Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Glyburide.
Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.
Generic Micronase is a sulfonylurea antidiabetic medicine. It works by causing the pancreas to release insulin, which helps to lower blood sugar.
Brand name of Generic Micronase is Micronase.
Take Generic Micronase by mouth with food.
If you are taking 1 dose daily, take Generic Micronase with breakfast or the first main meal of the day unless your doctor tells you otherwise.
High amounts of dietary fiber may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar.
Generic Micronase works best if it is taken at the same time each day.
Continue to take Generic Micronase even if you feel well.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Micronase and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Micronase are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you are allergic to Generic Micronase components.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Micronase can ham your baby.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you have certain severe problems associated with diabetes (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma).
Do not take Generic Micronase if you have moderate to severe burns or very high blood acid levels (acidosis) you are taking bosentan.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, a severe rash, hives, itching, breathing difficulties, dizziness) to any other sulfonamide medicine, such as acetazolamide, celecoxib, certain diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), glipizide, probenecid, sulfamethoxazole, valdecoxib, or zonisamide.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of liver, kidney, thyroid, or heart problems.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have stomach or bowel problems (eg, stomach or bowel blockage, stomach paralysis), drink alcohol, or have had poor nutrition.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have type 1 diabetes, very poor health, a high fever, a severe infection, severe diarrhea, or high blood acid levels, or have had a severe injury.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of certain hormonal problems (eg, adrenal or pituitary problems, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone [SIADH]), low blood sodium levels, anemia, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you will be having surgery.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan because liver problems may occur; the effectiveness of both medicines may be decreased; beta-blockers (eg, propranolol) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; they may also hide certain signs of low blood sugar and make it more difficult to notice; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril), anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), azole antifungals (eg, miconazole, ketoconazole), chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clofibrate, fenfluramine, insulin, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg, phenelzine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), phenylbutazone, probenecid, quinolone antibiotics (eg, ciprofloxacin), salicylates (eg, aspirin), or sulfonamides (eg, sulfamethoxazole) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; calcium channel blockers (eg, diltiazem), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), decongestants (eg, pseudoephedrine), diazoxide, diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogens, hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pills), isoniazid, niacin, phenothiazines (eg, promethazine), phenytoin, rifamycins (eg, rifampin), sympathomimetics (eg, albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), or thyroid supplements (eg, levothyroxine) because they may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar; gemfibrozil because blood sugar may be increased or decreased; cyclosporine because the risk of its side effects may be increased by Generic Micronase.
Do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.
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Activation of the adenosine A1(A1) receptor, Gi protein, and ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP)-channel system has been shown to play an important role in the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning in dogs. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the possible involvement of this system in hypoxic preconditioning, which ameliorates injury induced by prolonged ischemia and subsequent reperfusion in perfused rat hearts. Ten minutes of hypoxic preconditioning resulted in an appreciable improvement of post-ischemic cardiac contractile recovery. This was associated with a significant reduction in the release of creatine kinase (CK) from reperfused hearts. Hypoxic preconditioning shortened the time to ischemic contracture onset and prevented a further rise in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) during reperfusion. Neither the selective A1 receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT) nor the KATP channel blocker, glibenclamide, altered the beneficial effects of hypoxic preconditioning. In vivo pretreatment with an inhibitor of Gi protein, pertussis toxin (PTX), also did not diminish the preconditioning effect. The results suggest that, although hypoxic preperfusion ameliorates post-ischemic contractile dysfunction, neither the activation of the A1 receptor, nor the opening of the KATP-channel, nor transduction through Gi protein are involved in the post-ischemic functional recovery of hypoxic preconditioning in the perfused rat heart.
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Experiments were designed to evaluate the mechanisms of propofol and adenosine in rat atrial muscle. Atria were suspended in the isolated organ bath system for isometric tension recording and response to propofol and adenosine were tested in the absence and presence of glibenclamide, N(G)-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (l-NAME), tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT). The inotropic effect of propofol was elicited by TEA and glibenclamide. In contrast, l-NAME and 8-PT has no effect on the propofol-induced inhibition of atria. Furthermore, atria exhibited a diminished sensitivity to the adenosine-induced negative inotropic effect in the presence of the K(ATP)channel inhibitor glibenclamide, but not the non-specific K(+)channel inhibitor TEA. The adenosine A(1)receptor antagonist 8-PT decreased the responsiveness of adenosine-induced inhibition of atrial muscle. We propose that propofol-induced inotropy is generally mediated by K(+)channels, whereas adenosine-induced inotropy is partially mediated by K(+)channels. Both propofol- and adenosine-induced inotropy were not mediated by nitric oxide release. Our study provides further evidence that there was no contribution of adenosine in the propofol-induced inotropy.
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In the simultaneous presence of 5.5 mM glucose, exposure of isolated perifused islets to the sulfonylurea glyburide (500 nM) acutely stimulated insulin release and amplified the subsequent insulin secretory responses to 10 mM glucose or 10 mM arginine. This sensitizing effect of glyburide developed within 10 min, was maintained for at least 40 min after glyburide removal from the perifusion medium, and was attenuated by the calcium channel blocker nitrendipine. In islets whose inositol-containing lipids were prelabeled during a 2-hr incubation period with myo[2-3H]inositol, glyburide induced a concentration-dependent increase in labeled inositol phosphate accumulation. Nitrendipine abolished this stimulatory effect of glyburide. In perifused islets, the stimulatory effect of glyburide on phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis persisted after its removal from the medium and the duration of this effect paralleled the duration of sensitization. These findings suggest that glyburide-induced increases in PI hydrolysis account, at least in part, for its acute stimulatory effect on insulin output and its ability to sensitize islets to subsequent stimulation.
OBJECTIVE To assess if tooth discoloration is a novel side effect of sulfonylurea therapy in patients with permanent neonatal diabetes due to mutations in KCNJ11. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 67 patients with a known KCNJ11 mutation who had been successfully transferred from insulin injections onto oral sulfonylureas were contacted and asked about the development of tooth discoloration after transfer. RESULTS Altered tooth appearance was identified in 5 of the 67 patients. This was variable in severity, ranging from mild discoloration/staining (n = 4) to loss of enamel (n = 1) and was only seen in patients taking glibenclamide (glyburide). CONCLUSIONS These previously unreported side effects may relate to the developing tooth and/or to the high local concentrations in the children who frequently chewed glibenclamide tablets or took it as a concentrated solution. Given the multiple benefits of sulfonylurea treatment for patients with activating KCNJ11 mutations, this association warrants further investigation but should not preclude such treatment.
A series of arylimino-1,2,4-thiadiazolidines were prepared using an efficient synthesis starting from thiadiazolopyridinium chlorides. All the compounds showed smooth muscular relaxant properties in rat portal veins. The different behaviour under highly depolarized conditions and the reduction of the biological effect by glyburide suggests that the arylimino-1,2,4-thiadiazolidin-3-ones may act, at least in part, via K+-induced hyperpolarization of vascular smooth cells.
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ZD0947 (> or = 0.1 microM) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the CCh-induced contraction of human detrusor, which was reversed by glibenclamide. The rank order of the potency to relax the CCh-induced contraction was pinacidil > ZD0947 > diazoxide. In conventional whole-cell configuration, ZD0947 (> or = 1 microM) caused a concentration-dependent inward K+ current which was suppressed by glibenclamide at -60 mV. When 1 mM ATP was included in the pipette solution, application of pinacidil or ZD0947 caused no inward K+ current at -60 mV. Gliclazide (< or =1 microM), a selective SUR1 blocker, inhibited the ZD0947-induced currents (Ki = 4.0 microM) and the diazoxide-induced currents (high-affinity site, Ki1 = 42.4 nM; low-affinity site, Ki2 = 84.5 microM) at -60 mV. Immunohistochemical studies indicated the presence of SUR1 and SUR2B proteins, which are constituents of KATP channels, in the bundles of human detrusor smooth muscle.
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This study was aimed to clarify the mechanisms of gastroprotection by centipedic acid (CPA), a natural diterpene from Egletes viscosa LESS. (Asteraceae) using ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in mice and gastric secretion in 4-h pylorus-ligated rats as model systems. In mice, intragastrically administered CPA (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) greatly reduced the mucosal lesions induced by 96% ethanol (0.2 ml, p.o.) by 18, 53, and 79%, respectively, whereas N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 300 mg/kg, i.p.), the reference compound produced a 50% inhibition. In 4-h pylorus-ligated rats, CPA (50 mg/kg) applied intraduodenally decreased both gastric secretory volume and total acidity. Similar to NAC, the plant diterpene effectively prevented the ethanol associated decrease in non-proteic sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and the elevated thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in gastric tissue, suggesting that these compounds exert an antioxidant effect. Pretreatment of mice with indomethacin, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor but not with capsazepine, the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1)-receptor antagonist greatly suppressed the gastroprotective effect of CPA. Furthermore, CPA gastroprotection was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with L-NAME or glibenclamide the respective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and K(+)(ATP) channel activation. These data suggest that CPA affords gastroprotection by different and complementary mechanisms, which include a sparing effect on NP-SH reserve, and roles for endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and TRPV1-receptor and K(+)(ATP) channel activation.
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Myosin-IIB expression increased in the brains of diabetic rats. However, protein expression returned to control levels when treated with glibenclamide. In addition, the expression of MYH10 gene encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain-B decreased in diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide. Moreover, we found weak myosin-IIB labeling in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats treated with glibenclamide. Therefore, the expression of myosin-IIB is affected by diabetes mellitus and may be modulated by glibenclamide treatment in rats. Structural changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are reversible, and glibenclamide treatment may reduce the patho-physiological changes in the brain.
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Slices of right atrial trabeculae were obtained from patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Trabeculae were incubated with oxygenated glucose containing phosphate buffered saline (O(2), G-PBS). After 30 minutes of stabilization the sections were exposed to 90 minutes of simulated ischemia (N(2), PBS without glucose) followed by 90 minutes reoxygenation (O(2), G-PBS). Cyclosporin A (0.2 micromol/L) or insulin (5 mU/mL) was added during the stabilization period prior the ischemia. Cell viability was measured by using 3-[4.5 dimethylthiazol 2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), which is cleaved by active mitochondrial dehydrogenases of living cells.
Our data suggest that asymptomatic hypoglycemic events are common during pharmacological treatment in gestational diabetic pregnancies. We speculate that this finding may be explained by treatment modality rather than by the disease itself.
In the isolated carotid artery of the guinea-pig, CNP activates K(ATP) and is a weak hyperpolarizing agent. In this artery, the contribution of CNP to EDHF-mediated responses is unlikely.
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Recent studies reveal that brief ethanol exposure induces cardioprotection against simulated ischemia in cardiomyocytes by the activation of protein kinase C- epsilon. The present study tests the ability of ethanol to induce protection in rabbit hearts in which infarct size was the end-point and explores the signal transduction pathways involved. In isolated rabbit hearts, 50 m m ethanol infused for 5 min with 10 min of washout prior to 30 min of regional ischemia reduced infarct size (triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining) by 49%. Neither adenosine receptor blockade with 8-(p -sulfophenyl) theophylline nor the free radical scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine inhibited the protection triggered by ethanol. In contrast, protein kinase C inhibition with chelerythrine, protein tyrosine kinase inhibition with genistein, and blockade of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) with either 5-hydroxydecanoate or glibenclamide did abolish protection. Thus, transient ethanol exposure followed by washout prior to ischemia elicits a preconditioning-like effect involving protein kinase C, at least one protein tyrosine kinase, and K(ATP)channels, but neither adenosine nor free radicals.
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Body weight reached with sitagliptin at 36 months was lower than that reached with glibenclamide. Fasting plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly increased by triple therapy with glibenclamide and decreased by that with sitagliptin. While sitagliptin did not change homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function, this value was significantly increased by glibenclamide. Fasting plasma proinsulin was not influenced by triple oral therapy including glibenclamide, while it was decreased by the therapy including sitagliptin compared to glibenclamide. Triple oral therapy with sitagliptin better improved β-cell function measures compared with the glibenclamide therapy.
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To compare the metabolic effects of three different frequently used regimens of insulin administration on blood glucose control and serum lipids, and the costs associated with this treatment, in subjects with NIDDM, who were poorly controlled with oral antihyperglycemic agents.
Innervated skeletal muscles are endowed with K+ channels activatable by K+ channel openers. It is of interest to know whether the denervation-induced depolarization is due to a deficiency of such a K+ channel. In denervated mouse diaphragm, lemakalim, a K+ channel opener, effectively hyperpolarizes membrane and reduces membrane resistance, spontaneous activity as well as twitch force reversibly. Reductions of transmembrane K+ gradient diminish the lemakalim-induced hyperpolarization. In voltage-clamped fiber, lemakalim induces a long-lasting outward current. A current clamp experiment suggests a reversal potential of around -90 mV. On innervated diaphragm, lemakalim hyperpolarizes membrane and increases conductance if the muscle is predepolarized by anodal current. Lemakalim, however, is much less effective in overcoming the depolarization caused by crotamine, which activates Na+ channel. The effects of lemakalim are not attenuated by blockades of membrane Na+, Ca++ and Cl- permeabilities. Glybenclamide and tolbutamide, blockers of ATP-regulated K+ channel, antagonize the effects of lemakalim at low concentrations and produce slight membrane hyperpolarizations in denervated muscle, but marked membrane depolarizations in innervated muscle at higher concentrations. Cs+ depolarizes both innervated and denervated diaphragms and reduces the hyperpolarizing effect of lemakalim. The results suggest that lemakalim hyperpolarizes denervated muscle via glybenclamide sensitive K+ channels. It is inferred that a reduction of membrane K+ conductance rather than an increase of Na+ or Ca++ conductance contributes to the denervation-induced depolarization.
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Glibenclamide alone, diclofenac alone or the combination of glibenclamide and diclofenac reduced the LD flux values during rest and after ACh application (P<0.05). The reduction of LD flux in ACh mediated vasodilatation was greatest when using the combination of glibenclamide and diclofenac. In the case of SNP application, there was also a significantly lower LD flux rise for glibenclamide in comparison with the saline solution (P<0.05).
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In order to study the mechanism by which pertussis-sensitized rats showed enhanced insulin secretory responses to various secretagogues (Sumi, T., and M. Ui, Endocrinology 97: 352, 1975), pancreases of rats receiving a single injection of Bordetella pertussis cells 3 days before were perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution, and release of insulin therefrom was compared with that from the pancreases of normal rats. Much more insulin was released from the pancreas of the pertussis-sensitized rat than from the pancreas of the normal rat in response to glucose, arginine, glibenclamide and 3-isobuty-l-methylxanthine. The inhibition of insulin secretion caused by epinephrine, norepinephrine or phenylephrine via alpha-adrenergic receptors in the pancreas of normal rats was no longer observable with the pancreas from pertussis-sensitized rats. Instead, the addition of epinephrine with or without phentolamine gave rise to a marked secretion of insulin from the pancreas of pertussis-sensitized rats which was prevented by propranolol. It is concluded that a single injection of B. pertussis into rats results in a sustained modification of insulin secretory processes in the pancreatic beta-cells in such a manner as to favor insulin secretory responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation and other secretagogues.
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To clarify the mechanisms of impaired insulin secretion in Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda (NSY) mice, an inbred strain of mice with spontaneous development of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, the insulin response to glucose (5.5 to 27.8 mmol/L) and nonglucose stimuli (glibenclamide, arginine, and BayK8644, a Ca-channel opener) was studied in vitro using isolated islets from male NSY and control C3H/He mice at 36 weeks of age by the batch incubation method. Insulin response to 5.5 mmol/L glucose was not significantly different between NSY and C3H/He mice, but insulin response to a high concentration of glucose (> or = 11.1 mmol/L) was significantly smaller in NSY mice than in control C3H/He mice. The dose-response curve of insulin secretion showed a markedly reduced maximum response, but almost normal glucose sensitivity in NSY islets. Insulin responses to glibenclamide (1 mmol/L), arginine (20 mmol/L), and BayK8644 (0.1 mmol/L) were also significantly smaller in NSY mice than in C3H/He mice. Insulin content of islets, in contrast, was significantly higher in NSY mice than in C3H/He mice. The impaired insulin response to glucose and nonglucose stimuli together with higher insulin content in islets in the NSY mouse suggest that a defect in voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-channel or thereafter in the cascade of insulin secretion may be responsible for impaired insulin secretion in NSY mice. NSY mice, therefore, could be a novel animal model of type 2 diabetes with a defect in insulin secretion at a different site from that in previously known animal models.
To study the influence of a novel KATP channel opener JTV-506(JTV) on cardiac function and myocardial infarct size of isolated rat heart.
The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of glibenclamide (GC), a selective blocker of K(+)(ATP) channels, and iberiotoxin (IbTX), a selective blocker of BK(+)(Ca) channels, on the repeated brief hypoxia-induced posthypoxic hyperexcitability and rapid hypoxic preconditioning in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro. The method of field potentials measurement in CA1 region of the rat hippocampal slices was used. In contrast to GC (10 microM), IbTX (10nM) significantly abolished both posthypoxic hyperexcitability and rapid hypoxic preconditioning induced by brief hypoxic episodes. These effects of IbTX did not depend on its ability to reduce the hypoxia-induced decrease of population spike (PS) amplitude during hypoxic episodes since GC (10 microM), comparatively with IbTX (10nM), significantly reduced the depressive effect of hypoxia on the PS amplitude during hypoxic episodes but did not abolish both posthypoxic hyperexcitability and rapid hypoxic preconditioning in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Our results indicated that BK(+)(Ca) channels, in comparison with K(+)(ATP) channels, play a more important role in such repeated brief hypoxia-induced forms of neuroplasticity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons as posthypoxic hyperexcitability and rapid hypoxic preconditioning.
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The functional role of coronary vascular ATP-sensitive potassium (K+ATP) channels in the regulation of coronary blood flow (CBF) has not been determined in chronic heart failure (CHF). To test the hypothesis that K+ATP channels contribute to myocardial perfusion in HF, we examined the effects of intracoronary infusion of glibenclamide, an inhibitor of K+ATP channels, on basal CBF in control and CHF dogs. CHF was produced in mongrel dogs by pacing the right ventricle for 4 weeks. Under anesthesia, CBF in the left anterior descending coronary artery, other hemodynamic and metabolic parameters, or regional myocardial blood flow were measured. Basal CBF was less in CHF dogs than in controls. Glibenclamide at the graded doses (5, 15 and 50 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) decreased CBF in both control and CHF dogs. The percentage decrease in CBF with glibenclamide at 50 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) was greater (p<0.01) in CHF dogs than in controls. The greater decrease in CBF with glibenclamide at 50microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) was associated with myocardial ischemia. Glibenclamide decreased myocardial blood flow in each sublayer of the myocardium in the 2 groups. These results suggest that the basal activity of coronary vascular K+ATP channels is increased in CHF dogs but not in controls. This may contribute to the maintenance of myocardial perfusion in CHF.
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