analysis showed that telmisartan reduced the testicular inflammation and cell death by down-regulating the expression of NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, p-ERK1/2, iNOS, caspase-3 and increasing the PPAR-γ expression. Results clearly indicate that telmisartan significantly reduced the both oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation and cell death in diabetic testes. The present results confirmed that telmisartan exhibited beneficial role in the germ cell of diabetic rat.

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A higher-quality diet was associated with a lower risk of recurrent CVD events among people ≥55 years of age with CVD or diabetes mellitus. Highlighting the importance of healthy eating by health professionals would substantially reduce CVD recurrence and save lives globally.

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This open-label, crossover study had two objectives: to compare the steady-state pharmacokinetics of high-dose telmisartan with and without coadministered high-dose hydrochlorothiazide and to compare the steady-state pharmacokinetics of hydrochlorothiazide with and without coadministered telmisartan. A total of 13 healthy males and females of nonchildbearing potential received the following oral, once-daily medications, each for 7 days: telmisartan 160 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg, and telmisartan 160 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg. Between medication periods, there was a 14-day washout. Blood was collected at intervals over 48 and 84 hours, respectively, at the end of the 7-day dosing period for the determination of plasma telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Predose blood samples were also collected on days 1, 6, and 7. Tolerability of single-agent and combination medication was monitored. For hydrochlorothiazide and telmisartan, given alone or in combination, there were no appreciable differences in trough plasma concentrations between days 6, 7, and 8; thus, at day 7, both agents had achieved steady state. Mean values of the primary end points (Cmax and AUC0-24) and secondary end points (Cmin and t1/2) for both telmisartan and hyrochlorothiazide were unaffected when administered simultaneously. Moreover, concurrent telmisartan had no effect on urinary excretion of hydrochlorothiazide. Transient lightheadedness, associated with postural hypotension, was the most common adverse event. The absence of any significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of either hydrochlorothiazide or telmisartan shows that no dose adjustment is required if the two agents are given concurrently for the management of hypertension.

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ARBs severely suppressed lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-gamma production in mice immunized with OVA or type II collagen in CFA. Olmesartan also suppressed lymphocyte proliferation in mice immunized with ovalbumin in alum. In the CIA model, olmesartan reduced the mean arthritis score and the incidence of severe arthritis, even when it was administered only after disease onset. Histopathologic findings for joint destruction were improved in olmesartan-treated mice.

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Endothelial senescence and apoptosis were evaluated by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining and annexin V-propidium iodide staining in primary isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Production of reactive oxygen species was assessed by dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining. mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme and the receptors of angiotensin II was evaluated by real-time PCR, and angiotensin II levels were measured in uric acid-stimulated HUVECs.

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To investigate the effect of perindopril, amlodipine and telmisartan on improving the artery stiffness in patients with hypertension.

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Significantly reduced blood pressure in both daytime and 24 hours mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure were observed in patients with -217AA/AG genotype who received telmisartan, but not valsartan, compared to those carrying GG genotype. In line with the change of blood pressure, the change of plasma AGT level in those carrying -217AA/AG were slightly lower compared to GG genotype in telmisartan-treated group, even it failed to reach stastistically significant (p = 0.17). We suggested the variability antihypertensive response in telmisartan-treated AGT G-217A polymorphism hypertensive patients might correlate with the change in AGT expression due to the PPARγ-activating property of telmisartan, that involved C/EBPα. The adenine at position -217 formed a favoured hydrogen bond with Asn which is important for stabilizing the C/EBPα - DNA interface. This likely influences C/EBPα activity to repress AGT expression in response to PPARγ-activated telmisartan.

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Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists (or blockers) are a newer class of antihypertensive agents. These drugs are selective for angiotensin II (type 1 receptor); unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they do not inhibit bradykinin metabolism or enhance prostaglandin synthesis. Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are well tolerated. Cough occurs much less often with these agents than with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and they do not adversely affect lipid profiles or cause rebound hypertension after discontinuation. Clinical trials indicate that angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are effective and safe in the treatment of hypertension. Their use in congestive heart failure and renal disease is under investigation.

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micardis patient reviews 2017-10-31

This prospective, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, multicentre study assessed the adjunctive effect of telmisartan monotherapy versus placebo in controlling blood pressure during the last six hours of the 24-hour dosing period. After a two-week run-in phase, 375 patients with essential hypertension uncontrolled on existing therapy were randomised to either placebo or telmisartan (40 mg uptitrated to 80 mg after four weeks, if needed) for eight weeks. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was conducted at randomisation (baseline) and treatment end. The change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over the last six hours (primary endpoint) was significantly greater with telmisartan than placebo ( buy micardis adjusted mean treatment difference in favour of telmisartan: -3.7 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.5, -1.9 mmHg, p < or = 0.001, n = 350), as was the reduction in 24-hour DBP (adjusted mean treatment difference: -5.0 mmHg, 95% CI -6.5, -3.5 mmHg, p < or = 0.001). Telmisartan also reduced mean systolic blood pressure significantly more than placebo over the last six hours and the entire 24-hour dosing interval. Responder rates (ABPM DBP, seated DBP, and overall [seated SBP/DBP]) at 8 weeks were significantly higher with telmisartan than with placebo (p < or = 0.01). All treatments were well tolerated. When added to existing antihypertensive regimens, telmisartan offers additional effectiveness while maintaining placebo-like tolerability.

dosage micardis plus 2015-05-23

After pooling more than 89 000 patients, there is no evidence to suggest that ARBs confer cardiovascular protection akin to ACEIs, and the results that emerged are not in favor of ARB therapy in terms of its use as a substitute for ACEIs in non-heart failure patients. ARBs may have a small benefit in terms of stroke risk, but the studies are heterogenous, making it very difficult to quantify this effect. Given that ACEIs protect against both stroke and MI, caution is advised in buy micardis the use of ARBs as a substitute for ACEIs in patients without a heart failure indication, who are tolerant of an ACEI.

micardis 70 mg 2015-03-22

Incidences of potentially life-threatening cardiovascular events display a diurnal pattern, tending to be higher in the morning than at other times of day. The recording of blood pressure at pre-defined intervals under everyday circumstances is facilitated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). This technique shows that systolic and diastolic blood pressures display a circadian rhythm in most individuals. Typically, at the end of the night on arousal, blood pressure surges. This surge coincides with increased cardiovascular events. A recent prospective study conducted in Japan, where the incidence of stroke is high, provides further evidence for the link between cardiovascular events and morning blood pressure surge. Prevalence of both silent ischaemic events and multiple cerebrovascular infarcts was highest among the elderly subjects studied, with the largest increase in blood pressure buy micardis on awakening. An increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is also seen in 'non-dippers' (i.e. individuals in whom the normal nocturnal fall in blood pressure is absent or blunted). ABPM is superior to clinic blood pressure in predicting cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and this suggests that 24-h blood pressure control may be necessary to gain complete benefit from blood pressure-lowering therapy. Antihypertensive agents with a long duration of action have the potential to provide blood pressure control throughout the dosing interval and thus cover the critical early morning period when the blood pressure surges. Clinical studies that have compared telmisartan with shorter-acting angiotensin II receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors demonstrate that telmisartan has a sustained duration of action, with proven efficacy over the entire 24-h period between doses, including the critical early morning period.

micardis plus generic 2015-11-17

Telmisartan plus propranolol reduces liver fibrosis and bile duct proliferation in the PSC-like Abcb4 (-/-) mouse model, even when started at late stages of fibrosis, and may thus represent a novel therapeutic option for cholestatic liver diseases such as buy micardis PSC.

micardis y alcohol 2015-06-19

C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase reactant produced mainly by the liver, is elevated in diabetes, thus contributing to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the elevation of CRP in diabetes is not fully understood. Since a crosstalk between AGE and angiotensin II (Ang II) has been proposed in the pathogenesis of accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes, we examined here whether and how telmisartan, a unique Ang II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma)-modulating activity, could inhibit AGE-induced CRP expression in a human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B buy micardis cells.

micardis drug 2017-12-07

(11)C-labeled telmisartan ([(11)C]TEL) was buy micardis orally administered to rats with or without non-radiolabeled telmisartan (0.5, and 10 mg/kg). PET scanning of abdominal region and whole body was performed under conscious condition. In situ intestinal closed loop study in rats and in vitro permeation study in MDR1-MDCK II cell monolayers were also conducted.

micardis dosage 2016-04-16

We, for the first time in the literature, showed that miR-320 is increased in IR injury. miR-320 might be a novel diagnosis and treatment target in renal ischemic reperfusion injury. buy micardis Also, for the first time, we showed that CAP and TEL cause functional and histopathological recovery and lower miR-146a and miR-320.

micardis 20 mg 2017-09-07

Extracts from ginseng, notoginseng and chuanxiong can delay Ang buy micardis II-induced aging of HUVECs and may play an important role in early senescence.

micardis generic cost 2017-02-11

The results of ASPIRE and ALTITUDE trials strongly suggested that dual inhibition of aliskiren with either ARBS or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) should be avoided. Olmesartan is an effective and safe antihypertensive agent, but special attention should be paid to high-risk patients, such as those with coronary disease, to avoid an excessive reduction in blood pressure. The authors also note that while azilsartan is buy micardis probably the most potent ARB, there is still a lack of data regarding potential organ damage and the incidence of cardiovascular events. Lastly, recent evidence has shown a lack of a relationship between ARB therapy and the occurrence of cancer.

micardis generic launch 2015-01-09

A novel, simple and eco-friendly ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by HPLC determination of anti-hypertensive drugs viz., eprosartan, valasartan, irbesartan, losartan and telmisartan in rat serum buy micardis has been developed and validated. Experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, nature and volume of the ionic liquid, dispenser solvent, extraction time and effect of salt were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction recoveries were between 92.85 and 98.50%. The relative standard deviations of intra-and inter-day accuracy varied between 1.9 and 9.1% (n=3). The linearity of the proposed method was 0.1-20μg/mL with coefficients of determination varying between 0.9979 and 0.9992.

micardis 5 mg 2017-12-27

Patients were representative of the whole trial (age 67 years, male 65%, baseline BP 147/84 buy micardis mm Hg, small artery disease 60%, NIHSS 3) and baseline variables were similar between treatment groups. The mean time from stroke to recruitment was 58 hours. Combined death or dependency (modified Rankin scale: OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.84-1.26; P=0.81; death: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.27-4.04; and stroke recurrence: OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.68-2.89; P=0.36) did not differ between the treatment groups. In comparison with placebo, telmisartan lowered BP (141/82 vs 135/78 mm Hg, difference 6 to 7 mm Hg and 2 to 4 mm Hg; P<0.001), pulse pressure (3 to 4 mm Hg; P<0.002), and rate-pressure product (466 mm Hg.bpm; P=0.0004).

micardis dose maximum 2015-01-19

Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of renal failure requiring replacement therapy. Diabetic nephropathy is typically characterized by persistent microalbuminuria progressing to nephrotic syndrome, a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate, and hypertension. Diabetic nephropathy prevention strategies may involve early angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment and the control of diabetes to reduce glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Treatment strategies include the use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and cholesterol-lowering agents. Early intervention is key to the prevention of more severe renal outcomes. Although intensive and early control of blood pressure (BP) is key to renoprotection, the class of antihypertensive has an important bearing on outcome. There is evidence for the efficacy of ARBs in preventing the progression from microalbuminuria to overt nephropathy (urine protein excretion >500 mg/day) from the IRbesartan in patients with diabetes and MicroAlbuminuria (IRMA 2) Study using irbesartan and the INcideNt to buy micardis OVert: Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Telmisartan, Investigation On type 2 diabetic Nephropathy (INNOVATION) Study using telmisartan. For the management of overt nephropathy, the findings of the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) Study and the Irbesartan in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT) demonstrate that losartan and irbesartan, respectively, reduce the time to doubling of serum creatinine levels and development of end-stage renal disease.

micardis generic release 2015-04-03

One thousand three hundred fifty-seven patients were evaluated in 13 countries at baseline, 2 years, and 4 years, with ED determined using the ED score of the Cologne Male Survey (Kölner [Cologne] Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction) and the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. Erectile dysfunction scores Norvasc Starting Dose were related to CVRF and the use of cardiovascular drugs.

micardis brand name 2016-09-17

C-reactive protein (CRP) plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. It is a marker and predictor of cardiovascular disease. CRP possesses numerous cardiovascular effects (clotting, generation of oxygen radicals, increase in the expression of adhesion molecules and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, plaque destabilization) that could result in cardiovascular disease. This review describes the effects of various cardiovascular drugs on the levels of CRP in health and disease. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors (aspirin, rofecoxib, celecoxib), platelet aggregation inhibitors (clopidogrel, abciximab), lipid lowering agents (statins, ezetimibe, fenofibrate, niacin, diets), beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists and antioxidants (vitamin E), as well as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ramipril, captopril, fosinopril), reduce serum levels of CRP; while enalapril and trandolapril have not been shown to have the same effect. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) (valsartan, irbesartan, olmesartan, telmisartan) markedly reduce serum levels of CRP. The findings with other ARBs (losartan and candesartan) were inconsistent. Antidiabetic agents (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) reduce CRP levels, while insulin is ineffective. Calcium channel antagonists have variable effects on CRP levels. Hydrochlorothiazide and oral estrogen do not affect CRP. The CRP-lowering effect of statins is more pronounced than their lipid lowering effect and is not dependent on their hypolipemic activity. The effect of atorvastatin on CRP seems to be dose-dependent. Inderal 25 Mg CRP-lowering effect of statins is likely to contribute to the favorable outcome of statin therapy. The data suggest that lipid lowering agents, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, antidiabetic agents, antiinflammatory and antiplatelet agents, vitamin E, and beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists lower serum or plasma levels of CRP, while vitamin C, oral estrogen and hydrochlorothiazide do not affect CRP levels.

micardis missed dose 2016-08-06

The efficacy and safety of telmisartan combined with clopidogrel, leflunomide, or both drugs for Levaquin Generic Name immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) are unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of telmisartan combined with clopidogrel, leflunomide, or both drugs for IgAN.

micardis plus dosage 2016-04-01

The potential effect of chronic treatment with telmisartan, an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator--activated receptor γ (PPARγ), on stress-related disorders is a matter of considerable interest. The existing data suggest that angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in exaggerated sympathetic and hormonal response to stress. Enhanced formation of Ang II and increased AT1 receptor activity is associated with devastating impact of stress on central nervous system, which may trigger many psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia or post-traumatic stress disorder. Some of the anti-stress effects of ARBs have already been proven but these on the stress-induced cognitive impairment were examined only for candesartan. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that blockade of stress response by another ARB telmisartan alleviates the negative effect of prolonged restraint stress on cognitive functions of male Wistar rats Tegretol Bipolar Dosage .

micardis 80 mg 2017-03-14

Telmisartan, in addition to blocking angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R), activates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) signaling that interferes with nitric oxide (NO) system. Accutane Cumulative Dose Because aging of endothelial cells (ECs) is hallmarked by a reduction in NO synthesis, we hypothesized that telmisartan increases NO formation by regulated asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH)-system through blocking AT(1)R and activating PPARgamma signaling. To test this hypothesis, ECs were cultured with telmisartan, eprosartan, Ang II, and GW9662 (PPARgamma antagonist) until the twelfth passage. During the process of aging, PPARgamma protein expression decreased significantly, whereas the expression of AT(1)R increased. Telmisartan reversed these effects and dose-dependently decreased reactive oxygen species and 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) formation. This effect was associated with an upregulated activity and protein expression of DDAH, accompanied by a decrease in ADMA concentration, an increase in NO metabolites, and delayed senescence. Blockade of PPARgamma signaling by GW9662 or PPARgamma small-interference RNA prevented the effect of telmisartan on ADMA-DDAH-NO system. Coincubation with Ang II did not affect the effect of telmisartan-delayed senescence, whereas Ang II itself accelerated endothelial aging. Moreover, AT(1)R blocker eprosartan that did not influence PPARgamma protein expression had no effect on ADMA system and senescence. We have demonstrated that telmisartan mainly by activating PPARgamma signaling can alter the catabolism and release of ADMA as an important cardiovascular risk factor. We therefore propose that telmisartan translationally and posttranslationally upregulated DDAH expression via activation of PPARgamma signaling, causing ADMA to diminish and increase NO synthesis sufficient to delay senescence.

micardis hct generic 2015-12-12

The majority of hypertensive patients, especially those with target organ damage, are likely to require multiple-drug therapy in order to reach blood pressure (BP) targets and reduce their risk of adverse vascular outcomes. The rationale for combination therapy with agents that block the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a calcium channel blocker (CCB) or diuretic is well founded in growing evidence. Recent published trials have shown that the combination of an RAS suppressor and a dihydropiridinic CCB would offer additional benefits independently of BP reduction. A Feldene Online telmisartan-amlodipine combination has demonstrated significantly greater BP reductions compared with each monotherapy component in the overall population, and in particular in patients with moderate to severe hypertension and high-risk patients. This combination is well tolerated with a safety profile similar to placebo and is consistent with the known safety profile of its monotherapy components.

micardis dosage maximum 2016-10-11

We assessed the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation on the blood pressure response to treatment with telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide in Propecia Name Brand hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and habitually high (HDS, sodium excretion >200 mmol/24 h on two out of three consecutive occasions) or low (LDS, sodium excretion <100 mmol/24 h on two out of three consecutive occasions) salt intake.

micardis 40 mg 2017-01-31

50 of 66 patients could be reexamined. At follow-up, mean arterial pressure decreased from 106 +/- 9.1 to 100 +/- 11 mm Hg (P < 0.001). Body mass index and hemoglobin A(1c) levels were unaltered. Renal vascular resistance decreased (from 128 +/- 44 to 103 +/- 30 mm Hg/mL/min/1.73 m(2); P < 0.001), renal plasma flow increased (from 490 +/- 133 to 589 +/- 154 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P < 0.001), and GFR did not change (113 +/- 22 versus 116 +/- 26 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P = 0.4) during follow-up. The decrease in renal plasma flow in response to N-monomethyl-l-arginine infusion was more pronounced at follow-up (-56.7 +/- 39 versus -73.4 +/- 48 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P = 0.02), indicating improved basal NO activity. After adjustment for possible confounders, patients with a marked decrease in mean arterial pressure showed more improved basal NO activity during follow-up than those with a less pronounced decrease in mean arterial pressure (P = 0 Zofran Dosing .04).

dosage micardis hct 2016-01-09

Telmisartan and atenolol are widely used in the management of essential Lopid Tablets hypertension. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of these two drugs in management of patients of essential hypertension.

micardis reviews 2015-11-08

The present study investigated the internalization behavior of the constitutively active mutant (CAM) N111G of angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor and correlated the result with the mechanism of the constitutive activity of the mutant. The inverse agonist activity of valsartan, losartan, candesartan, and telmisartan was also examined by inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation study as well as receptor-internalization assay. Both wild-type (WT) and N111G mutant receptors were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells and the binding affinities towards the agonist and these four AT(1) antagonists were determined. Production of total IP was measured in the presence and absence of the compounds. The agonist-induced receptor internalization of both WT and N111G mutant receptors was also investigated. Although the mutant showed similar binding characteristics with agonist and the antagonists used as WT, the internalization of the mutant was much lower (19.56 +/- 2.87%) than that of the WT receptor (74.63 +/- 1.00%). Internalization of the mutant significantly increased (63.22 +/- 0.03%) in the presence of valsartan, which also showed significant inverse agonist activity in the N111G mutant. The results indicate that internalization of CAM N111G of the AT(1) receptor is induced by the use of valsartan, which may be an important characteristic of inverse agonist activities of AT(1) antagonists in N111G.

micardis reviews comments 2016-07-27

In a substudy of the ONTARGET/TRANSCEND (Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial/Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease) clinical trials, 368 patients had a cardiac magnetic resonance scan to measure LV mass, LV end systolic volume, LV end diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Relationships between QRS duration on the 12-lead ECG and LV mass and volumes were evaluated at both assessments.

micardis generic alternative 2017-05-02

It appears that telmisartan may constitute a new therapeutic option in a stress-related cognitive impairment.

micardis overdose symptoms 2015-02-19

Macrovascular complications are responsible for the high morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a central role in the process of adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitization, and also possesses anti-atherogenic effects. Recently, some statins, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers have been reported to activate PPARγ. However, the impact of PPARγ activation on diabetic macrovascular complications is not fully understood. It has been reported that the activation of PPARγ by thiazolidinediones induces anti-atherogenic effects in vascular cells, including monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, in atherosclerotic animal models and in clinical studies. We have reported that hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), which are used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, activate PPARγ and mediate anti-atherogenic effects through PPARγ activation in macrophages. Also, telmisartan, an angiotensin type I receptor blocker, has been reported to have anti-atherogenic effects through PPARγ activation. Furthermore, we have reported that nifedipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, can activate PPARγ, thereby mediating anti-atherogenic effects in macrophages. Therefore, statin therapy and part of anti-hypertensive therapy might produce beneficial effects through PPARγ activation in hypercholesterolemic and/or hypertensive patients with diabetes, and PPARγ might be a therapeutic target for diabetic macrovascular complications. In the present review, we focus on the anti-atherogenic effects of PPARγ and suggest potential therapeutic approaches to prevent diabetic macrovascular complications. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00182.x, 2012).

micardis dosage instructions 2015-08-08

Endothelial dysfunction (ED) has been reported in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) is a noninvasive test showing endothelial function of epicardial coronary arteries and coronary microcirculatory function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker, telmisartan, on CFVR in patients with ADPKD.

micardis medication 2016-10-17

The kidney plays an important role in gluconeogenesis during starvation. To clarify the anti-diabetic action of angiotensin receptor blockers, we examined the effects of telmisartan on the sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT) and the pathways of renal gluconeogenesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. At 4 weeks, the DM rats treated with/without telmisartan for 2 weeks and normal control rats were used for the study after a 24-hour fast. SGLT2 expressed on the brush border membrane of the proximal convoluted tubules increased in the DM rats, but decreased in the rats treated with telmisartan. The expression of restriction enzymes of gluconeogenesis, glucose-6-phosphatase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase increased in the proximal tubules in the DM rats, whereas these enzymes decreased in the kidneys of the rats treated with telmisartan. The elevated cytoplasmic glucose-6-phosphate and glucose levels in the kidney of DM rats significantly decreased in those treated with telmisartan, whereas those levels in the liver did not show significant change. Meanwhile, the high plasma glucose levels in the DM rats during the intravenous insulin tolerance tests were ameliorated by telmisartan. The increased fasting plasma glucose levels after 24 hours of starvation in the DM rats thus returned to the control levels by telmisartan treatment. In conclusion, the increased renal SGLT2 expression, elevated renal gluconeogenesis enzymes and extent of insulin-resistance in the DM rats were ameliorated by telmisartan therapy, thus resulting in decreased plasma glucose levels after 24 hours of fasting.

micardis 120 mg 2017-10-29

Telmisartan exerted anti-obesity effects and restored leptin sensitivity, given as a treatment to rats with obesity. Such effects required high doses of telmisartan and were independent of the decrease in blood pressure.

micardis maximum dose 2016-12-31

At doses producing equivalent hypotensive effects, telmisartan apparently had a more favorable effect on functional parameters related to endothelial function than did valsartan. The reduction in plasma ADMA levels may contribute to this more favorable effect of telmisartan.