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The pituitary prolactin (PRL) response to domperidone (DOM; a dopaminergic antagonist) and TRH administration in human males during different stages of sexual maturation was investigated. Dopaminergic blockade caused an immediate and significant PRL release in all subjects, regardless of the stage of pubertal development. Even though the mean values of peak PRL levels, magnitude of PRL response (delta PRL) and areas under the PRL curve were not significantly different among the different groups, all these parameters showed a clear tendency to increase in parallel to the stage of pubertal development, as indicated by significant positive correlations between age and pubertal stage of the subjects and the magnitude of their PRL response to DOM (r = 0.661, p less than 0.01 and r = 0.536, p = 0.01, respectively). Significant positive correlations also were found between the serum sex steroid hormone concentrations and the PRL response to dopaminergic blockade (r = 0.774, p = 0.02 and r = 0.554, p = 0.01, respectively). In contrast to these findings, no significant differences or tendencies were detected in the PRL responses to TRH among the different subject groups. The different patterns of PRL response to DOM and TRH throughout male puberty might be due to differences in pituitary thresholds for sex steroids between the dopamine- and TRH-dependent intracellular pools.
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A low dose of dopamine (1 microgram/min/kg) infused for 3 h, which is without systemic hemodynamic effects in normal subjects, increased the renal blood flow and renal production of prostacyclin (PGI2). This action was blocked by metoclopramide as well as by either of two cyclooxygenase (CO) blockers, but effects were not altered by administration of the alpha 1 blocker prazosin. Much of the effect of dopamine (DA) is apparently via the DA1 receptor, since fenoldopam (0.1 microgram/min/kg) reproduced these actions. However, although fenoldopam increased glomerular filtration rate and urinary Na+, CO blockers were without effect. In contrast neither DA or fenoldopam infusions changed either renal blood flow or PGI2 in a group of patients with essential hypertension. Renin secretion was shown to be increased via DA1 receptor activation both in humans and rat renal tissue. The DA2 receptor may also play a role since domperidone can reduce renal blood flow.
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We have tested this possibility by determining in Wistar rats how the orthostatic hypotensive effect of several antipsychotic drugs compares with their affinity for adrenoceptors in mesenteric small arteries (MSA with mainly alpha1A-AR) and aorta (mainly alpha1D-AR).
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The basal HF oscillatory component of vaginal blood flow was primarily vagally mediated, although could be modulated pharmacologically with p-chloroamphetamine in the absence of vagal innervation. The LF component could be modulated by antagonists of noradrenergic receptors but did not appear to be dependent upon tonic activation of sympathetic circuitry. The non-selective dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine induced changes in vaginal blood flow oscillations consistent with sexual arousal during metestrus in the presence of the peripheral antagonist domperidone but not in the presence of the centrally acting antagonist haloperidol. Electrical stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus induced an anti-arousal response in vaginal blood flow oscillations. These data demonstrated that manipulation of the central nervous system alone (via centrally acting apomorphine or electrical stimulation of the PVN) could produce either a pro-arousal or an anti-arousal response in vaginal blood flow oscillations. Alterations in the LF/HF ratio measured from vaginal laser Doppler flowmetry were independently regulated from vasculature in the trunk, the tongue, and electrocardiogram-derived heart rate variability, and were independent of overall vasocongestion of the vagina as measured by mean blood flow.
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We have studied the contribution of neuronal and postjunctional dopamine (DA) receptors and of the DA1 and DA2 receptor subtypes to the blood pressure effects of DA and bromocriptine in the rabbit. The norepinephrine release rate, i.e., the rate of entry of endogenous norepinephrine into the plasma, was derived from the plasma level of endogenous norepinephrine and the plasma [3H]norepinephrine clearance. Bromocriptine (40 micrograms kg-1) lowered the norepinephrine release rate and the arterial blood pressure both in anesthetized rabbits and in pithed rabbits with electrically stimulated sympathetic outflow. These effects were antagonized by the selective DA2 antagonist domperidone but not by the selective DA1 antagonist SCH 23390. DA (10-160 micrograms kg-1 min-1) dose-dependently increased the norepinephrine release rate and caused only transient hypotension in anesthetized rabbits. However, after treatment with desipramine, DA did not change the norepinephrine release rate and produced a persistent fall in blood pressure. When DA and domperidone were given simultaneously to desipramine-treated rabbits, the hypotensive effect of DA was unchanged, but now DA increased the norepinephrine release rate. When DA and SCH 23390 were given simultaneously to desipramine-treated rabbits, DA failed to lower blood pressure and decreased the norepinephrine release rate. Propranolol did not change the effects of DA in desipramine-treated rabbits. These results suggest that bromocriptine decreases blood pressure by activating ganglionic and/or prejunctional, inhibitory DA2 receptors in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. DA also activates these receptors, but in addition releases norepinephrine in the manner of an indirectly acting sympathomimetic amine and activates postjunctional vascular DA1 receptors, and the latter seems to be the main component in DA-induced hypotension.
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Oxytocin (OT) has been shown to play a role in the control of physiological PRL release and has been demonstrated to have a direct effect on the pituitary to stimulate PRL secretion. Administration of OT into the third ventricle, however, lowers PRL levels. This reduction could be mediated by either an inhibition of the release of endogenous OT into the hypohysial portal circulation or via an alteration in the release of some other PRL releasing (PRF) or PRL release-inhibiting (PIF) factor. In order to determine if centrally administered OT lowers PRL levels by increasing secretion of dopamine (DA) into the portal circulation, endogenous dopaminergic tone was blocked by injection of the DA antagonist domperidone (DOM). Subcutaneous administration of DOM resulted in elevated PRL levels which could be further augmented by iv infusion of OT (at 0.01 or 0.1 microgram OT/kg.min) or partially, but significantly, reduced by pretreatment with anti-OT antiserum (0.75 ml) indicating that under conditions of DA blockade, OT (which has little PRF activity during conditions of normal dopaminergic tone) can stimulate PRL secretion by a direct pituitary action. Treatment with DOM did not prevent, however, the reduction in PRL levels produced by central administration of OT (2 micrograms). This suggests that the effect of OT to alter PRL secretion when administered into the third ventricle was not mediated via an increase in DA release into the portal circulation. Furthermore, central administration of the OT antagonist CAV-259 (1-deamino-2-D-Trp-4-Val-8-Orn-OT) after DOM treatment resulted in a significant increase in PRL secretion indicating that endogenous levels of OT within the hypothalamus inhibit PRL secretion through a nondopaminergic mechanism. This stimulatory effect of the OT antagonist was not blocked by pretreatment with anti-OT antiserum (iv) which had been demonstrated previously to reduce the PRL surges in lactating mothers and steroid-primed ovariectomized rats, as well as to block the increase in PRL secretion seen after central administration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Thus the central effect of OT to alter PRL secretion was probably not due to a change in the release of OT into the portal circulation. Intravenous administration of a VIP antagonist (D-4-Cl-6-Phe-17-Leu-VIP, previously demonstrated to be capable of reducing the PRL surge seen in lactating mothers) into DOM-treated rats does not alter PRL levels but blocks the ability of central administration of the OT antagonist CAV-259 to increase PRL levels under these conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Examination of the binding of [3H]apomorphine to rat striatal membranes in the presence and absence of the dopamine antagonist, domperidone, confirmed the previously reported presence of two classes of dopamine binding site, those designated D2 which show a high affinity for both agonist and antagonists and those designated D3 which have a high affinity for agonists and a low affinity for antagonists. In contrast to the previously reported single high affinity (KD congruent to 1 nM) D2- and D3-binding sites, two lower affinity sites (D2KD = 7-50 nM; D3KD = 41 nM) were also observed. Examination of the binding characteristics of the putative dopamine autoreceptor agonists, 3-PPP (N,N-propyl-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperdine) and TL-99 (6,7-dihydroxy-2-dimethylaminotetraline) showed that they, like a number of other dopamine agonists including n-propylnorapomorphine, apomorphine and dopamine showed no preferential affinity for the D3, presynaptic binding site. It is concluded that the selectivity of dopamine agonists for the autoreceptor cannot be assessed by the in vitro radioligand binding parameters defined by the use of domperidone.
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In human neonates, caffeine therapy for apnoea of prematurity, especially when associated with hypoxemia, is maintained for several weeks after birth. In the present study, we used newborn rats and whole-body plethysmography to test whether chronic exposure to neonatal caffeine treatment (NCT), alone or combined with neonatal intermittent hypoxia (n-IH) alters: (1) baseline ventilation and response to hypoxia (12% O(2), 20 min); and (2) response to acute i.p. injection of caffeine citrate (20 mg/kg) or domperidone, a peripheral dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (1 mg/kg). Four groups of rats were studied as follows: raised under normal conditions with daily gavage with water (NWT) or NCT, or exposed to n-IH (n-IH+NWT and n-IH+NCT) from postnatal days 3 to 12. In n-IH+NCT rats, baseline ventilation was higher than in the other groups. Caffeine or domperidone enhanced baseline ventilation only in NWT and n-IH+NWT rats, but neither caffeine nor domperidone affected the hypoxic ventilatory response in these groups. In n-IH+NWT rats, the response during the early phase of hypoxia (<10 min) was higher than in other groups. During the late response phase to hypoxia (20 min), ventilation was lower in n-IH+NWT and n-IH+NCT rats compared to NWT or NCT, and were not affected by caffeine or domperidone injection. NCT or caffeine injection decreased baseline apnoea frequency in all groups. These data suggest that chronic exposure to NCT alters both carotid body dopaminergic and adenosinergic systems and central regulation of breathing under baseline conditions and in response to hypoxia.
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Release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) from striatal synaptosomes is evoked most commonly by elevating potassium levels in the presence of calcium. However, it has been difficult to show that DA agonists or antagonists can modify K+-evoked release of [3H]DA. DA. In this study [3H]DA release evoked by exposure of synaptosomes (isolated and superfused previously with 0.0 mM Ca++ and 0.1 mM ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid) to 1.25 mM Ca++ can be modulated by the DA (D2) agonists apomorphine, pergolide and quinpirole and antagonists l-sulpiride and domperidone. The release was evoked under low potassium (6 mM or less) concentrations and the potassium concentration in the superfusion medium was not elevated before or during Ca++ exposure. Analysis of the superfusates obtained during Ca++ exposure revealed that approximately 80% of the tritium released was [3H]DA. The ability of DA (D2) agonists to inhibit the Ca++-evoked release from synaptosomes superfused with 9 mM K+ was greatly reduced. Therefore, prolonged depolarization may block DA (D2) regulation of [3H]DA release from synaptosomes. The Ca++-evoked release of [3H]DA was reduced greatly when 1 microM tetrodotoxin was present indicating sodium channels play a role in triggering the processes involved in Ca++-evoked [3H]DA release.
Cirrhotic patients reportedly show alterations of anterior pituitary hormone secretion, which may reflect an underlying defective central neurotransmitter function. In this study, we have investigated the catecholaminergic control of prolactin (Prl) and growth hormone (GH) secretion in cirrhotic patients by means of an indirectly acting dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine agonist, nomifensine (Nom), and a DA receptor antagonist, domperidone (Dom). Basal GH levels were higher in the 12 female and male cirrhotic patients than in the 12 age- and sex-matched normal controls, while no difference was present in basal Prl values. Administration of Nom (200 mg po) suppressed basal Prl levels (at least 30% inhibition at three consecutive times post-drug administration) in 6/12 controls and in 6/12 cirrhotic patients, the frequency of negative responses not being different between the two groups. Nom induced a slight elevation of GH levels in controls, and evoked a more marked and sustained GH increase in cirrhotic patients. Administration of Dom (4 mg iv) induced similar Prl increments in 6 male controls and 6 male cirrhotic patients. Normal Prl responsiveness to Nom and Dom points to the existence of preserved tubero-infundibular DA function and modulation of pituitary DA receptors in the cirrhotic patients investigated. Higher GH responsiveness to Nom is compatible with a different bioavailability of the drug.
This study was aimed at in vivo characterisation of the possible role of dopamine receptors in the modulation of adrenaline release from the adrenal medulla in rats. Quinpirole (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg s.c., 30 min), an agonist at dopamine D2-like receptors induced a statistically significant increase not only in adrenal dopamine but also in plasma and heart adrenaline levels. The effects of the lowest dose of quinpirole were blocked by domperidone (5 mg/kg s.c., 150 min). Implantation of catheters followed by blood sampling appeared to be a stressful procedure, inducing itself an elevation of adrenal dopamine and of heart adrenaline by 100 and 250%, respectively. To explore the possibility of determining the plasma levels of adrenaline without blood sampling, regression modelling was performed by means of partial least squares regression (PLS) using treatment and levels of heart adrenaline and adrenal dopamine as predictor variables. The selected variables were found to be good predictors of plasma adrenaline levels. Accordingly, the increase in adrenal dopamine and heart adrenaline levels following administration of the dopamine autoreceptor agonist, talipexole, and the classical non-selective dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine, were interpreted as indicators of the increased adrenomedullary adrenaline release. Neither of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists used, i.e. domperidone, supposed to have only peripheral effects, nor raclopride, had significant effects on adrenal dopamine and heart adrenaline. Our results support the presence of peripherally located dopamine D2-like receptors, capable of acutely stimulating not only the synthesis of catecholamines, but also the release of adrenaline from adrenals in the conscious rat.
Previous studies by our laboratory have indicated that inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) express a novel dopamine (DA) receptor, designated DA2K, that is linked to stimulation of prostaglandin E2 production. This receptor has a distinct pharmacological profile and is similar in size, but not homologous to, the brain D2 receptor. Because the DA2-selective antagonist domperidone blocks DA-mediated stimulation of prostaglandin E2 production in IMCD cells, we utilized [3H]domperidone to study the binding characteristics of the DA2K receptor in IMCD cells. [3H]Domperidone binding was saturable and best fit to a single high density site (KD, 57.6 +/- 10.5 nM; Bmax, 14.9 +/- 2.7 pmol/mg protein). The specificity of [3H]domperidone binding in IMCD cells was verified by competition analysis with a variety of dopaminergic and nondopaminergic agents. Dopaminergic drugs were less potent competitors for [3H]domperidone binding in IMCD cells than previously reported for brain DA receptors, but the rank order was consistent with the labeling of a DA receptor [antagonists: domperidone greater than spiperone greater than haloperidol greater than Sch 23390 much greater than (-)-sulpiride; agonists: norapomorphine greater than fenoldopam much greater than dopamine = quinpirole], and was better correlated with the pharmacological profile for the brain D2 receptor than the brain D3 receptor. In addition, quinpirole, the most D3-selective ligand currently available, did not compete for [3H]domperidone binding in IMCD cells. These results add further support to the existence of a novel high density DA receptor, DA2K, expressed in IMCD cells.
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There are many options for acute migraine attack treatment, but none is ideal for all patients. This study aims to review current medical office-based acute migraine therapy in adults and provides readers with an organized approach to this important facet of migraine treatment. A general literature review includes a review of several recent published guidelines. Acetaminophen, 4 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], naproxen sodium, and diclofenac potassium), and 7 triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, and zolmitriptan) have good evidence for efficacy and form the core of acute migraine treatment. NSAID-triptan combinations, dihydroergotamine, non-opioid combination analgesics (acetaminophen, ASA, and caffeine), and several anti-emetics (metoclopramide, domperidone, and prochlorperazine) are additional evidence-based options. Opioid containing combination analgesics may be helpful in specific patients, but should not be used routinely. Clinical features to be considered when choosing an acute migraine medication include usual headache intensity, usual rapidity of pain intensity increase, nausea, vomiting, degree of disability, patient response to previously used medications, history of headache recurrence with previous attacks, and the presence of contraindications to specific acute medications. Available acute medications can be organized into 4 treatment strategies, including a strategy for attacks of mild to moderate severity (strategy one: acetaminophen and/or NSAIDs), a triptan strategy for patients with severe attacks and for attacks not responding to strategy one, a refractory attack strategy, and a strategy for patients with contraindications to vasoconstricting drugs. Acute treatment of migraine attacks during pregnancy, lactation, and for patients with chronic migraine is also discussed. In chronic migraine, it is particularly important that medication overuse is eliminated or avoided. Migraine treatment is complex, and treatment must be individualized and tailored to the patient's clinical features. Clinicians should make full use of available medications and formulations in an organized approach.
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Using the most stable SNP selected by LARS a prediction model for side effects of domperidone achieved (95 ± 0)% true negative rate (TN) and (78 ± 11)% true positive rate (TP) in nested leave-one-out tests. For domperidone efficacy, the prediction based on five most stable SNPs achieved (85 ± 7)% TP and (61±4)% TN. Five identified SNPs are related to ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, epithelial cell signaling, leukocyte, cell adhesion, and tight junction signaling pathways. Genetic polymorphisms in three genes that are related to cancer and hedgehog signaling were found to significantly correlate with efficacy of domperidone.
The effects of the D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist SK & F 85174, an N-allyl derivative of fenoldopam, on blood pressure and regional hemodynamics were studied in anesthetized normotensive rats. SK & F 85174 reduced blood pressure and enhanced blood flow in the renal, superior mesenteric and the hindquarters vascular beds. Calculated vascular resistances were reduced. The nonselective dopamine receptor antagonist RS-sulpiride abolished, while SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), domperidone (D2 antagonist) and hexamethonium (ganglion blocker) each partly blocked the hypotensive effect. SCH 23390 antagonized the vasodilator effect more in the renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds, whereas domperidone antagonized the response more in the hindquarters vascular bed. RS-sulpiride antagonized vasodilatation in the three vascular beds. Hexamethonium abolished vasodilatation in the hindquarters vascular bed only. These results indicate that the hypotensive effect of SK & F 85174 is due to stimulation of both postsynaptic D1 and neuronal D2 receptors. The vasodilator effect in the renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds is mediated by D1 receptor stimulation, the vasodilator response in the hindquarters vascular bed is due to neuronal D2 receptor stimulation.
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Objective. To examine the association of self-efficacy, perception of milk production, and lactating women's use of medication prescribed to increase breast milk in a cohort of 18-40-year-old mothers over six months. Methods. Mothers (n = 76) attending community clinics completed the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale and the Humenick/Hill Lactation Scale, a measure of perceived milk production, three times. Results. Domperidone, a dopamine antagonist, was used by 28% of participants. On average, those using domperidone had lower self-efficacy scores than those not using it (P < 0.05) and were more likely to have used formula (Pearson chi-square test statistic = 6.87, df = 1, P < 0.05). Breastfeeding self efficacy and perception of milk production were positively correlated. Conclusion. Breastfeeding assessment conducted prior to prescription of galactogogues is recommended for mothers and healthy term babies. Following Baby-Friendly hospital protocols and increasing self-efficacy for lactating women may be most effective in sustaining breastfeeding. Risks and benefits of various galactogogues are discussed.
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The aim of this study was to develop a pediatric-specific reference set of positive and negative drug-event associations.
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The major hypothalamic control over prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is inhibitory by means of dopamine released from tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurones. We have previously shown a dissociation between activity of TIDA neurones and prolactin secretion during late pregnancy, suggesting involvement of additional regulatory factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dopamine and the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the pituitary in the regulation of prolactin secretion during late pregnancy. To determine whether dopamine maintains inhibition of prolactin during late pregnancy, the D(2) receptor antagonist domperidone was administered at 12.00 h on days 18 and 21 of pregnancy. These times are characterized by high and low TIDA neuronal activity, respectively, and low prolactin secretion. Domperidone produced an immediate increase in plasma prolactin compared to vehicle-treated controls on both days 18 and 21. Thus, dopaminergic inhibition of prolactin secretion is maintained despite reduced TIDA neuronal activity at the end of pregnancy. The contribution of NIL-derived dopamine in regulating prolactin secretion was then examined by investigating the effect of surgical removal of the NIL. NIL removal produced significantly increased basal prolactin concentrations, indicating that dopamine from the NIL contributes to the suppression of prolactin before the antepartum prolactin surge. Furthermore, NIL removal also completely prevented the antepartum prolactin surge compared to sham-operated controls, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the NIL supplies a prolactin-releasing factor to the anterior pituitary to induce the antepartum prolactin surge.
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Although adrenocorticotropic hormone is generally considered to play a major role in the regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid secretion, several reports have suggested that other pituitary hormones (e.g., prolactin) also play a significant role in the regulation of adrenal function. The aim of the present study was to measure the adrenocortical cell area and to determine the effects of the transition from the prepubertal to the postpubertal period on the hyperprolactinemic state induced by domperidone (4.0 mg kg-1 day-1, sc). In hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats, the adrenals were heavier, as determined at necropsy, than in the respective controls: adults (30 days: 0.16 +/- 0.008 and 0.11 +/- 0.007; 46 days: 0.17 +/- 0.006 and 0.12 +/- 0.008, and 61 days: 0.17 +/- 0.008 and 0.10 +/- 0.004 mg for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05), and young rats (30 days: 0.19 +/- 0.003 and 0.16 +/- 0.007, and 60 days: 0.16 +/- 0.006 and 0.13 +/- 0.009 mg; P < 0.05). We selected randomly a circular area in which we counted the nuclei of adrenocortical cells. The area of zona fasciculata cells was increased in hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats compared to controls: adults: (61 days: 524.90 +/- 47.85 and 244.84 +/- 9.03 microm2 for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05), and young rats: (15 days: 462.30 +/- 16.24 and 414.28 +/- 18.19; 60 days: 640.51 +/- 12.91 and 480.24 +/- 22.79 microm2 ; P < 0.05). Based on these data we conclude that the increase in adrenal weight observed in the hyperprolactinemic animals may be due to prolactin-induced adrenocortical cell hypertrophy.
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1. Effects of catecholamines applied exogenously to the circular smooth muscle layer of the body of the oesophagus of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) were studied, simultaneously measuring changes in the membrane potential, the membrane conductance and the contractility of the muscle, using the double sucrose-gap technique. 2. Superfusion of the smooth muscle with Krebs solution at 27 degrees C containing dopamine (10(-6)-10(-4) M) dose-dependently caused a hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle cells and an increased membrane resistance followed after gradual repolarization by oscillations of the membrane potential, often accompanied by muscle action potentials. During the hyperpolarization, the tendency for the membrane potential to sag during prolonged application of hyperpolarizing currents was reduced and the 'off' depolarization following such currents was increased. This muscle did not develop active tension prior to treatment; it therefore did not relax during the hyperpolarizations, but contracted following the depolarized phase of oscillations. 3. The non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve-mediated inhibitory junction potential (i.j.p.) showed a small reduction in amplitude during superfusion with dopamine, explicable as a result of the drug-induced hyperpolarization. The 'off' response following the i.j.p., decreased transiently when the membrane potential was hyperpolarized to its maximum value. Then it increased to values larger than control as the membrane repolarized. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, 10(-6) M) produced a similar response but hyperpolarizations were smaller. 4. Of the tested catecholamines, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, butylated hydroxytoluene-920 (BHT-920) and clonidine were ineffective whereas the potency order for other catecholamines was dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than or equal to adrenaline greater than DOPA. The catecholamine-induced responses were not affected by alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists given alone or in combination. Of the dopamine receptor antagonists tested domperidone was without effect, whereas haloperidol reduced and bulbocapnine blocked the response. The findings suggested that a receptor resembling DA1-type peripheral receptor mediated the effects of dopamine on opossum oesophagus. 5. The catecholamine-induced responses and those to VIP disappeared completely in Cl-(-)free medium (isethionate replacement). 6. Conditioning depolarization of the smooth muscle cells decreased but hyperpolarization increased the amplitude of the hyperpolarization (up to 20 mV). With larger hyperpolarizations the responses decreased and disappeared at around 50 mV hyperpolarization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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Aunque se encontró evidencia de prolongación del intervalo QTc en infantes tratados con domperidona oral, se necesitan más estudios para cuantificar el riesgo asociado a la droga en esta población. Se sugiere a los profesionales de la salud realizar un monitoreo electrocardiográfico de los infantes tratados con domperidona e informar al sistema de farmacovigilancia los casos de ocurrencia de eventos adversos.
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Two different electronic databases (PubMed und Embase) were used to identify studies. Furthermore, a hand search for related articles was performed. No restriction was made concerning study types. Studies with patients undergoing chemotherapy radiation therapy or suffering from postoperative nausea, pediatric studies and studies published neither in English nor in German were excluded.
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5-HT4 receptor agonists show different efficacies. Motilin receptor activation has greater potential to increase gastric emptying, whereas ghrelin and D2 receptor antagonism have no direct activity. Drugs stimulating human gastric motility directly can act regardless of disease mechanisms, whereas drugs without direct activity but an ability to block nausea/vomiting may be effective only if these symptoms exist.
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In carefully selected patients, partial hypophysectomy is an acceptable alternative to medical treatment for prolactinoma. Preoperatively, dynamic tests accurately identified those patients whose hyperprolactinaemia was non-adenomatous in origin and, post-operatively, identified a subgroup of patients at increased risk of late recurrence.
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Melanotrophs of the rat pars intermedia are innervated by dopaminergic fibers traveling through the pituitary stalk which inhibit secretion via an action on D-2 receptors. As secretion from the melanotroph has been shown to be calcium (Ca2+) dependent, it is possible that dopamine may have an action to inhibit Ca2+ currents in these cells. This possibility was tested by examining the effects of exogenously applied dopaminergic agonists or synaptically released dopamine upon Ca2+ currents recorded under single electrode voltage clamp in intact rat pars intermedia in vitro. Following blockade of sodium and potassium currents in melanotrophs, Ca2+ spikes were elicited with intracellular injection of depolarizing currents; electrical stimulation of the pituitary stalk caused an inhibition of the Ca2(+)-based action potentials which lasted for several seconds. Using single-electrode voltage-clamp techniques, we recorded inward Ca2+ currents corresponding to the T, N, and L types (see Williams et al., 1990). Stimulation of the pituitary stalk inhibited both the low- and high-threshold peak inward Ca2+ currents elicited from a holding potential of -90 mV. In contrast, when noninactivating Ca2+ currents were elicited from a holding potential of -30 mV, the currents were not altered by stalk stimulation. This pattern of inhibition of the Ca2+ currents was consistent with the preferential inhibition, by stalk stimulation, of the N and T Ca2+ currents, while sparing the L current. We observed that inhibition of Ca2+ currents due to stalk stimulation was completely reversed by bath perfusion of domperidone (1 microM), an antagonist of dopamine at the D-2 receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The effects of some dopaminergic antagonists were investigated on mouse lymphocyte proliferative responses in vitro. The mixed D1/D2 dopaminergic antagonists chlorpromazine, haloperidol and flupentixol inhibited 3H-Thymidine incorporation into adult BALB/c mouse spleen cells stimulated by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli, and allogenic cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. The inhibition was achieved at concentrations greater than 10(-6) M. It was not accounted for by decreased cell viability and it was no longer demonstrable when the compound was added 24 h or 48 h after the mitogenic stimulus. Conversely selective D2 dopaminergic antagonists sulpiride, metoclopramide and domperidone had no inhibitory effect at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-5) or 10(-4) M. The three mixed D1/D2 antagonists inhibited the mitogenic effect of interleukin-1 on concanavalin A-stimulated thymocytes, but not the activity of interleukin-2 on the proliferation of the CTLL-2 cell line. The mixed D1/D2 antagonists interfered with the production of interleukin-2 but not with that of interleukin-1. These results indicate that dopaminergic antagonists may differentially affect lymphocyte proliferative responses to T or B cell mitogens or alloantigens. The mechanisms involved in terms of receptor specific or non specific phenomenons are discussed.