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Minipress (Prazosin)
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Minipress

Minipress is an effective strong preparation which is taken in treatment of hypertension diseases. Minipress is also helpful in treatment of male prostate enlargement symptoms, congestive heart failure, Raynaud's disease. Minipress acts as anti-hypertension remedy.

Other names for this medication:

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Lisinopril, Amlodipine, Norvasc, Benicar, Metoprolol, Hydrochlorothiazide, Avapro, Losartan

 

Also known as:  Prazosin.

Description

Minipress is created by pharmacy specialists to combat hypertension disease. Target of Minipress is to control level of blood pressure.

Minipress acts as anti-hypertension remedy. Minipress operates by reducing blood pressure.

Minipress is also known as Prazosin, Prazopress, Vasoflex, Hypovase.

Minipress is alpha blocker.

Generic name of Minipress is Prazosin (oral).

Brand name of Minipress is Minipress.

Dosage

You should take it by mouth with water.

It is better to take Minipress 2-3 times a day at the same time with meals or milk.

It is better to start the first Minipress dose when are going to bed.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Minipress suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Minipress and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Minipress overdosage: feeling lightheaded, rash, weakness, troublesome breathing, pruritus, swelling.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Minipress are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Minipress if you are allergic to Minipress components.

Be careful with Minipress if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Minipress if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Minipress if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Minipress if you have liver or kidney disease, heart failure, low blood pressure, narcolepsy, prostate cancer.

Be careful with Minipress if you take muscle relaxants as carisoprodol; anti-anxiety drugs as diazepam; anti-seizure drugs as carbamazepine; tranquilizers; sleep medicines as sedatives; antihistamines as diphenhydramine; verapamil; psychiatric medicines as tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline), phenothiazines (chlorpromazine); sexual function problems drugs as vardenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil; narcotic pain relievers as codeine; beta blockers as metoprolol, propranolol, atenolol.

Avoid machine driving.

Use Minipress with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Avoid alcohol.

Minipress can be not safety for elderly people.

Try to be careful with sunbeams. Minipress makes skin sensitive to sunlight. Protect skin from the sun.

Do not stop taking Minipress suddenly.

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Application of 1 microM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) either immediately before or following tetanic stimulation inhibits the induction of CA1 hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). We have examined the effect of trans-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (ACPD), norepinephrine and acetylcholine on this NMDA-mediated LTP inhibition using extracellular recordings from in vitro rat hippocampal slices. When NMDA is accompanied by 100 microM ACPD or 10 microM norepinephrine, the block of LTP is overcome. The norepinephrine effect is mimicked by phenylephrine and methoxamine and is blocked by phentolamine and prazosin suggesting the involvement of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors.

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Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to enhance the vasoconstrictor response to norepinephrine (NE). In the present study, this interaction was investigated using isolated rabbit femoral artery rings mounted in tissue baths for the measurement of isometric contraction. Exposure to 3 x 10(-10) M Ang II caused a contraction that was less than 5% of the maximal response to NE. In the presence of Ang II, the NE dose-response curve shifted to the left twofold and the maximal response was not changed. The calcium channel antagonist nifedipine, 1 x 10(-7) M, caused a modest inhibition of the response to NE in either the presence or absence of Ang II. In contrast, nifedipine abolished the leftward shift of the NE dose-response curve caused by Ang II. Femoral arteries were pretreated with benextramine to cause partial alpha-adrenoceptor inactivation. The maximal contractile response to NE in these tissues was between 20% and 40% of that in control vessels, indicating that alpha-adrenoceptor reserve had been eliminated. In benextramine-pretreated vessels, the presence of 3 x 10(-10) M Ang II caused a modest leftward shift of the NE dose-response curve but increased the maximal responses to all NE concentrations by 200% to 800%. Nifedipine caused a modest inhibition of the response to NE in the absence of Ang II. In contrast, the enhanced response to NE in the presence of Ang II was nearly abolished. These results support our conclusions that 1) Ang II enhances the vasoconstrictor response to alpha-adrenergic stimulation, 2) the magnitude of enhancement is greater under conditions of reduced alpha-receptor reserve, and 3) calcium channel activation plays a major role in the amplified response.

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Alpha1-adrenoceptors are G-protein coupled receptors found in a variety of vascular tissues and responsible for vasoconstriction. Selectivity for each of the three subtypes is an important consideration in drug design in order to minimise the possibility of side effects. Using Catalyst we developed ligand-based pharmacophores from alpha(1a,b,d)-selective antagonists available in the literature using three separate training sets. Four-feature pharmacophores were developed for the alpha(1a) and alpha(1b) subtype-selective antagonists and a five-feature pharmacophore was developed for the alpha(1d) subtype-selective antagonists. The alpha(1a) pharmacophore represents both class I and II compounds with good predictivity for other compounds outside the training set as well. The alpha(1b) pharmacophore best predicts the activity of prazosin analogues as these make up the majority of alpha(1b)-selective antagonists. Unexpectedly, no positive ionisable feature was incorporated in the alpha(1b) pharmacophore. The alpha(1d) pharmacophore was based primarily on one structural class of compounds, but has good predictivity for a heterogeneous test set. Preliminary docking studies using AutoDock and optimised alpha1-adrenoceptor homology models, conducted with the antagonists prazosin (32) and 66, showed good agreement with the findings from the pharmacophores.

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In the present study, young (5-month-old (mo)) and aged (24 mo) adult male Fischer-344 (F344) rats were assigned to experimental groups based upon their performance of a reference memory task in the Morris water maze and reactivity to a novel palatable taste in a gustatory neophobia task. Levels of norepinephrine (NE) and its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG) were assayed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in brain regions associated with the locus coeruleus (LC)-hippocampus-cortex system and A1/A2-hypothalamic system. Binding of ligands specific for alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, and beta-2 receptors was assessed in hippocampus and cortex with receptor autoradiography. Impaired acquisition and retention of the water maze task and gustatory neophobia in aged rats was primarily associated with decreased NE activity in cingulate cortex (CC) as indicated by a significant reduction in the MHPG/NE ratio coupled with increased NE content. No significant changes in adrenergic receptor binding were detected in any region sampled. The results suggest that an aging-related reduction in cortical NE neurotransmission is associated with the expression of increased neophobia and deficits in spatial learning and memory performance occurring with advanced age in rats.

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Endogenous adrenergic drive regulates the firing rate of serotonergic neurons. However, advocates of feedback theory assert that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) released in the somatodendritic region of raphe neurons regulates both rate and release of 5-HT. Experiments were done to determine if the somatodendritic region might have receptors for norepinephrine that inhibit release of 5-HT independently of rate, as this would allow for discrete effects of norepinephrine on rate and release, even in the presence of functional feedback by 5-HT. The release of 5-HT at fixed frequencies of stimulation was substantially reduced when norepinephrine (1 and 3 x 10(-7) M) was present. Norepinephrine also inhibited the release of 3H-5-HT with delivery of a single stimulation pulse ruling out a remote action of the catecholamine. The alpha(1) antagonist prazosin did not modify the profile of norepinephrine inhibition. Further, the alpha(1) agonist phenylephrine had no effect on 3H-5-HT efflux. The alpha(2) antagonist yohimbine antagonized almost entirely the inhibition by norepinephrine at 1 Hz, and reduced it substantially at 3 Hz. Blockade of 5-HT(1) receptor sites with methiothepin did not reduce the inhibitory effect of norepinephrine on 3H-5-HT efflux. It is proposed that release of endogenous norepinephrine at synapses with 5-HT neurons could activate 5-HT neuron firing rate through alpha(1) receptors located at the soma and simultaneously short-circuit ongoing 5-HT feedback inhibition by inhibiting release through adrenergic alpha two receptors likely located at the dendrites.

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It was found earlier that imipramine, amitriptyline and citalopram enhanced the locomotor hyperactivity induced by MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, in rats. Now, three other antidepressants: (+)-oxaprotiline, an inhibitor of the uptake of noradrenaline, (-)-oxaprotiline, an enantiomer devoid of any effect on the uptake of noradrenaline and fluoxetine, an inhibitor of the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine, have been examined in male Wistar rats. All those antidepressants, given in a single dose, increased the MK-801-induced locomotor hyperactivity. That increase was completely antagonized by haloperidol and partly by SCH 23390 and (+/-)-sulpiride; prazosin was inactive. Repeated administration of antidepressants produced a similar but more potent (than acute one) enhancement of the action of MK-801. Also, in that case haloperidol and SCH 23390 produced the strongest antagonistic effect; (+/-)-sulpiride and prazosin had a distinctly less potent action. Another effect of MK-801, anticonvulsant activity (electroshock-induced convulsions), was not increased by the antidepressants studied. These results indicate that antidepressants with a different pharmacological profile, increased the MK-801-induced locomotor hyperactivity, this effect being probably indirectly mediated, at least in part, by a dopamine mechanism.

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Intrinsic sensitivity of newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients to imatinib (IC50(imatinib)) correlates with molecular response. IC50(imatinib) is defined as the in vitro concentration of drug required to reduce phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Crkl by 50%. We now show that interpatient variability in IC50(imatinib) is mainly due to differences in the efficiency of imatinib intracellular uptake and retention (IUR). In 25 untreated CML patients, the IC50(imatinib) strongly correlated (R (2) = -0.484, P = .014 at 2 muM imatinib) with the IUR of [(14)C]imatinib. The addition of prazosin, a potent inhibitor of OCT-1 cellular transporter, reduced the IUR and eliminated interpatient variability. IC50 values for the more potent BCR-ABL inhibitor nilotinib (AMN107) did not correlate with IC50(imatinib) (R(2) =-0.0561, P > .05). There was also no correlation between IC50(nilotinib) and the IUR for [(14)C]nilotinib (R (2) = 0.457, P > .05). Prazosin had no effect on nilotinib IUR, suggesting that influx of nilotinib is not mediated by OCT-1. In conclusion, whereas OCT-1-mediated influx may be a key determinant of molecular response to imatinib, it is unlikely to impact on cellular uptake and patient response to nilotinib. Determining interpatient and interdrug differences in cellular uptake and retention could allow individual optimization of kinase inhibitor therapy.

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Prolongation of gestation, perinatal mortality rate, neonatal survival and major complications.

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Several species of Eugenia L. are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Eugenia brasiliensis is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, whereas Eugenia. uniflora is used for the treatment of symptoms related to depression and mood disorders, and is used in Brazil by the Guarani Indians as a tonic stimulant.

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1. Sympathomimetic amines have been considered to be related to vasospasm. Previous studies showed that the human internal mammary artery (IMA) was capable of weak beta-adrenoceptor mediated relaxation and that alpha-adrenoceptor agonists may induce contraction in the human IMA. 2. We investigated the effects of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a vasodilator agent often used perioperatively, on alpha-adrenoceptor mediated contraction in the human IMA. 3. Discarded human IMA segments were taken from 37 patients who underwent IMA--coronary artery bypass graft operations and equilibrated in an organ bath. 4. A specially designed technique was used to normalize the vessel segments under the pressure similar to the in vivo situation. Noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), and methoxamine (MO) were used to contract the vessel segments. 5. GTN fully relaxed PE or MO (submaximal concentration) induced precontraction. Therapeutic plasma concentration of GTN relaxed 40-90% of the PE induced contraction (2.82 g, EC50 = 7.92 +/- 0.06 -log M) and 20-90% of the MO induced contraction (1.8 g, EC50 = 7.63 +/- 0.16 -log M). Pretreatment by the therapeutic plasma concentration of GTN inhibited the contraction induced by NA, PE in a different range. It reduced the NA induced contraction (6.9 g) by 14.8-38% (P greater than 0.05) and the PE induced contraction (4.3 g) by 7.9-39.3% (P greater than 0.05). The alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, at the therapeutic plasma concentration, nearly totally abolished the NA or PE induced contraction (P less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Recently, it has been demonstrated that two distinct alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding sites showing high and low affinity for WB-4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)ethyl-aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane) and 5-methyl-urapidil can be distinguished. In the present study we examined the ability of several agonists and antagonists to discriminate between these alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding sites. [3H]Prazosin binding to membranes of rat liver, heart, cerebral cortex and hippocampus was inhibited monophasically by butanserine, I-BE 2254 (2-(3-(4-hydroxy-3-iodophenyl)ethylaminomethyl)tetralone-hydrochloride), prazosin, rauwolscine and verapamil. In contrast, competition curves of adrenaline, oxymetazoline, amidephrine and YM-12617 (5-[2-[[2-(o-ethoxy-phenoxy)ethyl]-amino]propyl]-2- methoxybenzenesulfonamide HCl) were best described by a model of two binding sites. Chloroethylclonidine (CEC), a compound shown to irreversibly eliminate binding sites with low affinity for WB-4101, increased the proportion of high affinity binding sites for oxymetazoline and amidephrine, whereas the binding data for prazosin and adrenaline remained unchanged. These results indicate that amidephrine, oxymetazoline and YM-12617, but not the other drugs tested discriminate between different alpha 1-adrenoceptor recognition sites labelled by [3H]prazosin.

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Clonidine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg), prazosin (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) and propranolol (1.0-3.0 mg/kg) were administered prior to d-amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg), cocaine (15 mg/kg) or apomorphine (1.0 mg/kg) and psychomotor activity was measured. In separate studies, clonidine (0.03 mg/kg), prazosin (1.0 mg/kg) or propranolol (3.0 mg/kg) were co-administered with d-amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg) or cocaine (30 mg/kg) for 5 days, and locomotor sensitization was assessed 3 weeks post-treatment.

minipress 1mg tablet

N-(2-(4-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-N-(2- pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride (WAY-100635) is a new, potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. We have evaluated radiolabelled WAY-100635 as a prospective radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) by studying biodistribution in rat ex vivo. After intravenous injection, [O-methyl-3H]WAY-100635 cleared rapidly from plasma but was retained in brain. Specific binding was quantified from kinetic studies, using a reference-tissue compartment model, fitting for binding potential (k3/k4). The regional variation in binding potential correlated with the known distribution of 5-HT1A receptors. Saturation studies gave Bmax values in vivo that were consistent with those reported in vitro. At 60 min after injection, the ratio of radioactivity in 5-HT1A receptor-rich regions (e.g. septum, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus) to that in cerebellum reached approximately 16. Pre-dosing the rats with WAY-100635 (2 mg/kg) reduced this ratio to one, whereas similar pre-dosing with citalopram (5-HT uptake site inhibitor), prazosin (alpha 1A-adrenoceptor antagonist) or idazoxan (alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist) caused little or no reduction. Substantial (77%) blockade of [3H]WAY-100635 binding was achieved with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), and the partial agonists, ipsapirone and buspirone. Thus, the properties of WAY-100635 are such that, when labelled with carbon-11, it could provide a radioligand suitable for clinical and pharmacological investigations of central 5-HT1A receptors in man using PET.

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A capillary electrophoretic method for the enantiomeric separations of doxazosin and its intermediate was developed. Several tetraalkylammonium reagents were examined for controlling the electroosmotic flow in order to improve resolution of the enantiomers. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMB) was found more suitable than tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TAB) or hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) for the enantiomer separation. In addition, the effects of the pH value, the separation voltage and the concentration of the sodiumdihydrogen phosphate on the chiral separation were investigated. A buffer containing 60 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 2.2), 30 mmol/L TMB and 12 mmol/L beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) resulted in the baseline separation of the doxazosin enantiomers and its intermediate enantiomers. It showed that the presence of TMB was essential in some chiral separations that were previously not achieved by only using the beta-CD as a chiral selector.

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1 The hypothesis that the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic excitatory (NANC-e) innervation is involved in the induction of asthma and that antagonists of NANC-e neurotransmitter could reduce bronchoconstriction during asthma was tested. 2 The first objective was to identify the neurotransmitter(s) of NANC-e innervation from a group of selected putative neurotransmitters. The second objective was to use the antagonist of the identified neurotransmitter(s) to determine its effectiveness against bronchoconstriction to ovalbumin (OVA) in sensitized guinea-pigs. 3 Neurotransmitter identification was performed using the "tracheal pouch"', a surgical preparation established for demonstrating NANC innervation, in anaesthetized guinea-pig airways. A segment of trachea was cannulated and clamped at one end and the other end was connected to a pressure transducer. The stump of the trachea was connected to a ventilator to keep the blood gas values within the normal range. The vagus nerve and the sympathetic nerves were isolated bilaterally and cut. The left carotid artery was cannulated to monitor blood pressure and for sampling blood for blood gas analysis. The jugular vein was cannulated for administration of test agents. 4 Both NANC-e and NANC-i (inhibitory) control responses of airways were obtained by bilateral vagal stimulation after complete autonomic blockade with atropine, propranolol and prazosin. The relaxation of the tracheal pouch was indicative of the NANC-i response and the increase in insufflation pressure of the ventilated peripheral airways was due to NANC-e stimulation. 5 The involvement of the putative neurotransmitters such as neurokinin-A (NK-A), histamine, serotonin and endothelin (ET) was investigated by using the respective antagonists, MEN-10376, pyrilamine maleate, cyproheptadine hydrochloride, and two ET receptor antagonists (BQ-123 and IRL-1038), respectively. The antagonists were administered at the dose rate of 4 mg kg-1 i.v. which was determined from preliminary studies by testing against the respective agonists. 6 MEN-10376 (neurokinin-2 receptor antagonist) significantly inhibited the insufflation pressure (peripheral airway pressure) increase caused by NANC-e stimulation. MEN-10376 also inhibited the fall in blood pressure caused by bilateral vagal stimulation. The 5-HT antagonist, cyproheptadine, significantly enhanced the NANC-e response. 7 After identifying the NANC-e neurotransmitter as NK-A, the effectiveness of its antagonist, MEN-10376, was evaluated for its ability to attenuate the increase in insufflation pressure (bronchoconstriction) induced in guinea-pigs sensitized by OVA. Guinea-pigs were sensitized to OVA (200 mg i.p.) and 10 days later prepared for the determination of tracheal pouch and insufflation responses to 100 microg of OVA administered i.v. (challenge dose). This caused an increase in insufflation pressure in the presence of adrenergic and cholinergic blockade, which was significantly attenuated by MEN-10376. 8 These studies indicated that neurokinin-2 receptors were involved in the vagally mediated efferent neurotransmission of NANC-e and that NANC-e plays a role in allergen-induced bronchoconstriction.

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Results obtained in this study suggest the involvement of opioidergic, serotonergic and nitric oxide-l-arginine pathways in the analgesic effect of butanol leaf fraction of Olax subscorpioidea.

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Neurochemical and clinical studies indicate involvement of noradrenergic (NE) neurotransmitter system in the actions of methamphetamine.

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A series of experiments by our group suggest that the initiation and development of neurogenic inflammation in rats are mainly mediated by dorsal root reflexes (DRRs), which are conducted centrifugally from the spinal dorsal horn in primary afferent nocieptors. In this study, DRRs were recorded in anesthetized rats from single afferent fibers in the proximal ends of cut dorsal root filaments at the L4-L6 level and tested for responses to intradermal injection of capsaicin. Sympathectomy combined with pharmacological manipulations were employed to determine if the capsaicin-evoked enhancement of DRRs was subject to sympathetic modulation. DRRs could be recorded from both myelinated (Abeta and Adelta) and unmyelinated (C) afferent fibers. After capsaicin was injected intradermally into the plantar foot, a significant enhancement of DRRs was seen in C- and Adelta-fibers but not in Abeta-fibers. This enhancement of DRRs evoked by capsaicin injection was almost completely prevented by sympathectomy. However, if peripheral alpha1-adrenoceptors were activated by intra-arterial injection of phenylephrine, the enhancement of DRRs evoked by capsaicin could be restored, whereas no such restoration was seen following pretreatment with an alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, UK14,304. Under sympathetically intact conditions, the enhanced DRRs following capsaicin injection could be blocked by administration of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not by administration of yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist. These results provide further evidence that the DRR-mediated neurogenic inflammation depends in part on intact sympathetic efferents acting on peripheral alpha1-adrenoceptors, which augment the sensitization of primary afferent nociceptors induced by capsaicin injection, helping trigger DRRs that produce vasodilation.

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Clonidine, when administered to dogs that were under autonomic blockade, elicited a dose-dependent increase in blood pressure. The doses of clonidine required to induce a 50% maximum increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures remained unchanged after 9 weeks of a high-fat diet (systolic: 6.0 +/- 0.3 microg/kg at baseline and 5.6 +/- 0.2 microg/kg after 9 weeks; diastolic: 4.2 +/- 0.2 microg/kg at baseline and 3.9 +/- 0.2 microg/kg after 9 weeks). After 9 weeks of the regimen, plasma concentrations of noradrenaline were significantly greater in the HFD group than in controls (337 +/- 22 pg/ml compared with 212 +/- 37 pg/ml). The increment in plasma concentrations of noradrenaline elicited by yohimbine after 9 weeks was smaller in the HFD group than in controls (93 +/- 44% compared with 181 +/- 46%; P = 0.024). In the HFD group, the number of platelet alpha2-adrenoceptors and the percentage that were in a state of high affinity were significantly lower after 9 weeks, compared with baseline (number: 239 +/- 21 fmol/mg protein at baseline and 95 +/- 7 fmol/mg protein after 9 weeks; high-affinity: 30 +/- 3% at baseline and 21 +/- 4% after 9 weeks; P < 0.05).

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Contractile responses to agonists, adrenaline and A-61603 (alpha(1A)-selective) were significantly increased in ischaemic arteries compared to those in non-ischaemic arteries. Receptor inactivation studies indicated an increase in the alpha-adrenoceptor reserve in the ischaemic arteries but the affinity of noradrenaline was unaffected. Healthy subcutaneous arteries had a similar noradrenaline affinity but a higher receptor reserve than skeletal muscle arteries. In the ischaemic arteries, the antagonists prazosin (alpha(1)-selective), 5-methyl-urapidil (alpha(1A)-selective) and BMY 7378 (alpha(1D)-selective) produced rightward shifts in the concentration response curves (CRCs) of noradrenaline giving pK(B)s of 9.6+/-0.3, 8.4+/-0.2 and 7.1+/-0.4, respectively. Pretreatment with 10 microM chloroethylclonidine decreased the contractile responses to noradrenaline and A-61603 to 57+/-7 and 72+/-4% of their respective controls.

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Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) has been isolated and characterized by its capacity to enhance delta sleep in rabbits. Up to now, sleep was the main target of DSIP research, but different extra-sleep effects of the peptide have been reported as well. Several mechanisms of action have been proposed, though no convincing evidence for any of them has been obtained so far. We recently detected that DSIP reduced the nocturnal increase of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity in rat pineal in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of this enzyme is known to be induced by adrenergic agonists and several studies have suggested that stimulation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors potentiates the "basic" effect of beta-receptors. DSIP in the range between 20 and 300 nM significantly enhanced NAT activity induced by 10(-6) M norepinephrine in vitro, and a similar effect was observed with 2nMP-DSIP, a phosphorylated analog. Incubation with prazosin eliminated the enhancement, whereas propranolol reduced norepinephrine stimulation that was still increased by P-DSIP and probably DSIP. It was concluded that the sleep-peptide and its analog modulate the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor of rat pineal in its response to adrenergic agonists. The same mechanism may also be responsible for other biological activities of DSIP such as sleep-induction and stress-tolerance.

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A retrospective chart review of men with SCI at or above T6, who used reflex voiding for bladder management and had upper tract stasis diagnosed by renal scan. Inclusion was based on the availability of the following tests both before and after alpha1-receptor blockade: renal scan, urodynamic studies, and arterial pressures. Part I evaluated the impact of alpha1-blockers on upper tract stasis. Part II evaluated the impact of alpha1-blockers on urodynamic parameters in those with and without resolution of stasis.

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The alkaloid lobeline inhibits the function of vesicular monoamine and dopamine transporters and diminishes the behavioral and neurochemical effects of nicotine and amphetamines. In the present study, we examined the interaction of systemic administration of lobeline on breakpoint scores on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Rats were run in two 30 min sessions, separated by a 10 min timeout period. At the end of the first session, each rat was injected with either 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg (i.p.) lobeline. Positive controls known to suppress and to augment ICSS responding included the adrenergic antagonist prazosin (0, 0.5 and 2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and the psychostimulant cocaine (0, 1.25, and 5.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Analyses of changes in average PR breakpoint scores between the 2 sessions revealed that lobeline significantly suppressed PR scores at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, as did 0.5 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg prazosin. These changes are unlikely to reflect motoric effects of these drugs inasmuch as neither lobeline nor prazosin alter locomotion at these doses. In contrast, PR breakpoint scores were significantly increased at 5.0 mg/kg cocaine, a dose that is sufficient to elevate locomotion in the rat. These results are consistent with the view that lobeline modulates brain reinforcement processes.

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Despite little available evidence to determine whether recently introduced selective α-1 blockers and 5-α reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) are superior to the existing agents in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), they are being increasingly prescribed.

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minipress 6 mg 2016-01-26

Three different intensities of swim stress produced stress-induced antinociception (SIA) in mice which was assessed either by the reduction in the number of abdominal constrictions produced by acetic acid or by an increase in reaction time on a hot-plate. The involvement of alpha-adrenoceptors in the three models of SIA was investigated using selective antagonists. SIA produced by the mild stress of a 30 s warm water swim was attenuated by idazoxan (0.5-1 mg kg-1), and by yohimbine at a buy minipress dose (1 mg kg-1) which reduced antinociception produced by clonidine (12.5-50 micrograms kg-1). Indoramin (1-2 mg kg-1) did not affect this model of SIA, but reversed phenylephrine induced inhibition of the constrictions. A 3 min room temperature swim increased reaction times on the hot-plate and this naloxone-sensitive SIA was reduced significantly by prazosin (1-2 mg kg-1), idazoxan (0.5-1 mg kg-1) and yohimbine (0.5-1 mg kg-1) but enhanced by clonidine (0.5 mg kg-1) and noradrenaline (NA) (10 micrograms i.c.v.). Mice treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (60 + 60 micrograms i.c.v.) were hypersensitive to the hot-plate and did not develop SIA. Levels of noradrenaline in the brain (minus the cerebellum) were decreased after the room temperature swim SIA. The most severe stress of a cold water swim produced SIA on the hot-plate which was initially naloxone-insensitive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

minipress dosage 2017-08-28

It has been demonstrated that hyperproduction of nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in the vasodilatation of cirrhosis; thus, the vasodilatation might be reversed by an inhibition of NO production. Experimental studies in isolated aortic rings showed that naftazone inhibits the effects of NO production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haemodynamic effects of acute and chronic administration of naftazone in rats with portal hypertension. Haemodynamic values were measured either before and 10 min after intravenous administration of 432 microg/kg of naftazone or after 4 days of oral administration of 10 mg/kg per day. buy minipress Acute administration of naftazone significantly reduced portal pressure in portal vein-stenosed and cirrhotic rats. This reduction was related to a decrease in the resistance of the liver and collateral circulation and it was associated with an increased cardiac output. Oral administration of naftazone significantly decreased portal pressure in rats with portal vein stenosis; this decrease depended on a significant reduction of portal blood flow. In both groups, arterial pressure did not change significantly. These haemodynamic effects differed from those observed following prazosin or propranolol administration. However, these effects were similar but less marked than those observed following N-nitro-L-arginine administration in systemic and splanchnic arterial territories. In conclusion, acute and oral administration of naftazone significantly reduces portal pressure by two different mechanisms in portal hypertensive rats. The exact mechanism has, however, to be elucidated.

minipress medication 2015-09-21

Small intestine was taken from the caudal flexure of the duodenum and the terminal ileum proximal to the ileocaecal fold of 25 horses, 9 with acute grass sickness (AGS), 12 with subacute grass buy minipress sickness (SAGS) and 12 with chronic grass sickness (CGS). The motility in the samples was measured isometrically either within 1 h of death or after storage for 24 h at 4 degree C. In control tissue, noradrenaline produced contractions of muscle strips which did not involve a muscarinic cholinergic mechanism and which were unaffected by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin but were blocked by the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine. Pretreatment with the alpha antagonist phentolamine prevented the contractile response to noradrenaline and the background contractions either continued at a reduced rate and amplitude or were abolished after a few minutes. Thus, following alpha blockade, noradrenaline reduced the background contraction rate by an effect on inhibitory beta adrenoceptors. The rate of background contractions in duodenal preparations was significantly greater than that in control ideal preparations. Although cold storage for 24 h caused a reduction in the background contraction rates of the control preparations, there was no effect on the contractile responses to noradrenaline, the associated pharmacology being similar to that of fresh tissue. This suggests that noradrenaline-evoked contraction was not dependent on enteric neural elements. The response to noradrenaline by grass sickness-affected tissue was generally similar to that of tissue from control horses, with an immediate contraction which was alpha 2 sensitive. The contractile response to noradrenaline after propranolol was significantly reduced in the CGS group and there were significant differences between the AGS, CGS and control groups. There was a significant difference between the ileal preparations from the control and SAGS groups in their response to noradrenaline following pretreatment with propranolol.

minipress drug 2016-01-02

1. The effects of the alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists, prazosin and yohimbine, have been examined on the isometric contraction of the rabbit pulmonary artery produced by alpha 1-adrenoreceptor agonists. Cocaine, corticosterone and propranolol were present throughout and either a single or two concentration-response curve method was used. 2. Prazosin and yohimbine competitively antagonized the responses to agonists but did not reveal differences between agonists. 3. Using the single concentration-response curve method, prazosin had pA2 values of 9.06 against clonidine and 8.76 against methoxamine. 4. Using the two concentration-response curve method the absolute pA2 values of prazosin (8.65 against phenylephrine, 8.78 against clonidine) and yohimbine (5.73 against phenylephrine, 5.72 against clonidine), as well as the relative potencies of the two antagonists (prazosin approximately 1000 times more potent than yohimbine), suggest that both agonists act on alpha 1-adrenoreceptors. 5. There is no evidence from this study to support buy minipress the suggestion that the rabbit pulmonary artery contains two subtypes of alpha 1-adrenoreceptor.

minipress generic name 2016-12-30

The association between antihypertensive medications and depression has been recognised for over 40 years. More recently, our understanding of the role of neurotransmitters in the aetiology of depression has helped us understand how antihypertensive drugs cause depression. Biogenic amine depletion is now believed to underlie the organic nature of depression, and many of the drugs used to treat hypertension interfere with this system. There is now compelling evidence that buy minipress both reserpine and alpha-methyldopa can induce or worsen depression through their actions on the central nervous system. beta-Blockers have also been implicated, but the data supporting the link between these drugs and depression are not as certain. Guanethidine, clonidine, hydralazine, and prazosin appear to pose little risk in causing depression, although rare occurrences have been reported. Diuretics, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors appear to have the lowest association with depression and are therefore the drugs of choice when depression is a risk. Physicians should know which drugs introduce the risk of causing or worsening depression. The wide array of medications now available to treat hypertension offers alternatives that pose low risk. All patients receiving medication to treat hypertension should be evaluated periodically for depression, and if depression occurs, medication should be suspected as playing a role in its aetiology.

minipress nightmares dosage 2016-02-04

The purpose of this study was to determine the potency and selectivity of the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist terazosin based on relationships between plasma buy minipress concentrations and blockade of intraurethral pressure (IUP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses after single dosing and to determine cumulative effects after repeated dosing. To this end, the relationships between plasma concentrations and blockade effects of terazosin on phenylephrine (PE)-induced IUP and MAP were evaluated in conscious male beagle dogs after single (0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg) and repeated (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) daily oral dosing of terazosin. Blockade effects and plasma concentrations were evaluated at selected times for periods of < or = 24 hr. Terazosin produced dose-dependent antagonism of PE-induced IUP and MAP responses. When IUP and MAP blockade effects were plotted against terazosin plasma concentration, direct relationships were observed that were well described by the sigmoidal maximal effect model and resulted in IUP and MAP IC50 values of 48.6 and 12.2 ng/ml, respectively. Repeated daily dosing resulted in little accumulation of terazosin in plasma and demonstrated consistent blockade responses over 7 days. MAP blockade was observed up to 23 hr after terazosin administration, whereas IUP blockade returned to control levels before 23 hr. Combined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis showed no selective antagonism of IUP by terazosin but may provide a useful way to show uroselectivity of novel agents.

tab minipress dose 2017-02-28

Treatment with doxazosin resulted buy minipress in sustained benefits for BPH patients over the whole study period, with significant improvements in the severity (12.2%, P < 0.001) and bothersomeness (13.2%, P < 0.001) of BPH symptoms, and in the maximum urinary flow rate (26.6%, P < 0.05) from baseline to the end of the 4-year period. There was also a significant and sustained reduction in diastolic blood pressure. The efficacy of doxazosin treatment for both BPH and hypertension was maintained over the 4-year period, despite the tendency of these conditions to worsen with time. Comparison of adverse events in patients with long- and short-term hypertension and BPH demonstrates that the safety of doxazosin is not altered during long-term therapy.

minipress user reviews 2017-07-24

The effects of, and interaction between, noradrenaline and alpha,beta-methylene ATP upon polyphosphoinositide (PPI) breakdown, investigated by measuring the accumulation of inositol phosphates, and contraction, were studied in tail arteries from normo- (WKY) and spontaneously-hypertensive (SHR) rats. Noradrenaline (10(-7)-10(-3) M) evoked a prazosin (10(-6) M)-sensitive, concentration-dependent increase buy minipress in total inositol phosphate accumulation in both WKY and SHR rats. No significant differences were observed in either the maximal response or in the concentration range over which noradrenaline evoked this response, between these two populations. Noradrenaline (5 x 10(-7)-5 x 10(-5) M) evoked a concentration-dependent contraction of arteries from both SHR and WKY rats. The responses to noradrenaline were about 2-fold greater at all effective concentrations of noradrenaline in SHR compared with WKY rats. alpha,beta-Methylene ATP (10(-6) M) did not alter noradrenaline-stimulated total inositol phosphate accumulation, in arteries from either SHR or WKY rats, measured either as the maximal response or as the EC50. alpha,beta-Methylene ATP (5 x 10(-6) M), by itself, evoked a contractile response, which was quantitatively similar in SHR and WKY rats, and was additive with the contractile responses to noradrenaline (5 x 10(-7)-5 x 10(-5) M). The maximum response produced by a combination of noradrenaline and alpha,beta-Methylene ATP was quantitatively similar to that produced by noradrenaline alone. No evidence of synergism between alpha,beta-Methylene ATP and noradrenaline upon contraction was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

minipress overdose death 2015-06-02

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective first-line buy minipress agents for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but treatment is associated with a range of side effects that limit treatment adherence. Prazosin, an α1-noradrenergic antagonist with a half-life of roughly 2-3 hours, has shown promise in the treatment of sleep disturbance and nightmares. Doxazosin extended release (XL) is also an α1-noradrenergic antagonist but with a half-life of approximately 15-19 hours.

minipress capsules 2016-08-25

BIMT 17 (1-[2-[4-(3-trifluoromethyl phenyl) piperazin-1-yl] ethyl] benzimidazol- [1H]-2-one), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist/5-HT2A receptor antagonist (see Borsini et al., accompanying paper), in a dose range of 1-10 mg/kg i.v., dose-dependently inhibited the electrical activity of rat medial prefronto-cortical neurons, whereas buspirone, in a dose range of 0.1-1000 micrograms/kg, increased it. 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and 1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]-4-[1-(7-methoxynaphthyl)] piperazine (S 14671) presented biphasic patterns of response; they increased electrical activity at doses in the range of 0.1-10 micrograms/kg and 0.1-3 micrograms/kg i.v. respectively, and reduced it at high doses, 30-300 micrograms/kg and 10-30 micrograms/kg i.v., respectively. The inhibitory effect of BIMT 17 on the firing rate of neurons in the frontal cortex was antagonized by the 5-HT1A antagonists tertatolol and WAY 100135, and was still present after destruction of serotonin (5-HT) containing neuronal endings by the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT; 150 micrograms/rat, given intraventricularly), which reduced the cortical 5-HT content by 85%. This destruction of 5-HT neurons, while suppressing the ability of 8-OH-DPAT to inhibit the firing rate at high doses, did not change the excitatory action of this compound at low doses. The addition of ritanserin, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, potentiated both the excitatory and buy minipress inhibitory effects of 8-OH-DPAT on neuronal electrical activity. Direct microiontophoretic application (100 nA/20 s) of 5-HT and BIMT 17, but not that of 8-OH-DPAT, onto medial prefronto-cortical neurons, decreased the firing rate of these neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

minipress cost 2015-02-10

To analyze the role of the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the female reproductive system to modulate ovarian steroidogenesis and its relationship with alpha(1)adrenergic receptors buy minipress .

minipress max dose 2016-12-19

To clarify the role of noradrenergic pathways in preventing stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during sneezing, we investigated the effect of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor nisoxetine and alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine (nonspecific blocker) and prazosin (alpha(1)-receptor-selective blocker) on the neurally evoked urethral continence reflex induced by sneezing in rats. The amplitude of urethral pressure responses during sneezing (A-URS), urethral baseline pressure (UBP) at the midurethra, and sneeze-induced leak point pressure (S-LPP) were measured in normal female adult rats and rats with SUI induced by vaginal distention (VD). In normal rats, intrathecal (it) phentolamine (0.02 nmol) and prazosin (0 buy minipress .02 nmol) decreased A-URS by 11.9 and 15.7%, respectively, without affecting UBP. In both normal and VD rats, intravenous (iv) application of nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) increased A-URS by 17.2 and 18.3% and UBP by 23.7 and 32.7%, respectively. Phentolamine or prazosin (both it) eliminated nisoxetine-induced increases in A-URS, but not the increases in UBP, which were, however, suppressed by iv phentolamine (5 mg/kg) or prazosin (1 mg/kg). Sneezing induced fluid leakage from the urethral orifice in VD rats, but not in normal rats. In VD rats, S-LPP was increased by 30.2% by iv nisoxetine. Application of phentolamine and prazosin (both it) decreased S-LPP by 15.7 and 20.6%, respectively, and nisoxetine induced increases in S-LPP to 13.2 and 12.3%, respectively. These results indicate that activation of the noradrenergic system by a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor can prevent SUI via alpha(1-)adrenoceptors by enhancing the sneeze-induced active urethral closure mechanism at the spinal level and augmenting UBP at the periphery.

minipress overdose 2017-10-15

Doxazosin and terazosin are known to relax prostate smooth muscle through blockade of alpha 1-adrenergic innervation to the prostate. This action alone however does not fully account for the long-term clinical responses exerted by these drugs in the buy minipress treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

minipress xl tablets 2015-10-16

Electrical stimulation of the buy minipress afferent sciatic nerve produces reflex mydriasis in anesthetized rats. The alpha 2-antagonist idazoxan (10-100 micrograms/kg i.v.) inhibited this reflex in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, the alpha 1-antagonist prazosin (30-300 micrograms/kg i.v.), produced a dose-related enhancement of the reflex. Single dose administration of the alpha 2-antagonists yohimbine (3.0 mg/kg i.v.), rauwolscine (3.0 mg/kg i.v.) and idazoxan (1.0 mg/kg) also blocked the reflex, whereas the alpha 1-antagonists phenoxybenzamine (3.0 mg/kg i.v.), corynanthine (1.0 mg/kg i.v.) and prazosin (1.0 mg/kg i.v.) potentiated this response. These studies demonstrate that alpha 2-antagonists block and alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists potentiate alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of oculomotor tone.

minipress 1mg tablet 2016-08-02

Evidence suggests that there may be differences in the incidence of drug-induced sexual dysfunction among the antihypertensive agents. This study assessed objective and subjective aspects of sexual dysfunction in hypertensive male patients in relation to two antihypertensive agents--prazosin and hydrochlorothiazide. A total of 12 hypertensive patients were evaluated in a crossover study utilizing a sleep laboratory to obtain polysomnographic evaluations of sleep patterns along with changes in nocturnal penile tumescence and buckling pressure. Objectively, no significant changes were observed between the two antihypertensive agents in relation to rapid eye movement-related sleep architecture, serum testosterone levels, or penile blood flow. Decrements in buckling pressure and subjective aspects of sexual dysfunction were greater Norvasc Dosing Information during hydrochlorothiazide treatment than during prazosin treatment. Both drugs were effective in controlling blood pressure.

tab minipress dosage 2016-12-11

The antihypertensive efficacy and safety of doxazosin, a selective alpha 1-inhibitor, were assessed in 23 hypertensive patients with renal insufficiency. The study involved three phases: (1) a 2-week baseline period, (2 Voltaren Max Buy ) a 10-week period during which patients received doxazosin, 1 to 16 mg, once daily, and (3) a 4-week maintenance period. After 14 weeks of active treatment, systolic/diastolic blood pressures of efficacy evaluable patients were reduced by 8.9/9.2 and 4.6/9.1 mm Hg to final values of 153/90 and 149/91 mm Hg in the supine and standing positions, respectively. The mean dose of the efficacy evaluable patients was 9.8 mg/day. Eleven patients experienced one or more side effects, most of which were mild or moderate and disappeared or were tolerated with continued therapy. No clinically significant laboratory changes were apparent, and no trends were observed with regard to organ systems or correlations with dose or duration of treatment. There were no significant differences in serum creatinine levels between baseline and final visits. The overall lipid profile indicated a decrease in total cholesterol with increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the high-density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio. From baseline to final visit there was a highly significant reduction of 19% (p less than 0.05) in calculated risk scores for coronary heart disease on the basis of the Framingham equation.

minipress tablets 2017-03-30

We studied the effect of the alpha 1-adrenolytic prazosine on dense cultures of hepatocytes, which are normally characterized by the protein synthesis rhythm, and diluted cultures, in which such a rhythm is revealed after external synchronization. Exogenous gangliosides (a fraction of the total gangliosides of the bovine Prograf Medication Interactions brain) then synchronize the rhythm in diluted cultures; this effect is also displayed in the presence of 10(-7) M prazosine. The synchronizing effect of the medium conditioned by dense cultures was also preserved in the presence of prazosine. In the dense cultures that don't normally require external synchronization, prazosine affected intensified the rhythmic patter of changes in the protein synthesis. After a total of 0.3 microM gangliosides were introduced in the medium with prazosine-pretreated dense cultures, the protein synthesis rhythm was visualized. We propose that, while blocking adrenoreceptors, prazosine does not prevent the action of exogenous synchronizing factors on the hepatocytes, but inhibits the release of such factors from the cell.

minipress xl dose 2017-12-27

This study demonstrates the involvement of the alpha1-AR in NADPH oxidase activation and in cocaine-induced LV dysfunction. We suggest that alpha1-AR stimulation, at least in part via Buy Luvox Online NADPH oxidase induction, plays a critical role in the events leading to the cardiomyopathy observed after cocaine abuse.

minipress 4 mg 2017-04-12

In this work we studied the possible interaction between cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic) and adrenergic (alpha 1- and beta-adrenergic) pathways of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus on the regulation of arterial pressure and heart rate in conscious normotensive rats. Mean arterial pressure and heart Celebrex 400 Dosage rate were recorded in rats with cerebral chronic stainless steel cannulae implanted directly into the ventromedial nucleus. The changes in arterial pressure and heart rate produced by the injection of the cholinergic agonist (carbachol or nicotine) into the ventromedial nucleus were studied before and after the injection of prazosin (an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist) or propranolol (a beta-adrenergic antagonist) into this same area. The injection of carbachol (2 nmol) or nicotine (40 mmol) into the ventromedial nucleus induced pressor and tachycardia responses. Previous treatment with prazosin or propranolol blocked the pressor response to carbachol and nicotine. Propranolol also abolished the tachycardic response to carbachol or nicotine, but prazosin reduced only the tachycardia produced by carbachol into the ventromedial nucleus. These results show an interaction between cholinergic and adrenergic pathways of the ventromedial nucleus affecting cardiovascular regulation and suggest that the alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors of this nucleus are involved in these responses.

minipress reviews 2017-12-28

The non-opiate analgesic nefopam has been shown to inhibit monoamines uptake, but little is known about receptor subtypes effectively involved in its analgesic effect. In vitro binding assays yielded the following measures of affinity (IC(50)): serotonergic 5-HT(2C) (1.4 microM), 5-HT(2A) (5.1 microM), 5-HT(3) (22.3 microM), 5-HT(1B) (41.7 microM), 5-HT(1A) (64.9 microM), adrenergic alpha(1) (15.0 microM) and dopaminergic D(1) (100 microM). Subcutaneous nefopam administration dose-dependently inhibited pain in acetic acid-induced writhing (1-30 mg kg(-1)) and formalin (1-10 mg kg(-1)) tests in the mouse. Pretreatments with adrenergic alpha(1) (prazosin) and alpha(2) (yohimbine), and serotonergic 5-HT(1B) (GR127935) receptor antagonists significantly increased the nefopam ED(50) in the writhing test. The serotonergic 5-HT(2C) (RS102221) and the dopaminergic D(2) (sulpiride) receptor antagonists inhibited nefopam antinociception in the formalin test. However, in both tests, nefopam analgesic activity was not modified by the following receptor antagonists: dopaminergic D(1) (SCH23390), serotonergic 5-HT(1A) (NAN-190, WAY100635), 5-HT(2A) (R96544, ketanserin), 5-HT(3) (tropisetron), Vasotec 5mg Tablet and 5-HT(4) (SDZ205557). In conclusion, nefopam analgesic activity could be modulated by the adrenergic alpha(1) and alpha(2) receptors, the dopaminergic D(2) receptors, and the serotonergic 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2C) receptor subtypes.

minipress xl drug 2015-07-20

It has been demonstrated that insulin resistance is associated with morning Effexor 4 Mg hypertension. We investigated the hypothesis that the lowering of morning blood pressure (BP) can improve insulin resistance in patients with morning hypertension.