This novel organic fungicidal treatment may increase the storage and performance of anthracite bricks in iron foundries, thereby saving 15-20% of the energy used in conventional coke production.
The endophytic Streptomyces coelicolor strain AZRA 37 was isolated from the surface sterilized root of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem plant in India. Since only a few reports are available regarding epigenetic modulations of microbial entities, S. coelicolor was treated with different concentrations of 5-azacytidine for this purpose and evaluated for its antibacterial potential against five human pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila IMS/GN11, Enterococcus faecalis IMS/GN7, Salmonella typhi MTCC 3216, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923). The crude extract obtained from cultures treated with 25 μM concentration of 5-azacytidine, was found effective against all five pathogenic bacteria tested while the untreated control was only active against 3 pathogenic bacteria. HPLC analysis of crude compounds from treated cultures showed a greater number of compounds than that of the control. Extraction of whole cell protein and its SDS PAGE analysis showed an additional major protein band in 25 μM 5-azacytidine treated culture and MALDI TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that this protein belongs to the porin family.
Natural pesticides have attracted substantial interest due to the increase in organic agriculture and enhanced attention to environmental pollution. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are applied for both disease control and growth enhancement; PGPBs are known to elicit Induced Systemic Response (ISR) in plants. However, less is known about the effect of botanical pesticides, such as the azadirachtin-containing neem extracts, on plant metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of foliar application of the above-mentioned natural pesticides on the metabolic profiling of tomato. Leaf application of Bacillus subtilis fostered Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) in treated plants via the Jasmonic acid pathway, and enhanced production of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phytoalexins and auxins. Changes in sterols and terpenes, as well as an increase in glucosinolates were also observed. Interestingly, azadirachtin-treated tomatoes also showed an increase in ISR and our results revealed that most of the enriched metabolites are shared with a B. subtilis treatment, suggesting conserved biochemical responses. These (un)expected findings indicate that plants are not insensitive to application of natural pesticide and while Azadirachtin is applied as a direct pesticide, it also stimulates a defense response in tomatoes very similar to B. subtilis induced ISR.
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The global scenario is now supporting the development of modern drugs from less toxic plant products with proven medicinal properties. Each part of neem plant [Azadirachta indica A. Juss] reportedly have various medicinal properties and has been in use in many continents for centuries. Recently, a fractionated neem-leaf extract known as IRAB with reported activities against Malaria, HIV/AIDS and cancer has been developed into a drug and currently marketed in Nigeria as IRACAP. This paper reviews the medicinal properties, clinical studies and safety concerns of this fractionated acetone-water neem leaves extract as a footstep to further studies both on the extract and/or its chemical constituents.
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Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and causes bluetongue (BT), a clinical disease observed primarily in sheep. BT has a detrimental effect on subsistence farmers in India, where hyperendemic outbreaks impact on smallholdings in the southern states of the country. In this study, we establish a reliable method for testing the toxic effects of deltamethrin on Culicoides and then compare deltamethrin with traditional control methods used by farmers in India.
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Studies of morphological and ultrastructural alterations in target organs have been useful for evaluating the sublethal effects of biopesticides regarded as safe for non-target organisms in ecotoxicological analyses. One of the most widely used biopesticides is neem oil, and its safety and compatibility with natural enemies have been further clarified through bioassays performed to analyze the effects of indirect exposure by the intake of poisoned prey. Thus, this study examined the cellular response of midgut epithelial cells of the adult lacewing, Ceraeochrysa claveri, to neem oil exposure via intake of neem oil-contaminated prey during the larval stage. C. claveri larvae were fed Diatraea saccharalis eggs treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% throughout the larval stage. The adult females obtained from these treatments were used at two ages (newly emerged and at the start of oviposition) in morphological and ultrastructural analyses. Neem oil was found to cause pronounced cytotoxic effects in the adult midgut, such as cell dilation, emission of cytoplasmic protrusions, cell lysis, loss of integrity of the cell cortex, dilation of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, swollen mitochondria, vesiculated appearance of the Golgi complex and dilated invaginations of the basal labyrinth. Epithelial cells responded to those injuries with various cytoprotective and detoxification mechanisms, including increases in cell proliferation, the number of calcium-containing cytoplasmic granules, and HSP 70 expression, autophagic processes and the development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but these mechanisms were insufficient for recovery from all of the cellular damage to the midgut. This study demonstrates that neem oil exposure impairs the midgut by causing sublethal effects that may affect the physiological functions of this organ, indicating the importance of studies of different life stages of this species and similar species to evaluate the safe and compatible integrated use of biopesticides.
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Out of various spices and leafy vegetables screened for their influence on the carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in Swiss mice, cumin seeds, poppy seeds, asafoetida, turmeric, kandathipili, neem flowers, manathakkali leaves, drumstick leaves, basil leaves and ponnakanni leaves increased GST activity by more than 78% in the stomach, liver and oesophagus, - high enough to be considered as protective agents against carcinogenesis. Glutathione levels were also significantly elevated in the three tissues by these plant products. All of them except neem flowers, significantly suppressed (in vivo) the chromosome aberrations (CA) caused by benzo(a)pyrene in mouse bone marrow cells. Multiple CA and exchanges reflecting the severity of damage within a cell were significantly suppressed by these nine plant products. The results suggest that these nine plant products are likely to suppress carcinogenesis and can act as protective agents against cancer.
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Sample of caries material was scrapped out from the extracted teeth and transferred to liquid broth, streaked over the agar media to allow for the growth of microorganisms. Plant products like clove oil, neem, ginger-garlic paste, tea tree oil, ginger, garlic, cinnamon oil, green tea, eucalyptus oil and turmeric were used. Antimicrobial efficacy of these products, was estimated by measuring zones of inhibition in the nutrient agar media.
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We investigated the cytotoxic effects of nimbolide, a limonoid present in leaves and flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) on human choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. Treatment with nimbolide resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of BeWo cells with IC(50) values of 2.01 and 1.19 microM for 7 and 24 h respectively, accompanied by downregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Examination of nuclear morphology revealed fragmentation and condensation indicating apoptosis. Increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was reversed by addition of reduced glutathione suggested ROS involvement in the cytotoxicity of nimbolide. A decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio with increased expression of Apaf-1 and caspase-3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase provide compelling evidence that nimbolide-induced apoptosis is mediated by the mitochondrial pathway. The results of the present study suggest that nimbolide has immense potential in cancer prevention and therapy based on its antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effects.
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c-Myc was found to be down regulated under the effect of 500 mg/kg ethanolic neem leaf extract.
Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors.
Some 9% of deaths in Ghana are attributed to malaria, which also accounts for 30% of outpatient visits and 9% of hospital admissions. A survey conducted in four areas of Ghana revealed that the factors perceived as causing malaria included malnutrition, mosquitos, excessive heat, excessive drinking, flies, fatigue, dirty surroundings, unsafe water, bad air, and poor personal hygiene. Most adolescents had no idea how the disease was spread from person to person. The symptoms most frequently considered to be linked to malaria were yellowing of the eyeballs, chills and shivering, headache, a bitter taste, body weakness, and yellowish urine. Malaria was considered to be the most important disease in the communities of Kojo Ashong, Barekese, Barekuma and Oyereko. There was a widespread understanding that malaria adversely impacted the ability of adults to work and of children to attend school. Herbal preparations for self-medication included liquids for drinking, liquids for use as enemas, and potions for hot fomentation. Most people used the leaves of the neem tree (Adzadi rachta indica) to make such preparations. Most interviewees were aware of chloroquine used in the treatment of malaria. A few people sprayed their rooms with insecticide before going to bed in order to kill mosquitos, while others used repellent coils. Bednets were rarely used. There was little knowledge of how the transmission cycle of the parasite could be broken. One social implication of the disease is that if the breadwinner dies, the children may have to cease attending school. For Africa as a whole the annual economic burden of malaria was $ 0.8 billion in 1987; by 1995 it is expected to be $ 1.7 billion. The first step in any control program should be to educate the people about the cause and treatment of the disease. District assemblies should enact bylaws on the cleanliness of households, which inspectors should enforce.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well known for its ability to form biofilm on indwelling medical devices. These biofilms are difficult to remove because of their high tolerance to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, there is a need to look for alternative agents such as medicinal plants, which can eradicate or inhibit biofilm effectively. This study evaluated the role of neem in inhibiting biofilm formation by P aeruginosa Factors contributing to adherence and biofilm formation were also studied. Results demonstrated that neem leaves extract was quite effective in disrupting formation and structure of biofilms. Moreover, the level of exopolysaccharide, alginate, hydrophobic interactions and uroepithelial cell attachment, which contributes to biofilm formation, was also affected significantly. Results confirm the effectiveness of neem extract in inhibiting biofilm formation. Such studies can lead to the discovery of safe antimicrobial drugs from natural sources without the risk of resistance.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the effcacy of commercially available herbal toothpastes against the different periodontopathogens.
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The main component of this pill is 2-Octadecanoic acid-4-Palmitic acid-2, 4-Pentanediyl ester separated from chloroform extract of neem oil. The microcapsules coated by the re-curdle method were fabricated with an average particle size of 100-180 microm. The morphological characteristics, incorporation efficiency, carrier reclamation efficiency of the microcapsule were investigated. Kunming mice were used in the experiment, and the anti-fertility effect of the microcapsule on the histology and apoptosis was studied by light and electron microscopy and the flow cytometry. The data obtained clearly indicated that the microcapsule could lead to the payload of medicine, the incorporation efficiency being 90%. After the microcapsules were given to the male mice orally, its anti-fertility effect came into being and could keep the mice in a state of reversible infertility for a long time. The results of histological study and flow cytometry indicate that the mechanism of its anti-fertility effect involves mainly the inhibition of sperm motility and the arrest of spermatogenic process.
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Total 60 patients of wounds with more than 6 weeks duration were enrolled and alternatively allocated to Group I (topical application of Neem oil), Group II (Haridra powder capsules, 1 g 3 times orally) and Group III (both drugs). Duration of treatment was considered until complete healing of the wound, whereas 4(th) and 8(th) week were considered for assessment of 50% healing. Wound size was measured and recorded at weekly intervals. Wound biopsy was repeated after 4 weeks for assessment of angiogenesis and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis.
The prior Odds that HVGICs are clinically inferior to amalgam as restorative materials in posterior permanent teeth in relation to the hypothesis that this is not so was 1.12 to 1. The Likelihood Ratio based on new evidence in favor the hypothesis was zero and the subsequent posterior Odds 0 to 1. Therefore, based on the new evidence, the Odds that HVGICs are clinically inferior to amalgam as restorative materials in posterior permanent teeth degreased from 1.12 to zero.
The repellent action of neem oil was evaluated against sand flies under laboratory and field conditions. Concentrations of 2% neem oil mixed in coconut or mustard oil provided 100% protection against Phlebotomus argentipes throughout the night under field conditions; against Phlebotomus papatasi it repelled sand flies for about 7 h in the laboratory. Neem oil is an indigenous product and a low-cost alternative for personal protection against sand fly bites.
We evaluated the chemopreventive potential of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MF) of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Estradiol and estrogen receptor status, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities, redox status, DNA and protein modifications, and the expression of cell proliferation, and apoptosis related proteins in the mammary gland and liver were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. Administration of both EAF and MF at a dose of 10mg/kg bw effectively suppressed tumour incidence. Chemoprevention by neem leaf fractions was associated with modulation of hormone and receptor status, xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, and lipid and protein oxidation, with upregulation of antioxidants, inhibition of oxidative DNA damage, protein modification, and cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. However EAF rich in constituent phytochemicals was more effective than MF in modulating multiple molecular targets. These results provide evidence for the chemopreventive efficacy of neem leaf fractions in the rat mammary tumour model.
Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.
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All the natural product treatments applied were significantly effective in inhibiting aflatoxin B(1) production on soybean seeds by A. flavus.
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The antibacterial activity of an ethylacetate neem cake extract (NCE) against bacteria that affect meat quality, namely Campylobacter jejuni, Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc sp., is reported. The antibacterial activity was detected using standardised disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. The bacterial growth inhibition zone ranged from 11.33 ± 0.58 to 22.67 ± 0.58 mm (100 μL NCE). There is significant difference between the growth inhibition zone of NCE and the control (ciprofloxacin 100 μg). The percent of bacterial growth reduction range was 79.75 ± 1.53 to 90.73 ± 1.53 (100 μg NCE) as compared with control (without NCE). NCE in different amounts counteracted the growth of all tested bacteria.
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To compare the effect of Neem oil and Haridra in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds.
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Rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium spp., essential oils from the cultivars 'Bourbon', 'China', 'Egypt', 'Rober's Lemon Rose' and 'Frensham' were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 136 compounds were identified from five essential oils, constituting 85.5-99.7% of the oils. Essential oils and pure compounds were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Stephanitis pyrioides and larvicidal and biting deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti.
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To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR.
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Despite advances in the development of anticaries chemotherapy, the newer agents are unable to control the initiation of dental caries. Research and development of natural antibacterial agents that are safe for the host as well as specific for oral pathogens is awaited. Neem tree extracts have been used for thousands of years for maintaining overall well-being. Chewing neem sticks in the morning is the most common indigenous method of cleaning the mouth in rural population. This has generated the interest of the dentists for the use of neem for controlling dental diseases.