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Motilium

Generic Motilium is a medicine that increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and bowel. Generic Motilium is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other drugs used to treat Parkinson's Disease.

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Description

Generic Motilium is a medicine that increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and bowel. Generic Motilium is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other drugs used to treat Parkinson's Disease.

Generic Motilium works by blocking the action of a chemical messenger in the brain which causes the feeling of nausea and vomiting, as well as increasing the movement or contractions of the stomach and intestines, allowing food to move more easily through the stomach.

Motilium is also known as Domperidone, Dombax, Vivadone, Motinorm, Costi.

Generic name of Generic Motilium is Domperidone.

Brand name of Generic Motilium is Motilium.

Dosage

The usual dose in adults is one tablet three to four times a day, best taken 15 to 30 minutes before meals or food, and if necessary at bedtime.

Sometimes your doctor may increase the dose to two tablets three to four times a day after you have taken Generic Motilium for 2 weeks.

You should not take more than a total of eight tablets in a single day.

Generic Motilium can be taken for up to 6 months.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Motilium suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Motilium and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Do not store in the bathroom, near the kitchen sink, or in other damp places. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Motilium are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are allergic to Generic Motilium components.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Motilium can harm your baby.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you have a tumour of the pituitary gland called prolactinoma; an increase in stomach or bowel contractions can harm you. For example, if you have had bleeding, a blockage or puncture in your gastrointestinal tract.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking another medicine containing the active ingredient such as ketoconazole, fluconazole or voriconazole which is used to treat fungal infections.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking an antibiotic containing the active ingredient erythromycin, clarithromycin or telithromycin.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking another medicine containing the active ingredient amiodarone, which is used to treat fast heart rate.

Do not stop taking Generic Motilium suddenly.

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The pituitary prolactin (PRL) response to domperidone (DOM; a dopaminergic antagonist) and TRH administration in human males during different stages of sexual maturation was investigated. Dopaminergic blockade caused an immediate and significant PRL release in all subjects, regardless of the stage of pubertal development. Even though the mean values of peak PRL levels, magnitude of PRL response (delta PRL) and areas under the PRL curve were not significantly different among the different groups, all these parameters showed a clear tendency to increase in parallel to the stage of pubertal development, as indicated by significant positive correlations between age and pubertal stage of the subjects and the magnitude of their PRL response to DOM (r = 0.661, p less than 0.01 and r = 0.536, p = 0.01, respectively). Significant positive correlations also were found between the serum sex steroid hormone concentrations and the PRL response to dopaminergic blockade (r = 0.774, p = 0.02 and r = 0.554, p = 0.01, respectively). In contrast to these findings, no significant differences or tendencies were detected in the PRL responses to TRH among the different subject groups. The different patterns of PRL response to DOM and TRH throughout male puberty might be due to differences in pituitary thresholds for sex steroids between the dopamine- and TRH-dependent intracellular pools.

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A low dose of dopamine (1 microgram/min/kg) infused for 3 h, which is without systemic hemodynamic effects in normal subjects, increased the renal blood flow and renal production of prostacyclin (PGI2). This action was blocked by metoclopramide as well as by either of two cyclooxygenase (CO) blockers, but effects were not altered by administration of the alpha 1 blocker prazosin. Much of the effect of dopamine (DA) is apparently via the DA1 receptor, since fenoldopam (0.1 microgram/min/kg) reproduced these actions. However, although fenoldopam increased glomerular filtration rate and urinary Na+, CO blockers were without effect. In contrast neither DA or fenoldopam infusions changed either renal blood flow or PGI2 in a group of patients with essential hypertension. Renin secretion was shown to be increased via DA1 receptor activation both in humans and rat renal tissue. The DA2 receptor may also play a role since domperidone can reduce renal blood flow.

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We have tested this possibility by determining in Wistar rats how the orthostatic hypotensive effect of several antipsychotic drugs compares with their affinity for adrenoceptors in mesenteric small arteries (MSA with mainly alpha1A-AR) and aorta (mainly alpha1D-AR).

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The basal HF oscillatory component of vaginal blood flow was primarily vagally mediated, although could be modulated pharmacologically with p-chloroamphetamine in the absence of vagal innervation. The LF component could be modulated by antagonists of noradrenergic receptors but did not appear to be dependent upon tonic activation of sympathetic circuitry. The non-selective dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine induced changes in vaginal blood flow oscillations consistent with sexual arousal during metestrus in the presence of the peripheral antagonist domperidone but not in the presence of the centrally acting antagonist haloperidol. Electrical stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus induced an anti-arousal response in vaginal blood flow oscillations. These data demonstrated that manipulation of the central nervous system alone (via centrally acting apomorphine or electrical stimulation of the PVN) could produce either a pro-arousal or an anti-arousal response in vaginal blood flow oscillations. Alterations in the LF/HF ratio measured from vaginal laser Doppler flowmetry were independently regulated from vasculature in the trunk, the tongue, and electrocardiogram-derived heart rate variability, and were independent of overall vasocongestion of the vagina as measured by mean blood flow.

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We have studied the contribution of neuronal and postjunctional dopamine (DA) receptors and of the DA1 and DA2 receptor subtypes to the blood pressure effects of DA and bromocriptine in the rabbit. The norepinephrine release rate, i.e., the rate of entry of endogenous norepinephrine into the plasma, was derived from the plasma level of endogenous norepinephrine and the plasma [3H]norepinephrine clearance. Bromocriptine (40 micrograms kg-1) lowered the norepinephrine release rate and the arterial blood pressure both in anesthetized rabbits and in pithed rabbits with electrically stimulated sympathetic outflow. These effects were antagonized by the selective DA2 antagonist domperidone but not by the selective DA1 antagonist SCH 23390. DA (10-160 micrograms kg-1 min-1) dose-dependently increased the norepinephrine release rate and caused only transient hypotension in anesthetized rabbits. However, after treatment with desipramine, DA did not change the norepinephrine release rate and produced a persistent fall in blood pressure. When DA and domperidone were given simultaneously to desipramine-treated rabbits, the hypotensive effect of DA was unchanged, but now DA increased the norepinephrine release rate. When DA and SCH 23390 were given simultaneously to desipramine-treated rabbits, DA failed to lower blood pressure and decreased the norepinephrine release rate. Propranolol did not change the effects of DA in desipramine-treated rabbits. These results suggest that bromocriptine decreases blood pressure by activating ganglionic and/or prejunctional, inhibitory DA2 receptors in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. DA also activates these receptors, but in addition releases norepinephrine in the manner of an indirectly acting sympathomimetic amine and activates postjunctional vascular DA1 receptors, and the latter seems to be the main component in DA-induced hypotension.

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Oxytocin (OT) has been shown to play a role in the control of physiological PRL release and has been demonstrated to have a direct effect on the pituitary to stimulate PRL secretion. Administration of OT into the third ventricle, however, lowers PRL levels. This reduction could be mediated by either an inhibition of the release of endogenous OT into the hypohysial portal circulation or via an alteration in the release of some other PRL releasing (PRF) or PRL release-inhibiting (PIF) factor. In order to determine if centrally administered OT lowers PRL levels by increasing secretion of dopamine (DA) into the portal circulation, endogenous dopaminergic tone was blocked by injection of the DA antagonist domperidone (DOM). Subcutaneous administration of DOM resulted in elevated PRL levels which could be further augmented by iv infusion of OT (at 0.01 or 0.1 microgram OT/kg.min) or partially, but significantly, reduced by pretreatment with anti-OT antiserum (0.75 ml) indicating that under conditions of DA blockade, OT (which has little PRF activity during conditions of normal dopaminergic tone) can stimulate PRL secretion by a direct pituitary action. Treatment with DOM did not prevent, however, the reduction in PRL levels produced by central administration of OT (2 micrograms). This suggests that the effect of OT to alter PRL secretion when administered into the third ventricle was not mediated via an increase in DA release into the portal circulation. Furthermore, central administration of the OT antagonist CAV-259 (1-deamino-2-D-Trp-4-Val-8-Orn-OT) after DOM treatment resulted in a significant increase in PRL secretion indicating that endogenous levels of OT within the hypothalamus inhibit PRL secretion through a nondopaminergic mechanism. This stimulatory effect of the OT antagonist was not blocked by pretreatment with anti-OT antiserum (iv) which had been demonstrated previously to reduce the PRL surges in lactating mothers and steroid-primed ovariectomized rats, as well as to block the increase in PRL secretion seen after central administration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Thus the central effect of OT to alter PRL secretion was probably not due to a change in the release of OT into the portal circulation. Intravenous administration of a VIP antagonist (D-4-Cl-6-Phe-17-Leu-VIP, previously demonstrated to be capable of reducing the PRL surge seen in lactating mothers) into DOM-treated rats does not alter PRL levels but blocks the ability of central administration of the OT antagonist CAV-259 to increase PRL levels under these conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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Examination of the binding of [3H]apomorphine to rat striatal membranes in the presence and absence of the dopamine antagonist, domperidone, confirmed the previously reported presence of two classes of dopamine binding site, those designated D2 which show a high affinity for both agonist and antagonists and those designated D3 which have a high affinity for agonists and a low affinity for antagonists. In contrast to the previously reported single high affinity (KD congruent to 1 nM) D2- and D3-binding sites, two lower affinity sites (D2KD = 7-50 nM; D3KD = 41 nM) were also observed. Examination of the binding characteristics of the putative dopamine autoreceptor agonists, 3-PPP (N,N-propyl-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperdine) and TL-99 (6,7-dihydroxy-2-dimethylaminotetraline) showed that they, like a number of other dopamine agonists including n-propylnorapomorphine, apomorphine and dopamine showed no preferential affinity for the D3, presynaptic binding site. It is concluded that the selectivity of dopamine agonists for the autoreceptor cannot be assessed by the in vitro radioligand binding parameters defined by the use of domperidone.

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In human neonates, caffeine therapy for apnoea of prematurity, especially when associated with hypoxemia, is maintained for several weeks after birth. In the present study, we used newborn rats and whole-body plethysmography to test whether chronic exposure to neonatal caffeine treatment (NCT), alone or combined with neonatal intermittent hypoxia (n-IH) alters: (1) baseline ventilation and response to hypoxia (12% O(2), 20 min); and (2) response to acute i.p. injection of caffeine citrate (20 mg/kg) or domperidone, a peripheral dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (1 mg/kg). Four groups of rats were studied as follows: raised under normal conditions with daily gavage with water (NWT) or NCT, or exposed to n-IH (n-IH+NWT and n-IH+NCT) from postnatal days 3 to 12. In n-IH+NCT rats, baseline ventilation was higher than in the other groups. Caffeine or domperidone enhanced baseline ventilation only in NWT and n-IH+NWT rats, but neither caffeine nor domperidone affected the hypoxic ventilatory response in these groups. In n-IH+NWT rats, the response during the early phase of hypoxia (<10 min) was higher than in other groups. During the late response phase to hypoxia (20 min), ventilation was lower in n-IH+NWT and n-IH+NCT rats compared to NWT or NCT, and were not affected by caffeine or domperidone injection. NCT or caffeine injection decreased baseline apnoea frequency in all groups. These data suggest that chronic exposure to NCT alters both carotid body dopaminergic and adenosinergic systems and central regulation of breathing under baseline conditions and in response to hypoxia.

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Release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) from striatal synaptosomes is evoked most commonly by elevating potassium levels in the presence of calcium. However, it has been difficult to show that DA agonists or antagonists can modify K+-evoked release of [3H]DA. DA. In this study [3H]DA release evoked by exposure of synaptosomes (isolated and superfused previously with 0.0 mM Ca++ and 0.1 mM ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid) to 1.25 mM Ca++ can be modulated by the DA (D2) agonists apomorphine, pergolide and quinpirole and antagonists l-sulpiride and domperidone. The release was evoked under low potassium (6 mM or less) concentrations and the potassium concentration in the superfusion medium was not elevated before or during Ca++ exposure. Analysis of the superfusates obtained during Ca++ exposure revealed that approximately 80% of the tritium released was [3H]DA. The ability of DA (D2) agonists to inhibit the Ca++-evoked release from synaptosomes superfused with 9 mM K+ was greatly reduced. Therefore, prolonged depolarization may block DA (D2) regulation of [3H]DA release from synaptosomes. The Ca++-evoked release of [3H]DA was reduced greatly when 1 microM tetrodotoxin was present indicating sodium channels play a role in triggering the processes involved in Ca++-evoked [3H]DA release.

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Cirrhotic patients reportedly show alterations of anterior pituitary hormone secretion, which may reflect an underlying defective central neurotransmitter function. In this study, we have investigated the catecholaminergic control of prolactin (Prl) and growth hormone (GH) secretion in cirrhotic patients by means of an indirectly acting dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine agonist, nomifensine (Nom), and a DA receptor antagonist, domperidone (Dom). Basal GH levels were higher in the 12 female and male cirrhotic patients than in the 12 age- and sex-matched normal controls, while no difference was present in basal Prl values. Administration of Nom (200 mg po) suppressed basal Prl levels (at least 30% inhibition at three consecutive times post-drug administration) in 6/12 controls and in 6/12 cirrhotic patients, the frequency of negative responses not being different between the two groups. Nom induced a slight elevation of GH levels in controls, and evoked a more marked and sustained GH increase in cirrhotic patients. Administration of Dom (4 mg iv) induced similar Prl increments in 6 male controls and 6 male cirrhotic patients. Normal Prl responsiveness to Nom and Dom points to the existence of preserved tubero-infundibular DA function and modulation of pituitary DA receptors in the cirrhotic patients investigated. Higher GH responsiveness to Nom is compatible with a different bioavailability of the drug.

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This study was aimed at in vivo characterisation of the possible role of dopamine receptors in the modulation of adrenaline release from the adrenal medulla in rats. Quinpirole (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg s.c., 30 min), an agonist at dopamine D2-like receptors induced a statistically significant increase not only in adrenal dopamine but also in plasma and heart adrenaline levels. The effects of the lowest dose of quinpirole were blocked by domperidone (5 mg/kg s.c., 150 min). Implantation of catheters followed by blood sampling appeared to be a stressful procedure, inducing itself an elevation of adrenal dopamine and of heart adrenaline by 100 and 250%, respectively. To explore the possibility of determining the plasma levels of adrenaline without blood sampling, regression modelling was performed by means of partial least squares regression (PLS) using treatment and levels of heart adrenaline and adrenal dopamine as predictor variables. The selected variables were found to be good predictors of plasma adrenaline levels. Accordingly, the increase in adrenal dopamine and heart adrenaline levels following administration of the dopamine autoreceptor agonist, talipexole, and the classical non-selective dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine, were interpreted as indicators of the increased adrenomedullary adrenaline release. Neither of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists used, i.e. domperidone, supposed to have only peripheral effects, nor raclopride, had significant effects on adrenal dopamine and heart adrenaline. Our results support the presence of peripherally located dopamine D2-like receptors, capable of acutely stimulating not only the synthesis of catecholamines, but also the release of adrenaline from adrenals in the conscious rat.

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Previous studies by our laboratory have indicated that inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) express a novel dopamine (DA) receptor, designated DA2K, that is linked to stimulation of prostaglandin E2 production. This receptor has a distinct pharmacological profile and is similar in size, but not homologous to, the brain D2 receptor. Because the DA2-selective antagonist domperidone blocks DA-mediated stimulation of prostaglandin E2 production in IMCD cells, we utilized [3H]domperidone to study the binding characteristics of the DA2K receptor in IMCD cells. [3H]Domperidone binding was saturable and best fit to a single high density site (KD, 57.6 +/- 10.5 nM; Bmax, 14.9 +/- 2.7 pmol/mg protein). The specificity of [3H]domperidone binding in IMCD cells was verified by competition analysis with a variety of dopaminergic and nondopaminergic agents. Dopaminergic drugs were less potent competitors for [3H]domperidone binding in IMCD cells than previously reported for brain DA receptors, but the rank order was consistent with the labeling of a DA receptor [antagonists: domperidone greater than spiperone greater than haloperidol greater than Sch 23390 much greater than (-)-sulpiride; agonists: norapomorphine greater than fenoldopam much greater than dopamine = quinpirole], and was better correlated with the pharmacological profile for the brain D2 receptor than the brain D3 receptor. In addition, quinpirole, the most D3-selective ligand currently available, did not compete for [3H]domperidone binding in IMCD cells. These results add further support to the existence of a novel high density DA receptor, DA2K, expressed in IMCD cells.

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There are many options for acute migraine attack treatment, but none is ideal for all patients. This study aims to review current medical office-based acute migraine therapy in adults and provides readers with an organized approach to this important facet of migraine treatment. A general literature review includes a review of several recent published guidelines. Acetaminophen, 4 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], naproxen sodium, and diclofenac potassium), and 7 triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, and zolmitriptan) have good evidence for efficacy and form the core of acute migraine treatment. NSAID-triptan combinations, dihydroergotamine, non-opioid combination analgesics (acetaminophen, ASA, and caffeine), and several anti-emetics (metoclopramide, domperidone, and prochlorperazine) are additional evidence-based options. Opioid containing combination analgesics may be helpful in specific patients, but should not be used routinely. Clinical features to be considered when choosing an acute migraine medication include usual headache intensity, usual rapidity of pain intensity increase, nausea, vomiting, degree of disability, patient response to previously used medications, history of headache recurrence with previous attacks, and the presence of contraindications to specific acute medications. Available acute medications can be organized into 4 treatment strategies, including a strategy for attacks of mild to moderate severity (strategy one: acetaminophen and/or NSAIDs), a triptan strategy for patients with severe attacks and for attacks not responding to strategy one, a refractory attack strategy, and a strategy for patients with contraindications to vasoconstricting drugs. Acute treatment of migraine attacks during pregnancy, lactation, and for patients with chronic migraine is also discussed. In chronic migraine, it is particularly important that medication overuse is eliminated or avoided. Migraine treatment is complex, and treatment must be individualized and tailored to the patient's clinical features. Clinicians should make full use of available medications and formulations in an organized approach.

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Using the most stable SNP selected by LARS a prediction model for side effects of domperidone achieved (95 ± 0)% true negative rate (TN) and (78 ± 11)% true positive rate (TP) in nested leave-one-out tests. For domperidone efficacy, the prediction based on five most stable SNPs achieved (85 ± 7)% TP and (61±4)% TN. Five identified SNPs are related to ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, epithelial cell signaling, leukocyte, cell adhesion, and tight junction signaling pathways. Genetic polymorphisms in three genes that are related to cancer and hedgehog signaling were found to significantly correlate with efficacy of domperidone.

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The effects of the D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist SK & F 85174, an N-allyl derivative of fenoldopam, on blood pressure and regional hemodynamics were studied in anesthetized normotensive rats. SK & F 85174 reduced blood pressure and enhanced blood flow in the renal, superior mesenteric and the hindquarters vascular beds. Calculated vascular resistances were reduced. The nonselective dopamine receptor antagonist RS-sulpiride abolished, while SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), domperidone (D2 antagonist) and hexamethonium (ganglion blocker) each partly blocked the hypotensive effect. SCH 23390 antagonized the vasodilator effect more in the renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds, whereas domperidone antagonized the response more in the hindquarters vascular bed. RS-sulpiride antagonized vasodilatation in the three vascular beds. Hexamethonium abolished vasodilatation in the hindquarters vascular bed only. These results indicate that the hypotensive effect of SK & F 85174 is due to stimulation of both postsynaptic D1 and neuronal D2 receptors. The vasodilator effect in the renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds is mediated by D1 receptor stimulation, the vasodilator response in the hindquarters vascular bed is due to neuronal D2 receptor stimulation.

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Objective. To examine the association of self-efficacy, perception of milk production, and lactating women's use of medication prescribed to increase breast milk in a cohort of 18-40-year-old mothers over six months. Methods. Mothers (n = 76) attending community clinics completed the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale and the Humenick/Hill Lactation Scale, a measure of perceived milk production, three times. Results. Domperidone, a dopamine antagonist, was used by 28% of participants. On average, those using domperidone had lower self-efficacy scores than those not using it (P < 0.05) and were more likely to have used formula (Pearson chi-square test statistic  = 6.87, df = 1, P < 0.05). Breastfeeding self efficacy and perception of milk production were positively correlated. Conclusion. Breastfeeding assessment conducted prior to prescription of galactogogues is recommended for mothers and healthy term babies. Following Baby-Friendly hospital protocols and increasing self-efficacy for lactating women may be most effective in sustaining breastfeeding. Risks and benefits of various galactogogues are discussed.

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The aim of this study was to develop a pediatric-specific reference set of positive and negative drug-event associations.

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The major hypothalamic control over prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is inhibitory by means of dopamine released from tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurones. We have previously shown a dissociation between activity of TIDA neurones and prolactin secretion during late pregnancy, suggesting involvement of additional regulatory factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dopamine and the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the pituitary in the regulation of prolactin secretion during late pregnancy. To determine whether dopamine maintains inhibition of prolactin during late pregnancy, the D(2) receptor antagonist domperidone was administered at 12.00 h on days 18 and 21 of pregnancy. These times are characterized by high and low TIDA neuronal activity, respectively, and low prolactin secretion. Domperidone produced an immediate increase in plasma prolactin compared to vehicle-treated controls on both days 18 and 21. Thus, dopaminergic inhibition of prolactin secretion is maintained despite reduced TIDA neuronal activity at the end of pregnancy. The contribution of NIL-derived dopamine in regulating prolactin secretion was then examined by investigating the effect of surgical removal of the NIL. NIL removal produced significantly increased basal prolactin concentrations, indicating that dopamine from the NIL contributes to the suppression of prolactin before the antepartum prolactin surge. Furthermore, NIL removal also completely prevented the antepartum prolactin surge compared to sham-operated controls, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the NIL supplies a prolactin-releasing factor to the anterior pituitary to induce the antepartum prolactin surge.

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Although adrenocorticotropic hormone is generally considered to play a major role in the regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid secretion, several reports have suggested that other pituitary hormones (e.g., prolactin) also play a significant role in the regulation of adrenal function. The aim of the present study was to measure the adrenocortical cell area and to determine the effects of the transition from the prepubertal to the postpubertal period on the hyperprolactinemic state induced by domperidone (4.0 mg kg-1 day-1, sc). In hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats, the adrenals were heavier, as determined at necropsy, than in the respective controls: adults (30 days: 0.16 +/- 0.008 and 0.11 +/- 0.007; 46 days: 0.17 +/- 0.006 and 0.12 +/- 0.008, and 61 days: 0.17 +/- 0.008 and 0.10 +/- 0.004 mg for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05), and young rats (30 days: 0.19 +/- 0.003 and 0.16 +/- 0.007, and 60 days: 0.16 +/- 0.006 and 0.13 +/- 0.009 mg; P < 0.05). We selected randomly a circular area in which we counted the nuclei of adrenocortical cells. The area of zona fasciculata cells was increased in hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats compared to controls: adults: (61 days: 524.90 +/- 47.85 and 244.84 +/- 9.03 microm2 for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05), and young rats: (15 days: 462.30 +/- 16.24 and 414.28 +/- 18.19; 60 days: 640.51 +/- 12.91 and 480.24 +/- 22.79 microm2 ; P < 0.05). Based on these data we conclude that the increase in adrenal weight observed in the hyperprolactinemic animals may be due to prolactin-induced adrenocortical cell hypertrophy.

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1. Effects of catecholamines applied exogenously to the circular smooth muscle layer of the body of the oesophagus of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) were studied, simultaneously measuring changes in the membrane potential, the membrane conductance and the contractility of the muscle, using the double sucrose-gap technique. 2. Superfusion of the smooth muscle with Krebs solution at 27 degrees C containing dopamine (10(-6)-10(-4) M) dose-dependently caused a hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle cells and an increased membrane resistance followed after gradual repolarization by oscillations of the membrane potential, often accompanied by muscle action potentials. During the hyperpolarization, the tendency for the membrane potential to sag during prolonged application of hyperpolarizing currents was reduced and the 'off' depolarization following such currents was increased. This muscle did not develop active tension prior to treatment; it therefore did not relax during the hyperpolarizations, but contracted following the depolarized phase of oscillations. 3. The non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve-mediated inhibitory junction potential (i.j.p.) showed a small reduction in amplitude during superfusion with dopamine, explicable as a result of the drug-induced hyperpolarization. The 'off' response following the i.j.p., decreased transiently when the membrane potential was hyperpolarized to its maximum value. Then it increased to values larger than control as the membrane repolarized. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, 10(-6) M) produced a similar response but hyperpolarizations were smaller. 4. Of the tested catecholamines, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, butylated hydroxytoluene-920 (BHT-920) and clonidine were ineffective whereas the potency order for other catecholamines was dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than or equal to adrenaline greater than DOPA. The catecholamine-induced responses were not affected by alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists given alone or in combination. Of the dopamine receptor antagonists tested domperidone was without effect, whereas haloperidol reduced and bulbocapnine blocked the response. The findings suggested that a receptor resembling DA1-type peripheral receptor mediated the effects of dopamine on opossum oesophagus. 5. The catecholamine-induced responses and those to VIP disappeared completely in Cl-(-)free medium (isethionate replacement). 6. Conditioning depolarization of the smooth muscle cells decreased but hyperpolarization increased the amplitude of the hyperpolarization (up to 20 mV). With larger hyperpolarizations the responses decreased and disappeared at around 50 mV hyperpolarization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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Aunque se encontró evidencia de prolongación del intervalo QTc en infantes tratados con domperidona oral, se necesitan más estudios para cuantificar el riesgo asociado a la droga en esta población. Se sugiere a los profesionales de la salud realizar un monitoreo electrocardiográfico de los infantes tratados con domperidona e informar al sistema de farmacovigilancia los casos de ocurrencia de eventos adversos.

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Two different electronic databases (PubMed und Embase) were used to identify studies. Furthermore, a hand search for related articles was performed. No restriction was made concerning study types. Studies with patients undergoing chemotherapy radiation therapy or suffering from postoperative nausea, pediatric studies and studies published neither in English nor in German were excluded.

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5-HT4 receptor agonists show different efficacies. Motilin receptor activation has greater potential to increase gastric emptying, whereas ghrelin and D2 receptor antagonism have no direct activity. Drugs stimulating human gastric motility directly can act regardless of disease mechanisms, whereas drugs without direct activity but an ability to block nausea/vomiting may be effective only if these symptoms exist.

motilium tablets dosage

In carefully selected patients, partial hypophysectomy is an acceptable alternative to medical treatment for prolactinoma. Preoperatively, dynamic tests accurately identified those patients whose hyperprolactinaemia was non-adenomatous in origin and, post-operatively, identified a subgroup of patients at increased risk of late recurrence.

motilium 40 mg

Melanotrophs of the rat pars intermedia are innervated by dopaminergic fibers traveling through the pituitary stalk which inhibit secretion via an action on D-2 receptors. As secretion from the melanotroph has been shown to be calcium (Ca2+) dependent, it is possible that dopamine may have an action to inhibit Ca2+ currents in these cells. This possibility was tested by examining the effects of exogenously applied dopaminergic agonists or synaptically released dopamine upon Ca2+ currents recorded under single electrode voltage clamp in intact rat pars intermedia in vitro. Following blockade of sodium and potassium currents in melanotrophs, Ca2+ spikes were elicited with intracellular injection of depolarizing currents; electrical stimulation of the pituitary stalk caused an inhibition of the Ca2(+)-based action potentials which lasted for several seconds. Using single-electrode voltage-clamp techniques, we recorded inward Ca2+ currents corresponding to the T, N, and L types (see Williams et al., 1990). Stimulation of the pituitary stalk inhibited both the low- and high-threshold peak inward Ca2+ currents elicited from a holding potential of -90 mV. In contrast, when noninactivating Ca2+ currents were elicited from a holding potential of -30 mV, the currents were not altered by stalk stimulation. This pattern of inhibition of the Ca2+ currents was consistent with the preferential inhibition, by stalk stimulation, of the N and T Ca2+ currents, while sparing the L current. We observed that inhibition of Ca2+ currents due to stalk stimulation was completely reversed by bath perfusion of domperidone (1 microM), an antagonist of dopamine at the D-2 receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

motilium dosage instructions

The effects of some dopaminergic antagonists were investigated on mouse lymphocyte proliferative responses in vitro. The mixed D1/D2 dopaminergic antagonists chlorpromazine, haloperidol and flupentixol inhibited 3H-Thymidine incorporation into adult BALB/c mouse spleen cells stimulated by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli, and allogenic cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. The inhibition was achieved at concentrations greater than 10(-6) M. It was not accounted for by decreased cell viability and it was no longer demonstrable when the compound was added 24 h or 48 h after the mitogenic stimulus. Conversely selective D2 dopaminergic antagonists sulpiride, metoclopramide and domperidone had no inhibitory effect at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-5) or 10(-4) M. The three mixed D1/D2 antagonists inhibited the mitogenic effect of interleukin-1 on concanavalin A-stimulated thymocytes, but not the activity of interleukin-2 on the proliferation of the CTLL-2 cell line. The mixed D1/D2 antagonists interfered with the production of interleukin-2 but not with that of interleukin-1. These results indicate that dopaminergic antagonists may differentially affect lymphocyte proliferative responses to T or B cell mitogens or alloantigens. The mechanisms involved in terms of receptor specific or non specific phenomenons are discussed.

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motilium 1 mg 2017-04-03

HERG channels were expressed heterologously in Xenopus oocytes and currents were measured with the two-electrode voltage clamp buy motilium technique.

motilium drug interactions 2017-10-20

Nine hundred thirty-four patients entered the trial, and 914 were evaluable. Irradiated sites were: breast in 211 patients, pelvis in 210 patients, head and neck in 136 patients, thorax in 129 patients, brain in 52 patients, upper abdomen in 42 patients, skin and/or extremities in 37 patients, and other sites in 97 patients. Vomiting and nausea occurred in 17.1% and 37.3% of patients, respectively, and 38.7 % patients had both vomiting and nausea. At multifactorial analysis, the only patient-related risk factor that was statistically significant was represented by previous experience with cancer chemotherapy. Moreover, two radiotherapy (RT)-related factors were significant risk factors for RIE, the irradiated site and field size. In fact, a statistically significant higher percentage of RIE was registered in upper abdomen RT and RT fields > 400 cm2. Although nonstatistically significant, patients receiving RT to the thorax and head and neck presented a higher incidence of RIE. Only a minority (14%) of patients receiving RT were given an antiemetic drug, and the prescriptions were more often symptomatic than prophylactic (9% vs. 5%, respectively). Different compounds and a wide range of doses and buy motilium schedules were used; however, there is some evidence from our data that in spite of antiemetic prophylaxis, 46% of patients had vomiting, and 58% had nausea. The majority (93%) of the prophylactic group received oral 5-hydroxytriptamine receptor (5-HT3) antagonist (8 mg/day, 7 days/week). In the symptomatic group, 54% and 41% patients received 5-HT3 antagonists and metoclopramide, respectively. At multivariate analysis, no patient- or RT-related risk factor for RIE was found to influence significantly the prophylactic or symptomatic use of antiemetics.

motilium brand name 2015-03-18

To investigate clinical effects and mechanism of Tangweikang (TWK) in buy motilium treating diabetic gastroparesis.

motilium dosage instructions 2017-10-16

The central nervous system (CNS) may communicate with the immune system by direct innervation of lymphoid organs and/or by neurotransmitters and changes in neuroendocrine functioning and hormone release. The consequences of selective transient changes in circulating hormones on immune functioning in humans have not yet been studied. To address this problem, the authors evaluated the lymphoproliferative responses to optimal and suboptimal concentrations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweek mitogen (PWM) under selective enhancement of circulating growth hormone, prolactin, buy motilium or norepinephrine. The authors failed to demonstrate any effect of elevated growth hormone levels after clonidine challenge on the lymphoproliferative response to mitogens. Similarly, the results did not show any effect of elevated prolactin concentrations induced by domperidone administration on the immune test. Exposure of volunteers to cold resulted in elevation of plasma norepinephrine levels without changes in growth hormone, epinephrine, or cortisol secretion. Cold exposure induced elevation of plasma norepinephrine and reduction of the lymphoproliferative response to the suboptimal dosage of PHA. The reduction was significant 180 and 240 min after exposure. These results are indicative of a relationship between norepinephrine and immunity.

motilium online 2015-07-21

This intervention study conducted in the Neurology outpatient Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) from January 2006 to December 2007 to compare efficacy of amitriptyline, pizotifen and propranolol in the prophylaxis of migraine. Ninety cases were selected following certain inclusion and buy motilium exclusion criteria. Result showed that the differences in duration, frequency and severity of attack were reduced in all groups but the differences among the groups were not significant (p>0.05). However, compared with amitriptyline and pizotifen, the propranolol group needed tablet paracetamol as abortive therapy less frequently which was statistically significant (p<0.05). All the drugs were well tolerated with minimum adverse effects.

buy motilium boots 2015-12-27

Following the publication of the MHRA recommendations and presentation of our initial survey, there has been a significant reduction in the number of patients treated with domperidone and those coprescribed drugs known to prolong the QTc interval. We suggest that regular review of GP practice database should be performed to identify those patients prescribed domperidone and at risk of life-threatening arrhythmias and measures taken buy motilium to use alternative pharmacological agents.

motilium 40 mg 2017-06-17

Many breastfeeding women have concerns about buy motilium their milk supply; 'not enough milk' is the most common reason women give for stopping breastfeeding, however their concern is often unwarranted.

motilium medicine dosage 2017-12-24

1. High potassium produced a concentration-dependent contraction in rat isolated spleen. 2. The high potassium-induced contraction of rat spleen was abolished in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution containing 1 mM EGTA, and the subsequent addition of 3 mM Ca2+ restored the high potassium-induced contraction to the control level. 3. Nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+, R-(+)-Bay K 8644 and pimozide inhibited and relaxed high potassium-induced contraction of rat spleen with IC50 and EC50 values buy motilium much higher than those values in rat aorta. 4. In addition, high potassium-stimulated contraction of rat spleen was insensitive to omega-conotoxin GVIA, omega-conotoxin MVIIC and omega-agatoxin IVA. 5. The high potassium-induced contraction of rat spleen was also unaffected by tetrodotoxin (TTX), prazosin, chloroethylclonidine (CEC), yohimbine, propranolol, atropine, diphenhydramine, cimetidine, ketanserin, 3-tropanyl-indole-3-carboxylate, saralasin, indomethacin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, GR32191B, domperidone, naloxone, chlorpromazine, suramin, (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), L-659,877, L-703,606, lorglumide, PD 135,158 N-methyl-D-glucamine, benextramine, amiloride, dantrolene, TMB-8, econazole, staurosporine and neomycin. 6. Forskolin and sodium nitroprusside relaxed high potassium-induced contraction of rat spleen with EC50 values of 0.55 +/- 0.04 and 20.0 +/- 2.7 microM, respectively. 7. It is concluded that high potassium may activate a novel, pharmacologically uncharacterized voltage-operated Ca2+ channel in rat spleen.

motilium buy 2016-03-20

GC-7101 produced concentration-dependent contractions in ESMCs. Pretreatment with 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor blocker (ondansetron and GR113808) inhibited the contractile responses of the GC-7101-induced ESMCs. In buy motilium isometric tension study, GC-7101 recovered the HCl-induced decreased tone of LES muscle strips. The treatment of GC-7101 enhanced the carbachol-induced contractile responses and the electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced on-contraction. The oral administration of GC-7101 not only significantly accelerated GE and GIT in normal rats but also recovered the delayed GE and GIT, and its effect was more potent than that of conventional prokinetics (e.g., domperidone, a dopamine-receptor antagonist, and mosapride, a 5-HT4-receptor agonist).

motilium 60 mg 2015-08-11

The therapeutic effect of domperidone on abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases (AP-FGIDs) was assessed on children in 5-12 year age buy motilium group at the Gastroenterology Research Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.

motilium drug dosage 2017-09-14

Multicentre, double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in paediatric EDs. Children aged from 1 to 6 years who vomiting, with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of AG, and without severe dehydration will be included. After the failure of a initial ORS administration in ED, eligible children buy motilium will be randomized to receive: 1) ondansetron syrup (0,15 mg/Kg of body weight); 2) domperidone syrup (0,5 mg/Kg of body weight); 3) placebo. The main study outcome will be the percentage of patients needing nasogastric or IVT after symptomatic oral treatment failure, defined as vomiting or fluid refusal after a second attempt of ORT. Data relative to study outcomes will be collected at 30 minute intervals for a minimum of 6 hours. A telephone follow up call will be made 48 hours after discharge. A total number of 540 children (i.e. 180 patients in each arm) will be enrolled.

motilium generic name 2016-11-30

DNA samples extracted from the saliva of 46 patients treated with domperidone were analyzed using Affymetrix 6.0 SNP microarrays. Then least angle regression (LARS) was used to select SNPs that are related to domperidone efficacy buy motilium and side effects. Decision tree based prediction models were constructed with the most correlated features selected by LARS.

buy motilium australia 2015-11-22

Dopamine antagonists, such as metoclopramide and domperidone, and the motilin receptor agonist erythromycin have been the cornerstones in drug treatment of severe gastroparesis for more than a decade. No new drugs have been approved for treatment of this disorder in this period. Instead, the 5-HT4 agonist cisapride has been withdrawn due to side-effects. The effectiveness of intrapyloric botulinum toxin for gastroparesis remains to be shown. In the last decade, gastric electrical stimulation (GES) with a fully implantable device has evolved as a promising treatment, with significant effects on nausea and vomiting in most patients with severe, drug-refractory diabetic gastroparesis and postsurgical gastroparesis. A proportion of patients with severe idiopathic gastroparesis and patients with idiopathic nausea and vomiting also buy motilium respond. More research is needed to achieve precise selection of responders/non-responders to GES, and to study the potential benefit of GES in other patient groups suffering from severe nausea or vomiting.

motilium tablets 10mg 2016-04-20

When developing an LC-MS/MS-method matrix effects are a major issue. The effect of co-eluting compounds arising from the matrix can result in signal enhancement or suppression. During method development much attention should be paid to diminish matrix effects as much as possible. The present work evaluates matrix effects from aqueous environmental samples in the simultaneous analysis of a group of nine specific pharmaceuticals with LC-ESI/MS/MS: flubendazole, propiconazole, pipamperone, cinnarizine, ketoconazole, miconazole, rabeprazole, itraconazole and domperidone. Solutions to diminish signal suppression were examined: optimisation of the sample preparation, decrease of the flow rate, and the use of appropriate internal standards. Several SPE-stationary phases were tested in view of retention of the analytes: Oasis HLB, C8, Phenyl, Strata X-polymer RP sorbent and Strata X-polymeric SCX/RP sorbent. Oasis HLB showed the best retention for all analytes. The Oasis HLB SPE-method was optimised, but analyses showed high matrix suppression. Therefore, a second SPE-method, on a phenyl stationary phase (the second best option), was also optimised. A comparison of the matrix effect was made between the two procedures: the phenyl-method was less subject to matrix effects, however, the average matrix effect (ME%) of 46% indicated that matrix effects where still present. Several optimisation options for the phenyl-method were evaluated: addition of a ferric nitrate solution before extraction, application of an alkaline wash step, and use of a second SPE-cartridge, either a NH2-column or a florisil column. A more efficient sample buy motilium clean-up was achieved by applying the extract after extraction on the phenyl column and after dilution with chloroform, onto a NH2-column (average ME%: 53%). In addition, applying a post-column split (1:5), further reduced matrix effects (average ME%: 65%). Labelled internal standards are the best way to tackle matrix effects, but no such internal standards were commercially available for the analytes of interest. The thorough search and application of four internal standards (structural analogues) was beneficial and compensates the matrix effect partially (average ME%: 83%). In an attempt to reduce the analysis time Speedisk phenyl columns were applied. Under these conditions matrix effects decreased even more while recoveries were between 91 and 109%. Different kinds of surface water samples were analyzed, and different matrix effects were observed. For this reason, standard addition will be used to perform quantitative analysis.

motilium order 2016-03-11

The effects of systemic administration of the selective dopamine1 receptor agonist fenoldopam and the selective dopamine2 receptor agonist quinpirole on blood pressure and regional haemodynamics were investigated in anaesthetized normotensive Wistar rats. Both compounds produced dose-dependent reductions in blood pressure. Mesenteric and renal blood flow were enhanced by fenoldopam, but reduced by quinpirole. Hindquarter blood flow was not modified Zantac Pediatric Dosing by fenoldopam, but was increased by quinpirole. The calculated vascular resistances were reduced by both compounds in the three vascular beds. The effects of fenoldopam were antagonized by SCH 23390 but SCH 23390 did not affect those of quinpirole. The effects of quinpirole, but not those of fenoldopam, were antagonized by domperidone. Hexamethonium abolished the effects of quinpirole without affecting those of fenoldopam. These results indicate that the hypotensive effects of fenoldopam and quinpirole are due to stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine1 and neuronal dopamine2 receptors, respectively, resulting in differential regional haemodynamic effects.

motilium tablets 2016-09-12

The quality of colon cleanliness achieved with one-day bowel preparation is equivalent to that Avapro 300 Mg of the standard two-day schedule in patients undergoing CCE.

motilium purchase online 2015-07-02

This study investigated possible D1/D2 interactions in rat and bovine striatal tissue by examining the effects of D2 antagonists on the action of dopamine at D1 dopamine receptors. In addition, the extent to which D2 antagonists may induce an agonist low-affinity state of the D1 receptor was evaluated in comparison with the effects of the guanine nucleotide analogue 5'-guanylyl-imidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p]. In saturation experiments dopamine caused a dose-dependent decrease in rat striatal and bovine caudate D1 receptor density. This effect of dopamine, which has been shown to be sensitive to Gpp (NH)p, was not altered by pretreatment with either of the selective D2 antagonists eticlopride (200 nM) or domperidone (200 nM). Results from displacement experiments show that the affinity of dopamine for D1 receptors, and the proportion of receptors in an agonist high-affinity state, are reduced by Gpp(NH)p (100 microM) but not by eticlopride. A molar excess of dopamine (100 microM) promotes the dissociation of (+/-)-8-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H Imitrex Shots Cost -3-benzazepine-7-o l ([3H]SCH 23390) from rat striatal D1 receptors at a rate that is significantly slower than when dissociation is initiated using 1 microM piflutixol. After pretreament with Gpp(NH)p, [3H]SCH 23390 dissociation induced by dopamine occurred at an even slower rate. Pretreatment with eticlopride had no effect on the dopamine-induced rate of [3H]SCH 23390 dissociation. These results indicate that all experimental approaches detected dopamine effects at D1 receptors that are Gpp(NH)p sensitive and D2 antagonist insensitive and provide no evidence to support a D1/D2 link operating at the receptor level.

motilium dosage 2015-04-09

No changes of pharmacokinetic parameters describing systemic exposure and renal elimination of rotigotine were observed when domperidone was administered concomitantly with rotigotine. The lack of pharmacokinetic interactions indicates that a dose adjustment of rotigotine transdermal patch is not necessary with concomitant use of Zofran Usual Dosage domperidone.

motilium dosage adults 2015-06-29

Forty-six mothers who had delivered infants at <31 weeks' gestation, who experienced lactation failure, were randomly assigned to receive domperidone or placebo for 14 days. Protein, energy, fat, carbohydrate, sodium, calcium, Cost Of Viagra and phosphate levels in breast milk were measured on days 0, 4, 7, and 14, serum prolactin levels were measured on days 0, 4, and 14, and total milk volume was recorded daily. Mean within-subject changes in nutrients and milk volumes were examined.

medicine motilium m 2015-10-03

The objective was to determine, through a literature review, whether treatment during the premonitory phase Crestor Mg Dosage of migraine is a potentially useful migraine management strategy.

motilium suspension 2017-08-15

Electrolytic lateral hypothalamic (LH) lesions produce numerous disorders including aphagia, gastric mucosal erosions and autonomic and sensorimotor dysfunctions. This series of experiments examined whether damage to LH neurons or dopaminergic fibers of passage produce similar forms and severity of gastric erosions, as well as other disorders. In Experiment 1, LH neurons were destroyed by the excitatory neurotoxin, kainic acid, that presumably leaves axonal fibers of passage intact. Relatively selective damage to LH neurons with kainic acid produced glandular gastric erosions, as well as sensorimotor and autonomic dysfunctions similar to those seen following electrolytic LH lesions. This suggests that direct damage to LH cell bodies may be a primary cause of many of the disorders observed following LH lesions. In Experiments 2 and 3, electrolytic lesions were used to destroy cell bodies in the substantia nigra and their dopaminergic fibers (some of which pass through the LH area). This resulted in the production of gastric erosions in the absence of significant autonomic dysfunctions. Furthermore, atropine methylnitrate prevented the occurrence of gastric erosions following substantia nigra lesions, suggesting that the erosion formation is mediated via parasympathetic-vagal activity. In contrast, destruction of the ventral tegmental area (and its associated dopaminergic fibers) had no significant effect on gastric erosion formation. Experiment 4 showed that apomorphine, a central and peripheral dopamine agonist, provided protection against LH lesion-induced gastric erosion formation, whereas domperidone, a peripheral dopamine antagonist, had no effect. Taken together, this study suggests that (a) both LH neurons and fibers of passage provide a potential anatomical basis for the development of gastric mucosal Duphaston Pills erosions, (b) that an alteration in dopamine levels, either centrally or peripherally, may represent an important neurochemical mechanism for the development of erosions, and (c) that the occurrence of gastric erosion can be dissociated from other symptoms of the LH syndrome.

motilium review 2016-07-28

To determine effects of domperidone Duphaston Buy Online and acepromazine maleate on microvascular blood flow in digital laminae of clinically normal adult horses.

motilium dose infantil 2016-02-27

Sixteen patients fell off in the test group and 4 fell off i the control group, and the expulsion rate being 11.76% in the two groups, showing no statistical difference ( P > 0.05). The clinical symptom scores in the test group decreased from 5.62 +/- 2.30 before treatment to 1.41 +/- 1.22 after 4-week treatment, showing statistical difference (P < 0.01), but with no statistical difference when compared with the control group at the same time point (P>0.05). The healing rate and the total effective rate at week 4 were 38.24% and 86.76% respectively in the test group, and they were 60.00% and 65.00% at 6-month withdrawal. They were 41.18%, 79.41%, 46.67%, and 50.00%, respectively, Paracetamol Overdose Amount in the control group. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The scores of physical component-summary (PCS) and mental component-summary (MCS) both increased after 4-week treatment in the two groups, showing no statistical difference when compared with before treatment (P>0.05). There was statistical difference in the scores of PCS and MCS between at 6-month withdrawal and before treatment (P<0.05), but there was no statistical difference between the two groups (P>0.05). No obvious adverse reaction occurred in the two groups. The compliance and satisfaction after 4-week treatment were 95.59% and 91.91% in the test group, and 94.12% and 91.18% in the control group, showing no statistical difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The relapse rate in the test group was 10.29%, 19.12%, and 29.41%, respectively, after 1, 3, 6-month withdrawal, lower than that of the control group (17.65%, 23.53%, and 35.29%, respectively) at the same time point, but with no statistical difference. The C/E ratio of the test group/the control group was 15.59: 16. 53 at 4-week treatment and 22.27:28.28 after 6-month withdrawal respectively. The further analysis of incremental cost/incremental effectiveness showed that the ratio in the long-term decreased from 5.44 to 2.35 in the test group.

motilium domperidone tablets 2017-02-20

The potential of ondansetron and domperidone, both clinically established antiemetic agents, to increase the QT-interval has been described in several case reports. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these drugs may provoke polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a sensitive experimental model of drug-induced proarrhythmia. In 10 female rabbits, ondansetron (1, 5 and 10 µM, n = 10) or domperidone (0.5, 1 and 2 µM, n = 8) was infused after obtaining baseline data. Eight endo- and epicardial monophasic action potentials and a simultaneously recorded 12-lead ECG reproduced the clinically observed QT-prolongation (ondansetron: 1 µM:+17 ms, 5 µM:+41 ms, 10 µM:+78 ms, p < 0.01; domperidone: 0.5 µM:+57 ms, 1 µM:+79 ms, 2 µM:+99 ms, p < 0.01). This was accompanied by a significant increase in action Cozaar 60 Mg potential duration at 90% of repolarization. Administration of both agents also increased dispersion of repolarization (ondansetron: 1 µM:+12 ms, 5 µM:+17 ms; 10 µM:+18 ms, p < 0.05; domperidone: 0.5 µM:+19 ms, 1 µM:+27 ms; 2 µM:+23 ms p < 0.05). Lowering of potassium concentration in bradycardic AV-blocked hearts provoked early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in 9 of 10 ondansetron-treated hearts and induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) resembling torsade de pointes in 7 of 10 ondansetron-treated hearts (86 episodes). Under the influence of domperidone, EAD and polymorphic VT occurred in 7 of 8 hearts (131 episodes). In the present study, both ondansetron and domperidone demonstrated a severe proarrhythmic potential. A significant prolongation of cardiac repolarization as well as a marked increase in spatial dispersion of repolarization represents the underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms. These results imply that application of ondansetron should be handled carefully. For regular administration, ECG monitoring should be mandatory.

motilium drug 2016-12-27

Studies on the effect of dopaminergic agonists in behavioral measures of nociception have gathered numerous but rather conflicting data. We studied the effects of the D(1)/D(2) receptor agonist apomorphine, as well as the modulatory effects of (S)-(-)-sulpiride (selective D(2) receptor antagonist) and domperidone (peripheral D(2) receptor antagonist), on thermal, mechanical and chemical nociception on rats. Apomorphine induced a biphasic dose-response relationship, low doses producing hyperalgesia and high doses inducing antinociception. Tonic (chemical) pain was more sensitive to apomorphine than phasic (thermal and mechanical thresholds) pain. (S)-(-)-sulpiride, but not domperidone, fully antagonized the antinociceptive effect of apomorphine in all three measures of nociception, pointing to a participation of D(2) dopaminergic receptors for the antinociceptive action of apomorphine. Although spinal sites for dopaminergic ligands mechanistically may account for the effects observed, involvement of dopaminergic receptors of the forebrain could probably explain better the antinociceptive effects of apomorphine, especially in chemical tonic pain.

90 mg motilium 2016-04-14

Periodic breathing (PB) is an instability of the respiratory control system believed to be mediated principally by the peripheral chemoreceptors. We hypothesised that domperidone, a dopamine D(2)-receptor antagonist that increases carotid body sensitivity to O(2) and CO(2), would promote PB through an increase in the loop gain (LG) of the respiratory control system. Domperidone significantly increased controller gain for oxygen (p<0.05) and gave rise, following post-hyperventilation apnea, to an increased incidence of PB (14% vs. 86%), an increased PB epoch duration, and a decrease in duty ratio of PB (p<0.001); these changes are consistent with domperidone increasing LG. Although domperidone increased controller gain for CO(2) (p<0.05), the contribution of Pa(CO)(2) oscillations to the genesis of PB in the lamb remained small. We conclude that domperidone increases LG in the lamb via an increase in controller gain for oxygen. Our study demonstrates that a quantitative understanding of the factors that determine LG provides insight into the cause of PB.

motilium reviews 2017-04-03

Rat striatum contains two populations of dopaminergic [3H]spiroperidol binding sites. The two populations are similar in their affinities for chlorpromazine and dopamine. Only one population, that with a somewhat higher affinity for spiroperidol itself, exhibits high affinity for the selective D2 antagonists molindone, metoclopramide and domperidone. Hence, this population may represent D2 receptor sites. The other larger population may represent either a separate class of receptor sites or a different form of D2 receptor sites.

motilium maximum dose 2015-06-07

Xuanfudaizhetang can obviously improve the pH of lower esophageal mucosa in rats with reflux esophagitis, decrease pH value of gastric mucosal, thus improve esophageal mucosa pathological conditions to achieve therapeutic effect on reflux esophagitis.

motilium medication use 2015-07-25

We provide evidence for successful captive breeding of the leopard frog, L. pipiens. This simple protocol can be used to obtain large numbers of eggs in a predictable, timed manner.

motilium oral suspension 2015-01-10

The objective of this systematic review is to determine whether acupuncture is more effective than no treatment, more effective than 'sham' (placebo) acupuncture, and as effective as other interventions used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. Adverse events associated with acupuncture were also assessed.