Moduretic is used for treating fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure. It may be used alone or with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide.
Moduretic is a diuretic (water pill) and a combination of a potassium-sparing diuretic (amiloride) and a thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide). It works by making the kidneys eliminate sodium (salt) and water from the body, which helps to lower blood pressure. The amiloride component helps minimize potassium loss.
Brand name of Moduretic is Moduretic.
Take Moduretic by mouth with food.
Moduretic may increase the amount of urine or cause you to urinate more often when you first start taking it. To keep this from disturbing your sleep, try to take your dose before 6 pm.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Moduretic suddenly.
If you overdose Moduretic and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not freeze. Keep container closed tightly. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Moduretic are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Moduretic if you are allergic to Moduretic components or to any ingredient in Moduretic or any other sulfonamide (eg, sulfamethoxazole).
Be careful with Moduretic if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Be careful with Moduretic if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful with Moduretic if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.
Be careful with Moduretic if you have cirrhosis or liver problems, diabetes, gout, kidney problems or kidney stones, asthma, heart problems, or systemic lupus erythematosus.
Be careful with Moduretic if you have elevated blood acid, low folic acid levels, or electrolyte problems, or are dehydrated.
Be careful with Moduretic if you take potassium-sparing diuretics (eg, spironolactone), potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium because high blood potassium levels may occur and cause listlessness, confusion, abnormal skin sensations of the arms and legs, heaviness of limbs, slowed heart rate, irregular heart rhythm, or stopping of the heart; cholestyramine or colestipol because they may decrease Moduretic 's effectiveness; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, indomethacin) because they may decrease Moduretic 's effectiveness and risk of kidney problems may be increased; barbiturates (eg, phenobarbital), certain chemotherapy medicines, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), digoxin, dofetilide, ketanserin, narcotic pain medicines (eg, codeine), or medicines for high blood pressure because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Moduretic; diazoxide, lithium, or nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers (eg, pancuronium) because their actions and the risk of their side effects may be increased by Moduretic; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril) because the risk of high blood potassium and kidney problems may be increased by Moduretic; diabetes medicines (eg, glipizide) or insulin because their effectiveness may be decreased by Moduretic.
Do not stop taking Moduretic suddenly.
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Physicians' prescribing of anti-hypertensive drug combinations in a tertiary care setting in southwestern Nigeria is considerable. However, this practice does not appear to have positively impacted on blood pressure control among hypertensive patients nor being modulated by an Institutionalised standard guide.
The authors have performed a between-patient study in 76 patients with mild or moderate essential arterial hypertension, with the aim of comparing the results of atenolol 100 mg daily, hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg + amiloride 5 mg 1 tablet daily, and the combination of the above two agents at the same daily doses. Thirty-one patients received the free combination diuretic-beta-blocker throughout the study period; 26 patients non-responders to atenolol 100 mg daily (supine diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg) after a one-month treatment period received the above combination for a further four months; and 19 patients non-responders to hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg + amiloride 5 mg, 1 tablet daily, after a one-month treatment period received the above combination for a further four months. In the patients who were non-responders to either atenolol or the diuretic, supine and upright blood pressure showed a further and clinically consistent decrease as a result of the combination therapy. A similar consistent decrease was seen in the patients receiving the combination therapy throughout the study. Plasma levels of glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and uric acid were not modified either by the single agents or during administration of the combination therapy. In particular, plasma potassium concentration did not show any statistical or clinical changes. Any side-effects were of little clinical importance and never required discontinuation of therapy. In conclusion, atenolol combined with hydrochlorothiazide + amiloride (100 mg + 50 mg + 5 mg) provides an effective and well tolerated blood pressure control in most patients with mild or moderate arterial hypertension, including non-responders to diuretic or beta-blocker alone.
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Prevalence of low-renin status in therapy resistance. Blood pressure and hormonal responses to specific treatment. Numbers of adrenocortical adenomas and primary aldosteronism.
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A national multicenter study (34 centers) compared six treatments in 328 patients with cirrhotic ascites. Excluded were patients with g.i. bleeding within the last six months, chronic encephalopathy, cancer, tuberculosis or the following complications persisting after three weeks: acute encephalopythy, fever greater than 38 degrees C, infected ascites or biochemical abnormalities: blood urea greater than 8 mmol/l, natremia less than 130 mmol/l, kaliemia less than 2.5 or greater than 5.5 mmol/l, WBC greater than 12000 mm3, total bilirubin greater than 85.5 mumol/l. In each center patients were randomized into two treatment groups, each center using 2 of 6 proposed treatments: (1) Spironolactone and 500 mg Na p.d (77 patients), (2) Spironolactone + furosemide or Moduretic (amiloride + hydrochlorothiazide) and 500 mg Na p.d (80 patients), (3) Spironolactone + Furosemide or Moduretic and unrestricted sodium diet (86 patients), (4) Concentrated ascites reinfusion and 500 mg Na p.d. (36 patients), (5) Unmodified ascites reinfusion and 500 mg Na p.d. (23 patients), (6) Slow ascites drainage and 500 mg Na p.d. (31 patients). Statistical analysis methods were X2, variance analysis and Spotvoll-Stoline and Dunn-Sidak tests. Before treatment, there was no significant difference between the 6 groups.
In 75 patients with circulatory insufficiency of various degree the diuretic effect of moduretic was studied. In 25 of them besides the potassium and sodium metabolism and in 33 others, with a background of chronic ischemic disease of the heart and hypertensive disease, the state of the hemocoagulation system was investigated in the moduretic medication. In 24 patients with hypertensive disease of the I--IIA stage subject to study was the effect of moduretic on the arterial pressure, with this drug administered by mouth in doses of 3 to 1/2 tablet a day. The drug proved to have a marked duretic effect in patients with different degree of circulatory insufficiency. It increases sodium excretion with urine and retains potassium in the organism, without causing hyperkaliemia. In patients with circulatory insufficiency of the I degree the drug can provoke thrombogenesis and in cases of the IIA, IIB and III degree may be considered a drug of choice. Moduretic brings down the systolic and diastolic pressure in patients with hypertensive disease of the I and II stages.
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This case highlights the need for thorough investigation of cases of hypertension to exclude specifically secondary causes, which in some cases may be endocrine in origin and may easily be corrected.
Patients were referred from general and internal medicine practices following written invitations and included consecutively. Participants were examined and followed-up on an outpatient basis.
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In an open two-period crossover study hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride and chlorthalidone were compared with regard to their anti-hypertensive and biochemical properties in ambulatory patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Twenty-five out of twenty-six patients completed the study. In the chlorthalidone group plasma potassium was consistently lower than in the hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride group, the difference achieved significance at 8 and 12 weeks after the start of treatment. With regard to the hypertension and other parameters no statistically significant differences were found.
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Moduretic has been reported to inhibit the suppression of plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels by the alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine. To determine whether plasma volume reduction by hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or antagonism of Na+/H+ exchange by amiloride (the constituents of Moduretic) is responsible, the authors performed a modified clonidine suppression test (CST) in nine normal volunteers (aged 25 +/- 2 years), pretreated for 1 week with HCTZ 50 mg daily, amiloride 10 mg daily, or placebo, in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Baseline characteristics were identical on all study days, except serum [K+] and weight, which were lowest on HCTZ (3.6 +/- 0.2 mEq/L and 78.7 +/- 2.5 kg), compared with amiloride (4.2 +/- 0.1 mEq/L and 79.9 +/- 2.4 kg) and placebo (4.0 +/- 0.1 mEq/L and 80.2 +/- 2.7 kg, P less than .05). Oral clonidine (0.3 mg) produced a reduction in mean blood pressure by about 20%. Plasma norepinephrine levels were similar in patients receiving placebo, HCTZ, and amiloride (205 +/- 18, 272 +/- 40 and 277 +/- 44 pg/mL, P greater than .20), and decreased significantly during CST. The maximal reduction for each subject averaged 72.7 +/- 12.4%, 87.9 +/- 3.8%, and 82.9 +/- 5.7% for placebo, HCTZ, and amiloride. Clonidine also produced a four to seven-fold increase in plasma growth hormone levels, reduced salivary flow by about 75%, and increased the level of sedation. There were no differences among the three pretreatment regimens in the effects of clonidine, indicating that diuretic therapy does not need to be systematically discontinued in patients undergoing CST.
A 47 year old Nigerian male presented with headache, occasional blurring of vision and dyspnoea on mild exertion of 2/12 duration. He had been troubled by painful osteoarthritis of the knees for 2 years for which he was taking NSAIDs. He was found to be severely hypertensive, BP 210/130mmHg and had bilateral knee crepitus. BP was resistant to control on Nifedipine R and Moduretic. Serum urea, creatinine, uric acid were normal but there was hyperacalcaemia and hyperchloraemia. Haematological indices, urinalysis, microscopy and culture of urine were normal. Parathyroid hormone level was raised. A parathyroid MIBI scan study showed an extensive area of significance towards the inferior pole of the right lobe of thyroid medially with a second area of very low significance medial to the left pole. These findings indicated the presence of a right inferior parathyroid adenoma. He had parathyroid surgery and a large adenoma in the right inferior gland and a smaller left inferior gland were removed and confirmed histologically. Corrected calcium and parathyroid hormone levels dropped to normal, and the BP was easily controlled with Lisinopril 5mg daily subsequently. He is not currently on antihypertensive medication two years post surgery.
No adverse effect upon cognitive function has been detected during the first 9 months of treatment by a thiazide diuretic (Moduretic; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Hoddesdon, UK) or a beta-blocking agent (atenolol) of moderately elevated blood pressure in a cohort of 2630 men and women aged between 65 and 74 years. Furthermore, no association was discovered between levels of systolic or diastolic blood pressure at outset and responses to standard tests of cognitive function. This study was carried out in general practices as part of the current Medical Research Council Treatment Trial of Mild Hypertension in the Elderly.
Three cases are presented which emphasize the importance of hyponatraemia as a cause of grand mal seizures. The combination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride appears to increase the risk of hyponatraemia. We discuss the aetiology and treatment of hyponatraemia and review the necessity for such combination therapy. We recommend caution in prescribing diuretics and preparations such as Moduretic should be used only in those few patients shown to need potassium supplementation.
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This open label randomised-controlled trial involved new-diagnosed male and female individuals with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension after at least four weeks of treatment. They were randomly assigned to drug therapy (Normoretic: Hydrochlorothiazide + amiloride hydrochloride, and Amlodipine) (control: n=33) and aerobic dance combined with drug therapy (exercise: n=30) groups. Intervention in each group lasted 12 weeks. BP was measured at baseline and during and pos-intervention. Number of antihypertensive drugs was recorded post-intervention.
This study aims to describe factors associated with cognitive decline among 2584 subjects, aged 65-74, who were followed up for 54 months in the Medical Research Council Elderly Hypertension Trial (1982-1989). The subjects completed a cognitive test, the Paired Associate Learning Test (PALT), five times over this period. Decline on the PALT was associated with advanced age, male sex, rural residence, depression and low intelligence. These effects were modified by gender and level of pre-morbid intelligence. Advanced age, rural residence and number of cigarettes smoked daily were only associated with PALT decline among women of below median intelligence. The association between depression and PALT decline was only apparent in women of below median intelligence and men of above median intelligence. While these findings are consistent with other research into cognitive decline, they differ in some ways from reported risk factors for dementia, suggesting aetiological separateness. That women were more vulnerable than men to the effects of age and smoking raises the question of the impact on cognition of accelerated atherosclerosis after the menopause.
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Rapid, precise, accurate and specific ratio spectra derivative spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures were described for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride hydrochloride in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms. For the first method, ratio spectra derivative spectrophotometry, the signals were measured at 285.7 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and at 302.5 nm for amiloride hydrochloride in the mixture, in the first derivative of the ratio spectra. The second method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on LiChrosorb RP-C18 column (5 microm, 20 cm x 4.6 mm) using 0.025 M orthophosphoric acid (adjusted to pH 3.0 with triethylamine (TEA)), acetonitrile (84:16 v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min(-1). Detection was carried out using a UV detector at 278.0 nm. Commercial sugar-coated and laboratory-prepared mixtures containing both drugs in different proportions were assayed using the developed methods.
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In a randomized double-blind study to compare the effect of atenolol vs. hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride (Moduretic) on left ventricular dimensions and systolic function, 100 hypertensive men were followed up during 1 year of treatment, 50 subjects being randomized to each drug. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, and after 3 and 12 months of treatment. A significant reduction in left ventricular mass with atenolol was paralleled by a decrease in left ventricular wall thickness and an increase in stroke volume. A similar reduction of left ventricular mass with Moduretic without a change in relative wall thickness and a decrease in stroke volume was observed. Cardiac output decreased in both groups.
Forty-four patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were entered in an open study to compare the efficacy and tolerability of the two diuretic combinations, frusemide (40 mg) plus amiloride (5 mg) and hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg) plus amiloride (5 mg), as first-line treatment. After a 2-week run-in period when no antihypertensive medication was given, patients were randomized to receive one or other combination at a dose of 1 tablet daily for 2 weeks. Patients either remained on this regimen for a further 8 weeks or, if their blood pressure was not controlled, dosage was increased to 2 tablets daily. In the latter case, patients were re-assessed after 2 weeks, and those who showed a positive response remained in the study for 8 additional weeks. In the 36 patients assessed (18 in each group), both treatments were found to reduce blood pressure effectively in a high percentage of patients treated. Hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride, however, caused a significant reduction in both plasma potassium and sodium levels whereas frusemide/amiloride did not. More adverse events were reported by patients taking frusemide/amiloride, but the majority of these were trivial.
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We report the history of a diabetic man presenting with hyperkalaemia and rapidly progressing muscular paralysis with severe respiratory embarrassment. His symptoms resolved rapidly with reduction of the serum potassium concentration. Similar cases have been reported previously but this is a problem that few will have encountered and is a diagnosis which should not be overlooked before artificial ventilation is commenced.
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In 90 treatment-resistant hypertensive, 67% had plasma renin activity (PRA) below 0.5 nmol/l per hour. Of the 60 low-renin patients, 38 were studied on a fixed combination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide. Three weeks' treatment reduced blood pressure by 31/15 mmHg compared to placebo (P < or = 0.0001). Serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity increased substantially during active treatment. Through the subsequent 6-12 months of open treatment, seven patients (18%) showing an escape phenomenon had their high blood pressure effectively treated by extra amiloride. Of the 60 low-renin patients, eight had adrenal adenoma.
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To estimate the frequency of diuretic-related electrolyte disorders in the elderly, 561 consecutive admissions to three acute geriatric units were studied. For the 287 admissions to one unit, discharge/death diagnoses were also examined in relation to admission diuretic therapy. Sodium concentrations were significantly lower, and urea and creatinine significantly higher, in patients on diuretics, though the size of the differences was small. Comparing different preparations sodium concentrations were significantly lower on Moduretic than on Dyazide or Navidrex K and on frusemide when combined with a potassium-retaining diuretic rather than a potassium supplement. Potassium concentrations were significantly lower on Bendrofluazide alone compared to Navidrex K or Moduretic. Diuretics were positively associated with cardiac failure, ischaemic heart disease, airflow obstruction and obstructive large bowel disorders but negatively with Parkinson's disease. No significant association was found with falls, immobility or confusion. Major electrolyte disorders on diuretics appear to be unusual but important differences exist between preparations. Similarly major illness resulting from diuretic therapy is rare but minor morbidity may be more common.
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Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by the kidney's inability to concentrate urine, which causes intense polyuria that may lead to urinary tract dilation. We report the morphological findings of the urinary tract in ten boys with NDI specifically addressing the presence and changes of urinary tract dilation during treatment.
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We here showed that F may be administered to a patient with previous AmHTZ induced hyponatremia without risk for recurrent hyponatremia.
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This study tested the effects on cardiovascular outcomes of treatments based on nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) compared with the diuretic combination co-amilozide in a pre-specified subset of patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) enrolled in the International Nifedipine GITS Study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) study.
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The anti-hypertensive effects of atenolol (Tenormin) 50 mg, a potassium-sparing diuretic (half-strength Moduretic) comprising hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg plus 2.5 mg amiloride hydrochloride, and the 'free' combination of atenolol and diuretic were compared in elderly hypertensive patients aged 60-79 years. After a four-week run-in period on placebo, patients were randomly assigned, in a double-blind manner, to atenolol or diuretic treatment, each for four weeks. Thereafter patients were given the 'free' combination for a further four weeks and this treatment was continued for six months. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after the patient had rested for five minutes supine and after two minutes standing. These blood pressure measurements were made at least 24 hours after the preceding dose using a Random Zero sphygmomanometer. Results from 26 of the 27 patients entered into the study showed an advantage for combination therapy combined with either atenolol or diuretic treatment alone. No significant difference was found between treatments in the frequency of supraventricular and ventricular ectopic beats occurring in six patients who underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. However, ectopic activity was reduced in some patients during beta-blocker treatment. Few adverse effects occurred with any treatment. Three patients withdrew during the placebo period and three withdrew while taking active treatment. This study has shown that the combination of atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride hydrochloride is an effective, safe, well-tolerated antihypertensive drug regimen when used once daily in elderly hypertensive patients.
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Patients were diagnosed at a median age of 1.6 years (range, 0.16-6.33 years) and treated with a low osmotic diet, hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride and indomethacin, which decreased the diuresis from a median of 10.5 ml/kg/h to 4.4 ml/kg/h (p < 0.001). Three patients showed normal renal ultrasound before treatment until last control, while the remaining seven showed urinary tract dilation. In this second group, dilation was reduced with treatment in four patients and disappeared in the remaining three. Children without dilation or in whom the dilation disappeared were diagnosed and treated earlier than those with persistent dilation (median 1.66 versus 4.45 years, respectively). After a median of 10.4 (range, 2.3-20.3) years of follow-up, no patients showed urological complications.
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Of 6321 randomized patients, 1498 (23.7%) had ISH with a baseline mean BP of 173/88 mmHg in both treatment groups. Mean BP fell by 29/10 mmHg in the nifedipine and 30/10 mmHg in the diuretic group to a mean BP of 144/78 mmHg and 143/79 mmHg, respectively, at endpoint. The percentage of primary outcomes in patients with ISH was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (nifedipine GITS 6.0%, co-amilozide 6.6%). The number of ISH patients with composite secondary outcomes was 90 (12.2%) in the nifedipine GITS group and 110 (14.5%) in the co-amilozide group (not significant). The incidence rates of primary and secondary outcomes were similar in patients without ISH.
The authors assessed in 24 men with stable angina pectoris, using means of ergometry, the antiischaemic and antianginose effects of a combination of the nitrate Iso-Mack retard and the diuretic Moduretic. The effects were compared with the effects of Iso-Mack retard administered alone and with the effects of placebo. The examination was made after a single dose of the drugs and after three-week administration. The authors revealed that a single dose of the diuretic significantly enhanced the effects of nitrate. During long-term administration the diuretic did not prevent a significant diminution of the nitrate effects. Finally the authors discuss possible mechanisms of development of tolerance for nitrates and possibilities how to influence this tolerance by a diuretic.
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Twenty hypertensive outpatients WHO stage I or II, with supine diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg at the end of a 4-week treatment period with atenolol (Tenormin) 100 mg daily, continued atenolol in free association with half a tablet of Moduretic (i.e., hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg + amiloride 2.5 mg) for a further 4 weeks. Atenolol monotherapy induced a drop of systolic blood pressure from 175.0 +/- 11 (mean +/- s.d.) mmHg to 158.7 +/- 6 mmHg (p less than 0.01), and of diastolic blood pressure from 113.5 +/- 8 mmHg to 102.7 +/- 5 mmHg (p less than 0.01). After 4 weeks with atenolol in association with half a tablet of Moduretic, systolic blood pressure further decreased to 145.7 +/- 8 mmHg (p less than 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure to 90.2 +/- 10 mmHg (p less than 0.01). Seven out of 20 patients remained with diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg despite the above combination therapy. In these patients, the doubling of diuretic dose (hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg + amiloride 5 mg) in combination with atenolol resulted in a further drop in systolic pressure (to 142.1 +/- 9 mmHg) and diastolic (to 92.1 +/- 6 mmHg) (both p less than 0.01). Plasma potassium concentration showed a slight and non-significant increase during atenolol monotherapy (from 4.4 +/- 0.5 mEq/l to 4.6 +/- 0.7 mEq/l; n.s.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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