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Nizoral (Ketoconazole)

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Nizoral is an extra-class medicine which is taken in treatment of infections such as throat yeast infections, vaginal yeast infections, fungal infections, esophagus. Nizoral is a helpful for patients with Cushing's syndrome, hair growth, prostate cancer, eumycetoma, tinea versicolor, leishmaniasis, high blood levels of calcium. Nizoral acts as an anti-fungal drug.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Grifulvin, Lamisil, Sporanox, Grifulvin V, Diflucan, Fluconazole, Sporanox PulsePak, Onmel, Amphocin, Voriconazole, Abelcet, Fungizone, Vfend, Onmel, Abelcet


Also known as:  Ketoconazole.


Nizoral is developed with a help of medical professionals to fight with infections (throat yeast infections, vaginal yeast infections, fungal infections, esophagus), Cushing's syndrome, women hair growth, prostate cancer, eumycetoma, tinea versicolor, leishmaniasis, high blood levels of calcium. Target of Nizoral is to control, ward off, reduce and terminate fungi growth.

Nizoral acts as an anti-fungal drug. Nizoral operates by reducing fungi growth spreads by infection.

Nizoral is also known as Ketoconazole, Fung.

Nizoral is imidazole.


You should take it by mouth with full glass of water.

Take Nizoral once a day at the same time.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Nizoral suddenly.


If you overdose Nizoral and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Nizoral overdosage: feeling lightheaded, diarrhea, migraine, abnormal pain, ears ringing, nausea, rething.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Nizoral are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Nizoral if you are allergic to Nizoral components.

Do not take Nizoral if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not use Nizoral if you take astemizole (Hismanal), cisapride (Propulsid), midazolam (Versed), triazolam (Halcion).

Be careful if you are taking oral diabetes medicine as glipizide (Glucotrol), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glyburide (Glynase, Diabeta, Micronase), tolazamide (Tolinase), tolbutamide (Orinase); tacrolimus (Prograf); rifampin (Rimactane, Rifadin); warfarin (Coumadin); cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); antacids; famotidine (Pepcid, AC Pepcid), cimetidine (Tagamet HB, Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac 75, Zantac), nizatidine (Axid AR, Axid); digoxin (Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin); methylprednisolone (Medrol); phenytoin (Dilantin); rabeprazole (Aciphex), omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid).

Be careful if you have liver disease, achlorhydria.

Avoid consuming alcohol.

Try to avoid machine driving.

It can be dangerous to stop Nizoral taking suddenly.

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Thirty-seven women with no tumoral hyperandrogenism treated with ketoconazole for 9 months (400 mg/day) were studied during treatment and one month after suppression of the medication. The study included the evaluation of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and hormonal determinations of estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, sulphate and sex hormone binding globulin.

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Many prostate cancer patients with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels following radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy receive "early" hormonal therapy, despite its uncertain benefit. When these patients ultimately progress to androgen independence, their management remains controversial, with many receiving second-line hormonal therapy. Chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer has a defined palliative benefit; studies to establish its potential impact on survival are ongoing. E-1899 is an intergroup phase III trial comparing second-line hormonal therapy with ketoconazole plus hydrocortisone with docetaxel plus estramustine in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer with rising PSA levels who have no evidence of metastases.

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The findings of this study reveal that mitragynine might inhibit cytochrome P450 enzyme activities, specifically CYP2D6. Therefore, administration of mitragynine together with herbal or modern drugs which follow the same metabolic pathway may contribute to herb-drug interactions.

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Ten cases of sporotrichosis associated with armadillo hunting detected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were diagnosed by mycological methods. The susceptibility tests of Sporothrix schenckii isolates to antifungal agents itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine showed that all the isolates were susceptible.

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Risperidone is a relatively new antipsychotic drug that has been reported to improve both the positive and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and produces relatively few extrapyramidal side effects at low doses. Formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone, an active metabolite, is the most important metabolic pathway of risperidone in human. In the present study, in vitro metabolism of risperidone (100 microM) was investigated using the recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9-arg144, CYP2C9-cys144, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 supplemented with an NADPH-generating system. 9-Hydroxyrisperidone was determined by a new HPLC method with an Hypersil CN column and a UV detector. Of these enzymes, CYPs 2D6, 3A4 and 3A5 were found to be the ones capable of metabolising risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, with activities of 7.5, 0.4 and 0.2 pmol pmol(-1) CYP min(-1), respectively. A correlation study using a panel of human liver microsomes showed that the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is highly correlated with CYP2D6 and 3A activities. Thus, both CYP2D6 and 3A4 are involved in the 9-hydroxylation of risperidone at the concentration of risperidone used in this study. This observation is confirmed by the findings that both quinidine (inhibitor of CYP2D6) and ketoconazole (inhibitor of CYP3A4) can inhibit the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Furthermore, inducers of CYP can significantly increase the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone in rat. The formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is highly correlated with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activities, suggesting that inducible CYP3A contributes significantly to the metabolism of risperidone in rat.

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Complete cure of mycetoma is difficult to achieve and recurrence is common. The study objective was to determine the predictors of cure, amputation and follow-up dropout among the studied individuals with mycetoma. This prospective study included 1544 patients with confirmed mycetoma, of whom 1242 had eumycetoma and 302 actinomycetoma. They were treated and followed up regularly. Data were collected and analysed using logistic regression models to determine the predictors. In the eumycetoma group, longer treatment duration (OR=1.9; 95% CI 1.2-3.1) and absence of history of disease recurrence (OR=24.2; 95% CI 7.7-76.3) were significant predictors of increased odds of cure from mycetoma. A lesion size of 5-10 cm (OR=0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.8) or >10 cm (OR=0.7; 95% CI 0.4-1.0) and combined medical treatment and surgery (OR=0.004; 95% CI 0.001-0.011) were each significant predictors of reduced odds of cure. Follow-up dropout among this group was high (54%). Large lesions (5-10 cm, OR=0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.7; >10 cm, OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.5-0.9), amputations (OR=0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.6) and longer treatment duration (OR=0.5; 95% CI 0.4-0.7) were significant predictors of reduced odds of follow-up dropout. In the actinomycetoma group, medical treatment was the only significant predictor of cure. Follow-up dropout among this group was also high (55.6%). Long treatment duration was a significant predictor of reduced odds of dropout (OR=0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.8). There is a great demand for effective and efficient mycetoma treatment. Counselling and health education of patients is badly needed to encourage early reporting and treatment to reduce mycetoma's medical, social and economic impacts.

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Advancement of in silico tools would be enabled by the availability of data for metabolic reaction rates and intrinsic clearance (CLint) of a diverse compound structure data set by specific metabolic enzymes. Our goal is to measure CLint for a large set of compounds with each major human cytochrome P450 (P450) isozyme. To achieve our goal, it is of utmost importance to develop an automated, robust, sensitive, high-throughput metabolic stability assay that can efficiently handle a large volume of compound sets. The substrate depletion method [in vitro half-life (t1/2) method] was chosen to determine CLint The assay (384-well format) consisted of three parts: 1) a robotic system for incubation and sample cleanup; 2) two different integrated, ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) platforms to determine the percent remaining of parent compound, and 3) an automated data analysis system. The CYP3A4 assay was evaluated using two long t1/2 compounds, carbamazepine and antipyrine (t1/2 > 30 minutes); one moderate t1/2 compound, ketoconazole (10 < t1/2 < 30 minutes); and two short t1/2 compounds, loperamide and buspirone (t½ < 10 minutes). Interday and intraday precision and accuracy of the assay were within acceptable range (∼12%) for the linear range observed. Using this assay, CYP3A4 CLint and t1/2 values for more than 3000 compounds were measured. This high-throughput, automated, and robust assay allows for rapid metabolic stability screening of large compound sets and enables advanced computational modeling for individual human P450 isozymes.

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Multifocal fungal (Aspergillus terreus) discospondylitis was diagnosed in 2 German shepherd dogs. In one dog, the aetiology was established by means of fluoroscopic-guided disc aspiration, cytology and culture of disc material and urine. Disseminated aspergillosis was confirmed at necropsy and A. terreus cultured from numerous organs in this dog. The aetiology in the other dog was not established until therapeutic failure forced surgical curettage of disc material from which the fungus was cultured. Ketoconazole therapy failed to effect an improvement, and at necropsy, disease was localised to the spinal column, with A. terreus cultured from the affected discs and associated vertebrae. Immunodeficiency was suspected in both cases. In the case of disseminated disease a reduced lymphocyte blastogenic response was demonstrated. Reduced IgA was shown in both cases. The German shepherd breed seems to be predisposed to Aspergillus infections and IgA deficiency.

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Itraconazole, a systemically active antifungal, was tested for its effects on microscopically assessed phagocytosis and killing of Candida glabrata 233 in vitro. Yeast cells were exposed to itraconazole in culture and guinea-pig peritoneal polymorphonuclear leucocytes were exposed to the drug injected intraperitoneally in vivo. At a concentration of 10(-7) M and with exposure times of 1 h, itraconazole pre-treatment of the leucocytes had no effect on the ability of PMNL to ingest or kill C. glabrata. However, pre-treatment of the growing C. glabrata cells under the same conditions significantly increased their vulnerability to both phagocytosis and intracellular killing. Longer exposures of the yeasts to itraconazole further increased their susceptibility to leucocyte phagocytosis, and it also rendered the cells vulnerable to killing merely by immersion in sodium deoxycholate solution. These findings indicate that short exposures of C. glabrata to low itraconazole concentrations damages the cells sublethally and renders them highly susceptible to leucocyte killing. Itraconazole had no direct effects on leucocyte function itself.

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The diagnosis of acute lymphatic non-T-non-B leukaemia of common ALL type was confirmed in a 22-year-old woman. Cytostatic treatment brought full remission for 21/2 years. Renewed cytostatic treatment for recurrence brought about a mucormycosis in the mid-face region during a period of protracted agranulocytosis, despite antibiotic prophylaxis with ketoconazole and cotrimoxazole. The causative mucor organism was demonstrated in smears and biopsy material. The infection was successfully treated with i.v. amphotericin B and débridement of the affected tissue. There remained large tissue defects in the region of gum, nose, upper lip and right oral cavity. Previously the mortality rate of mucormycosis in the course of leukaemia was 100%.

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Ketoconazole (KT) is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent whose pharmacological activity is based on the capability to interfere with steroid biosynthesis through an interaction with fungal cytochrome P-450 enzymes and thereby avoiding the formation of fungal walls. As the inhibition of fungal cytochrome P-450 by KT is not specific, the mammalian cytochrome P-450 species, which play an important role in the biosynthesis of steroidogenesis, are also affected. The reproductive and developmental toxicity of KT have been assessed. This antimycotic agent has been reported as embryotoxic and teratogenic when administered in high doses (80 mg/kg) to pregnant rats. The mechanisms by which KT exert teratogenic effects remains to be elucidated. When considering the potential inhibitory effect of KT on mammalian steroid biosynthesis as a possible responsible for the skeletal anomalies induced by this drug, this study aimed at determining whether steroid maternal supplementation may prevent the skeletal anomalies induced by KT. To test this hypothesis, maternal supplementation with prednisone (PRED) (0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg) and 80 mg/kg of KT were administered to pregnant Wistar rats (n = 10) during organogenesis period. On gestational day 21, the dams were euthanized and examined for standard parameters of reproductive outcome. In summary, the results showed that PRED supplementation therapy may cause reductions in the incidence of KT-induced cranial and appendicular skeletal anomalies as well as cleft palate in the rat, being these results more consistent with 0.4 mg/kg of this drug. These results suggest an important role for glucocorticoids in KT-induced teratogenesis.

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Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare cause of corneal infection in Taiwan, which can result in devastating visual outcomes. A 37-year-old woman, who wore soft contact lenses, suffered from severe pain in her left eye. Biomicroscopy revealed dendritic keratitis, radial keratoneuritis, and fine keratic precipitates on her cornea. Culture, using non-nutrient agar plate seeded with Escherichia coli, resulted in heavy growth of Acanthamoeba. The inpatient treatment, including topical neomycin-polymyxin B and metronidazole (0.5%) eyedrops, oral ketoconazole, and then oral prednisolone, successfully controlled the corneal infection. The best-corrected visual acuity was 0.9 without any evidence of recurrence of infection after 21 months of follow up. Acanthamoeba keratitis can present as dendritic keratitis, which mimics herpes simplex infection, thus, delays appropriate treatment. Early diagnosis and judicious treatment are essential for restoring the vision and avoiding the subsequent need of penetrating keratoplasty.

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The model described here may present more similar conditions to clinical fungal infections; therefore the results such as MIC may be more helpful for hiring the most effective antifungal agent.

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Molecular phylogeny positioned S. purpuratus CYP51 at the base of the deuterostome clade. In zebrafish, CYP51 is expressed in all organs examined, most strongly in intestine. The recombinant protein bound lanosterol and catalyzed 14α-demethylase activity, at 3.2nmol/min/nmol CYP51. The binding of azoles to zebrafish CYP51 gave KS (dissociation constant) values of 0.26μM for ketoconazole and 0.64μM for propiconazole. Displacement of carbon monoxide also indicated zebrafish CYP51 has greater affinity for ketoconazole. Docking to homology models showed that lanosterol docks in fish and sea urchin CYP51s with an orientation essentially the same as in mammalian CYP51s. Docking of ketoconazole indicates it would inhibit fish and sea urchin CYP51s.

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The polyenes, amphotericin B and mepartricin and the imidazoles, miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole, were studied either alone or in paired polyene-imidazole combinations to determine their activity in vitro against clinical yeast isolates. The methods included shaken and standing liquid cultures, continuous cultures and chequerboard titrations, with or without the incorporation of pooled human plasma. The polyenes were found to exert an immediate cidal action even with high cell populations whereas the imidazoles demonstrated a time-dependent fungistatic activity which increased very slowly with increase in drug concentration. The interactions observed with the paired combinations were consistent and were found to be anomalous with all methods used. The activity of the imidazoles was enhanced by the presence of the polyenes; by contrast the polyenes were strongly antagonized by the imidazoles.

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This is the second case report of a temporal bone osteomyelitis caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis, which presented as a chronic serous otitis media. The presenting serous otitis media was refractory to conventional medical and surgical management and progressed to a temporal bone osteomyelitis prior to diagnosis. B. dermatitidis is a rare fungal pathogen that causes a systemic pyogranulomatous disease that primarily manifests itself in the skin, bones, pulmonary, and genitourinary systems. If left untreated it is associated with a high rate of mortality. The otologic presentation of this rare disease is emphasized, while the clinical and therapeutic features are reviewed.

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A PPK model was constructed using pooled ospemifene concentrations. Covariates considered before start of the analysis were: age, race, body weight, BMI, albumin, alanine amino-transferase, bilirubin, and creatinine clearance. The expected distribution of ospemifene concentration was derived for the 4 cases in phase-1 studies that increased ospemifene exposure: administration to severe renal impairment subjects (case 1), administration to moderate hepatic impairment subjects (case 2), coadministration with ketoconazole (case 3), or coadministration with fluconazole (case 4). Safety information in a long-term safety trial was used to assess the potential changes in risk of adverse events with ospemifene-exposure increase.

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The efficacy was analyzed in 66 out of the 79 patients included in the study (36 patients treated with oxiconazole, 30 with ketoconazole). At Day 14, a first assessment was made and 77.1 p. 100 of the patients treated with oxiconazole had been cured; this result was significantly better (p < 0.05) than that obtained with ketoconazole (51.7 p. 100 of cured patients). At Day 21, after a further week of treatment, both treatments were efficient with statistically non-different results between the two groups: 97.2 p. 100 of the patients treated with oxiconazole, versus 86.7 p. 100 with ketoconazole. Thus, a greater rapidity of action of oxiconazole was observed. No correlation was detected between the ratio of cured patients and the duration of the mycosis. The safety was assessed in 74 patients. No adverse effects were reported for the patients treated with oxiconazole, whereas 9 patients treated with ketoconazole experienced contact sensitization reactions and irritant skin reactions due to the application of the product. The difference between the two groups of treatment was statistically greatly significant (p < 0.001). Furthermore, acceptance of the drug on the part of the patient was better (p < 0.05) with oxiconazole.

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Twenty-four subjects were enrolled. Compared with neratinib administered alone, co-administration of ketoconazole increased neratinib C(max) by 3.2-fold (90% CI: 2.4, 4.3) and AUC by 4.8-fold (3.6, 6.5). Median t(max) was 6.0 h with both regimens. Ketoconazole decreased mean apparent oral clearance of neratinib from 346 lh(-1) to 87.1 lh(-1) and increased mean elimination half-life from 11.7 h to 18.0 h. The incidence of adverse events was comparable between the two regimens (50% neratinib alone, 65% co-administration with ketoconazole).

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Low-dose ritonavir produces extensive CYP3A inhibition exceeding that of ketoconazole (typically 10- to 15-fold midazolam AUC enhancement), and is a suitable positive control index inhibitor for drug-drug interaction studies. ALT-2074 inhibits CYP3A metabolism to a small degree that is of uncertain clinical importance.

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Mammalian cells, cultured in the presence of serum lipoproteins, acquire cholesterol necessary for growth from the uptake and lysosomal hydrolysis of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). The mechanism(s) of intracellular transport of LDL-derived cholesterol from lysosomes to other cellular sites is unknown. In this study, various pharmacological agents were assessed for their ability to inhibit the movement of LDL-cholesterol from lysosomes to the plasma membrane. The only pharmacological agent tested in these experiments that specifically inhibited LDL-cholesterol movement was U18666A. Ketoconazole impaired the intracellular transport of LDL-cholesterol; however, ketoconazole also had a general effect on cholesterol movement, since it impeded the desorption of endogenously synthesized cholesterol into the medium. Other drugs that affected cholesterol movement appeared to be nonspecific. Cholesterol transport from lysosomes to plasma membranes was not significantly altered by agents that affect lysosomal function or cytoskeletal organization, as well as energy poisons and cycloheximide.

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The electrochemical reactions of the antifungal drugs itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole have been investigated by differential pulse polarography (DPP) using a dropping mercury electrode (DME). All investigations were carried out in Britton-Robinson buffer solutions and methanol with varying pH values. Ketoconazole and itraconazole both showed a reduction peak with a potential between -1.5V and -1.6 V. Stable and reproducible conditions for the determination of itraconazole (c = 1 x 10(-7) M) were found within the pH range of 6.0 to 8.0 and for the determination of ketoconazole (c = 5 x 10(-8) M) within pH 6.0 to 7.0. Voriconazole showed a reduction peak with a peak potential of -1.7 V (c = 1 x 10(-5) M) within the pH range of 8.0 to 10.0. In the case of fluconazole no electrochemical activity was found.

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In vitro anti-dermatophyte, anti-Candida albicans and anti-Malassezia furfur activities of amorolfine hydrochloride (AMF), terbinafine hydrochloride (TBF), butenafine hydrochloride (BTF), neticonazole hydrochloride (NCZ) and ketoconazole (KCZ), all of which were introduced for the treatment of dermatomycoses in the 1990s in Japan, were compared. Although all of the test drugs are classified as an ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor, the antifungal properties were found to be different. TBF and BTF exerted extremely potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton spp. but not against C. albicans and M. furfur, whilst KCZ and NCZ showed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans and M. furfur rather than Trichophyton spp. AMF exhibited potent antifungal activity against all of the fungal species tested. Fungicidal activities of these antifungal agents against T. rubrum were determined by using neutral red staining. The fungicidal potentialities correlated with those obtained in the in vitro susceptibility test as determined by MICs against dermatophytes. TBF, BTF and AMF exerted more potent fungicidal action than NCZ and KCZ.

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Drug-target interaction (DTI) is the basis of drug discovery and design. It is time consuming and costly to determine DTI experimentally. Hence, it is necessary to develop computational methods for the prediction of potential DTI. Based on complex network theory, three supervised inference methods were developed here to predict DTI and used for drug repositioning, namely drug-based similarity inference (DBSI), target-based similarity inference (TBSI) and network-based inference (NBI). Among them, NBI performed best on four benchmark data sets. Then a drug-target network was created with NBI based on 12,483 FDA-approved and experimental drug-target binary links, and some new DTIs were further predicted. In vitro assays confirmed that five old drugs, namely montelukast, diclofenac, simvastatin, ketoconazole, and itraconazole, showed polypharmacological features on estrogen receptors or dipeptidyl peptidase-IV with half maximal inhibitory or effective concentration ranged from 0.2 to 10 µM. Moreover, simvastatin and ketoconazole showed potent antiproliferative activities on human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line in MTT assays. The results indicated that these methods could be powerful tools in prediction of DTIs and drug repositioning.

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An HPLC method to determine simultaneously ketoconazole and formaldehyde in an anti-dandruff shampoo, originally developed on a long column, was transferred to two short columns with similar stationary phase properties, but with a length of at the most 30% of the initial one. Using the conventional column as reference, the fast HPLC methods on the short columns were validated. The validation characteristics consisted of selectivity, linearity range, precision (repeatability and time-different intermediate precision), bias and robustness. For the ketoconazole assay, linearity for peak area was found in the concentration range up to 0.20 mg/ml. For formaldehyde, two calibration ranges (0-10 x 10(-5) and 0-10 x 10(-4)%) were linear, both for peak area and height. The assays for both ketoconazole and formaldehyde in these ranges showed no bias and an acceptable precision, although the precision found with the short columns was slightly worse than with the long one. The robustness tests were performed applying a Plackett-Burman design. For the ketoconazole assay, 6 factors were examined in a 12 experiments design and for formaldehyde, 11 factors in 16 experiments. The methods were found to be robust. Despite the somewhat less good precision the transfer seems to be successful and the obtained assays on the short columns are applicable for fast routine analysis.

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nizoral gel 2017-11-05

Blood samples of 162 severely burned patients (including 120 patients with extremely severe burn) with bloodstream infection admitted into our burn ICU from January 2011 to December 2014 were collected. Pathogens were cultured by fully automatic blood culture system, and API bacteria identification panels were used to identify pathogen. Kirby-Bauer paper disk diffusion method was used to detect the drug resistance of major Gram-negative and -positive bacteria to 37 antibiotics including ampicillin, piperacillin and teicoplanin, etc. (resistance to vancomycin was detected by E test), and drug resistance of fungi to 5 antibiotics including voriconazole and amphotericin B, etc. Modified Hodge test was used to further identify imipenem and meropenem buy nizoral resistant Klebsiella pneumonia. D test was used to detect erythromycin-induced clindamycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The pathogen distribution and drug resistance rate were analyzed by WHONET 5.5. Mortality rate and infected pathogens of patients with extremely severe burn and patients with non-extremely severe burn were recorded. Data were processed with Wilcoxon rank sum test.

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Eighty-nine patients with progressive buy nizoral prostate cancer despite suppression of testosterone and withdrawal of anti-androgens were studied. This was a relatively advanced population, with 63 of 89 having either osseous metastases (mets) beyond the axial skeleton or visceral mets. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either ketoconazole alone, or ketoconazole with weekly doxorubicin. All patients received replacement hydrocortisone. The primary endpoints were response and survival. Based on PSA reduction criteria (>/= 80% maintained for at least 8 weeks), 14 of 45 patients (31%) in the single-agent ketoconazole arm responded. Sixteen of 44 patients (36%) in the combination ketoconazole/doxorubicin arm responded. There were no important differences between the two treatments in any outcome measure. The median overall survival for all patients was 12.5 months; median time to progression was 3.3 months. Toxicity was significant with both regimens, and more severe in the doxorubicin arm. Fully 20% of patients in each arm discontinued therapy due to intolerable side effects.Each of these regimens is toxic, and produced responses in fewer than half of treated patients. Although the observed median survival does compare favorably with reports from similar cohorts treated in the community, the potential benefit is only modest. In our view, neither of these regimens is sufficiently promising to justify phase 3 evaluation.

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Rilpivirine (TMC278) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved in combination with other antiretrovirals for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in treatment-naive adults (Edurant(®) 25 mg once daily; Complera(®) [USA]/Eviplera(®) [EU] once daily single-tablet regimen). Rilpivirine should be administered with a meal to optimize bioavailability. Its solubility is pH dependent. Rilpivirine is primarily excreted via the feces with negligible renal elimination. Rilpivirine is predominantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4. There is no clinically relevant effect of age, gender, bodyweight, race, estimated glomerular filtration rate, or hepatitis B/C coinfection status on rilpivirine pharmacokinetics in adults. Drug-drug interactions were investigated with cytochrome P450 3A substrates, inducers and inhibitors, drugs altering intragastric pH, antiretrovirals, and other often coadministered drugs. Rilpivirine 25 mg once daily does not have a clinically relevant effect on exposure buy nizoral of coadministered drugs. Coadministration with cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors (ketoconazole, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, telaprevir) results in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations, but these are not considered clinically relevant; no dose adjustments are required. Coadministration of rilpivirine with cytochrome P450 3A inducers (e.g. rifampin, rifabutin) or compounds increasing gastric pH (e.g. omeprazole, famotidine) results in decreased rilpivirine plasma concentrations, which may increase the risk of virologic failure and resistance development. Therefore, strong cytochrome P450 3A inducers and proton-pump inhibitors are contraindicated. Histamine-2 receptor antagonists and antacids can be coadministered with rilpivirine, provided doses are temporally separated. No dose adjustments are required when rilpivirine is coadministered with: acetaminophen, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, etc.), atorvastatin (and other statins), oral contraceptives (ethinyl estradiol, norethindrone), chlorzoxazone (cytochrome P450 2E1 substrate), methadone, digoxin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, didanosine and other nuceos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and HIV integrase inhibitors (raltegravir, dolutegravir, GSK1265744).

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Persistence of ligand-mediated androgen receptor signaling has buy nizoral been documented in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CYP17, which is required for androgen biosynthesis in the testes, adrenal glands, and prostate tissue. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of AA in combination with prednisone to reduce the symptoms of secondary hyperaldosteronism that can occur with AA monotherapy.

nizoral buy 2015-07-27

The role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) on the absorption process was investigated by drug-drug interaction studies of TAK-427 with P-gp inhibitors (erythromycin, ketoconazole or quinidine) in rats and by transport studies using buy nizoral rat multidrug resistance (MDR1) stably expressing cells and rat small intestine mounted in a Ussing-type chamber. TAK-427 showed high efflux activity with low permeability in rat MDR1a and MDR1b stably expressing cells and was revealed to be a typical substrate for P-gps. Although TAK-427 was mainly absorbed from the small intestine in rats, a large part of the dosed compound remained in the gastrointestinal tract. Orally co-administered P-gp inhibitors (50 mg/kg) increased the AUC of TAK-427 after a 5 mg/kg oral dose 5.4- to 18.3-fold, whereas orally administered P-gp inhibitors had a minor effect on the increase in the AUC of TAK-427 (1.3- to 2.2-fold) after a 0.5 mg/kg intravenous dose. Thus, the bioavailability of TAK-427 after oral administration in rats (7.3%) markedly increased when co-administered with P-gp inhibitors (28.6-57.6%). Moreover, the transport of TAK-427 was predominantly secretory throughout the rat small intestine and was inhibited by P-gp inhibitors. In conclusion, P-gp can markedly reduce the absorption of a typical P-gp substrate by its efflux activity throughout the absorption site.

nizoral cream generic 2015-01-15

1. A high throughput screening (HTS) method for the evaluation of the seven major human hepatic CYP isoform activities was developed on a 96-well format, with automation. The method utilized pooled human liver microsomes and seven probe substrates, generic conditions for incubation, reaction termination and metabolite extraction with solid phase extraction (SPE) plates. Metabolites from the seven reactions were pooled and quantified using a generic liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) method. 2. The HTS method was validated based on Km values obtained, which were in agreement with literature data. 3. The isoform inhibition profiles of ketoconazole, quinidine, sulfaphenazole, tranylcypromine, alpha-naphthoflavone, and 4-methylpyrazole against CYPs 3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2A6 land 2C19), 1A2 and 2E1, respectively, were obtained by this HTS buy nizoral method. Graphically obtained IC50 values are in agreement with literature reported values. 4. The HTS method represents a significant efficiency and selectivity improvement over traditional methods, and can be used for CYP inhibition assay and can be extended for liver activity profiling.

nizoral dose 2016-05-08

The effects of xenobiotics on CYP11B1-dependent corticosterone synthesis (11 beta-hydroxylase) in mouse adrenocortical Y1 cells were studied. 3-Methylsulfonyl-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (MeSO2-DDE) and some methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyls (MeSO2-PCB) inhibited the corticosterone synthesis, whereas PCBs or DDE did not. This indicates a crucial role of the methyl sulfone group for this inhibitory effect. Kinetic analyses of MeSO2-DDE and the two most potent MeSO2-PCBs were conducted using Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The data showed a competitive inhibition of CYP11B1 by the compounds, with apparent inhibitory constants (Ki) of 1.6, 4.6, and 6.7 microM for MeSO2-DDE, 4-MeSO2-2,3,6,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 4 buy nizoral -MeSO2-2,3,6,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, respectively. For comparison, the substrate K(m) was 3.5 microM in the cells, and metyrapone and ketoconazole had apparent Ki-values of 0.8 and 0.04 microM, respectively. In contrast to all previously known inhibitors of CYP11B1, the aryl methyl sulfones are the first examples of CYP11B1 inhibitors not being heterocyclic amines or steroids. The aryl methyl sulfones are widespread environmental pollutants and their inhibition of CYP11B1 constitutes another potential mechanism for endocrine disruption. Their influence on the synthesis of adrenocortical hormones thus merits further interest.

nizoral 200 mg 2015-09-19

Vitamin D metabolites are important effectors of bone and mineral homeostasis. Extrarenal conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] is catalyzed in several cell types by the 1 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), but little is known about the expression or regulation of CYP27B1 in human bones. We examined whether human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs, also known as mesenchymal stem cells) participate in vitamin D metabolism and whether vitamin D hydroxylases in hMSCs are influenced by the vitamin D status of the individual from whom the hMSCs were obtained. We also investigated the effects of vitamin D metabolites on osteoblast differentiation and the role of IGF-I in the regulation of CYP27B1. In a series of 27 subjects, vitamin D hydroxylases in hMSCs were expressed at different levels and were correlated with serum 25OHD, 1,25(OH)(2)D, and PTH. In vitro treatment with 25OHD up-regulated CYP27B1 and IGF-I in hMSCs; IGF-I also up-regulated CY27B1 expression and stimulated osteoblast differentiation. When hydroxylation of 25OHD was blocked by ketoconazole, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, 25OHD was no longer able to induce CYP27B1 expression. In summary, these findings show that human bone marrow stromal cells have the molecular machinery both to metabolize and respond to vitamin D. We propose that circulating 25OHD, by virtue of its local conversion to 1,25(OH)(2)D catalyzed by basal CYP27B1 in hMSCs, amplifies vitamin D signaling through IGF-I up-regulation, which in turn induces CYP27B1 in a feed-forward mechanism to potentiate osteoblast differentiation initiated by IGF-I buy nizoral .

nizoral brand 2015-02-06

In the study 106 diabetic pregnant women and 102 healthy buy nizoral pregnant women were included. Susceptibility of the fungal strains was assessed in vitro by disk diffusion test.

nizoral dandruff reviews 2016-04-16

Ten patients with eumycetoma were treated with oral ketoconazole in the dosage of 400mg/day for 8 to 24 months. In eight cases the foot was affected: four were due to Madurella mycetomatis and one each due to M grisea, Pyrenochaeta romeroi, Acremonium kiliense and A falciorme. One mycetoma which affected the back and perineum was due to A kiliense, and one case presented with multiple sebaceous cysts and the scalp and M mycetomatis was isolated from the lesion. Clinical and laboratory tests showed excellent tolerance to buy nizoral the drug, with no adverse reactions. Complete cure was obtained in six patients and two showed good responses. The cured patients were followed up for a period ranging from three months to two years without any evidence of recurrence.

nizoral pills price 2015-08-15

In the present study, the involvement of cytochrome P450 enzyme(s) in the primary metabolism of laquinimod, a new orally active immunomodulator, has been investigated in human liver microsomes. Hydroxylated and dealkylated metabolites were formed. The metabolite formation exhibited single enzyme Michaelis-Menten kinetics with apparent KM in the range of 0.09 to 1.9 mM and Vmax from 22 to 120 pmol/mg/min. A strong correlation between the formation rate of metabolites and 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone was obtained within a panel of liver microsomes from 15 individuals (r2 = 0.6 to 0.94). Moreover, ketoconazole and troleandomycin, specific inhibitors of CYP3A4 metabolism, demonstrated a significant inhibition of laquinimod metabolism. Furthermore, in incubations with recombinant CYP3A4, all the primary metabolites were formed. In vitro interaction studies with CYP3A4 substrates and possible concomitant medication demonstrated that laquinimod inhibits the metabolism of ethinyl estradiol with an IC50 value of about 150 microM, which is high above the buy nizoral plasma level of laquinimod after clinically relevant doses. Ketoconazole, troleandomycin, erythromycin, prednisolone, and ethinyl estradiol inhibited the metabolism of laquinimod, and IC50 values of 0.2, 11, 24, 87, and 235 microM, respectively, were calculated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that laquinimod is a low affinity substrate for CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. The likelihood for in vivo effects of laquinimod on the metabolism of other CYP3A4 substrates is minor. However, inhibitory effects on the metabolism of laquinimod by potent and specific inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as ketoconazole, are anticipated and should be considered in the continued clinical program for laquinimod.

nizoral t gel 2017-11-14

Furafylline was a potent, selective inhibitor of phenacetin O-deethylation (CYP1A2-mediated) in human liver microsomes (IC50 = 0.48 microM), but inhibited both phenacetin O-deethylation and tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation (CYP2C9-mediated) at equimolar concentrations in rat liver microsomes (IC50 = 20.8 and 24.0 microM buy nizoral respectively). Sulphaphenazole demonstrated selective inhibition of tolbutamide hydroxylation in human liver microsomes but failed to inhibit this reaction in rat liver microsomes. DDC demonstrated a low level of selectivity as an inhibitory probe for chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (CYP2E1-mediated). DDC also inhibited testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A-mediated) in man and rat, and tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity in rat. Ketoconazole was a very potent, selective inhibitor of CYP3A4 activity in human liver (IC50 = 0.04 microM). Although inhibiting CYP3A in rat liver it also inhibited all other reactions at concentrations < or = 5 microM.

nizoral generic shampoo 2017-12-19

Despite an epidemic of obesity among buy nizoral adults, the effect of excess body weight on outcome from critical illness is not well studied.

nizoral cream dosage 2017-06-09

We conducted a search of the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Cleocin Hcl Dosage Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (all from inception to August 2016) to identify relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We searched the United Kingdom National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines and the references of relevant reviews and RCTs. We also searched the clinical trial registries for ongoing trials (inception until August 2016).

nizoral pills buy 2015-07-16

Four dogs with blastomycosis were treated with ketoconazole, and good results were obtained in 3 of the 4 cases. Dogs that responded to treatment had manifested a Abilify Generic Coupon variety of the clinical forms of blastomycosis (osseous, pulmonary, lymphatic, and ocular), and all lesions in the dogs abated. There were no clinical signs or clinicopathologic evidence of adverse drug reaction or toxicosis. The results of the study suggested that ketoconazole is effective for the treatment of canine blastomycosis.

nizoral generic 2017-07-17

Sixteen patients with coccidioidomycosis were treated with itraconazole for one year. Sixteen suffered from pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, two of them had associated mediastinal lesions, and one suffered from skin coccidioidomycosis. The daily dose used was 400 mg during the one-year period. Patients were clinically evaluated every month and tested for mycosis every three months. All patients except for one showed negative cultures on the third month after treatment began. Effectiveness achieved was excellent in eight patients (50 percent); a very good response was found in seven patients (44 percent); no response was seen in one patient (6 percent). There were four (25 percent) relapses and one dropout. Side effects seen were high blood pressure (19 percent) and lower limb edema (6 percent), which was temporary and at no time required Zantac Dosing Infants discontinuing the drug therapy. We believe that itraconazole is an effective drug to treat coccidioidomycosis with a wide safety margin. It is well tolerated, and the incidence of relapses was low.

nizoral oral medication 2015-07-31

Androgen receptor signaling remains important in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) as demonstrated by the efficacy of Omnicef Overdose Symptoms abiraterone acetate (henceforth abiraterone) in phase III trials. Given that heterogeneous patient responses are observed, we sought to identify clinical factors associated with duration of abiraterone.

nizoral tablets buy 2017-03-06

Malignant steroid cell tumors of the ovary are rare and frequently Valtrex Zoster Dosing associated with hormonal abnormalities. There are no guidelines on how to treat rapidly progressive Cushing's syndrome, a medical emergency.

nizoral drug 2015-06-14

Leishmania braziliensis (isolate 2903) was naturally resistant to ketoconazole or the bis-triazole D0870, inhibitors of sterol C-14 demethylase, which produced only moderate effects on the proliferation of promastigotes at 10 microM. In contrast, Leishmania mexicana (isolate NR) was extremely susceptible to the azoles, as complete growth arrest and cell lysis were induced by incubation of the parasites with 0.05 microM concentrations of the drugs for 72 h. The opposite response was observed with terbinafine, an inhibitor of squalene epoxidase: L. braziliensis 2903 was three times more susceptible to the drug than L. mexicana NR (MICs of 5 and 15 microM, respectively). However, when the L. braziliensis stock was grown in the presence of 1 microM terbinafine, which by itself produced only marginal (< 10%) effects on growth, it became highly susceptible to the azoles, with an MIC of 0.03 microM. Analysis of cellular free sterols by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that 14-methyl sterols can support normal growth of L. braziliensis 2903 but not of L. mexicana NR. On the other hand, the higher susceptibility of the L. braziliensis isolate to terbinafine was correlated with a massive accumulation of squalene in the presence of the allylamine while no significant effects on L. mexicana sterol composition were observed at drug concentrations up to Norvasc Dosage Range 1 microM. Thus, the > 300-fold increase in the susceptibility of L. braziliensis promastigotes to azoles in the presence of terbinafine was attributed to the combined effect of squalene and the methylated sterol precursors on the physical properties of the cell's membranes, leading to the loss of cell viability. Combination therapy with azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of human L. braziliensis infections deserves further study.

nizoral generic name 2015-07-15

The preparation and in vitro antifungal Flonase Pills activity of a novel series of cis-5-alkyl (or alkenyl)-3-phenyl-3-(1H-azol-1-ylmethyl)-2-methylisoxazol idines are described. The overall activity of the 3-(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl) analogues was higher than that of the corresponding 3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl) derivatives. Compound 4b emerged as the most potent derivative. When compared to ketoconazole, several of the analogues tested demonstrated equipotent or superior activity against Trichophyton and Candida sp.

nizoral buy online 2016-09-27

We report the discovery of a novel dual inhibitor targeting fungal sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51 or Erg11) and human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with improved potency against 5-LOX due to its reduction of the iron center by its phenylenediamine core. A series of potent 5-LOX inhibitors containing a phenylenediamine core, were synthesized that exhibit nanomolar potency and >30-fold selectivity against the LOX paralogs, platelet-type 12-human lipoxygenase, reticulocyte 15-human lipoxygenase type-1, and epithelial 15-human lipoxygenase type-2, and >100-fold selectivity against ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and human cyclooxygnease-2. The phenylenediamine core was then translated into the Adalat Cc Dosage structure of ketoconazole, a highly effective anti-fungal medication for seborrheic dermatitis, to generate a novel compound, ketaminazole. Ketaminazole was found to be a potent dual inhibitor against human 5-LOX (IC50 = 700 nM) and CYP51 (IC50 = 43 nM) in vitro. It was tested in whole blood and found to down-regulate LTB4 synthesis, displaying 45% inhibition at 10 µM. In addition, ketaminazole selectively inhibited yeast CYP51 relative to human CYP51 by 17-fold, which is greater selectivity than that of ketoconazole and could confer a therapeutic advantage. This novel dual anti-fungal/anti-inflammatory inhibitor could potentially have therapeutic uses against fungal infections that have an anti-inflammatory component.

nizoral ketoconazole tablets 2015-08-02

A randomized, double-blind, 4-week treatment period Prograf Cost was preceded by a 2-week run-in period and followed by a 2-week run-out period. A total of 350 patients (150 CPO, 150 ketoconazole, 50 placebo) were enrolled. Assessments included scalp area affected, the severity of scaling, erythema, itching and scaling, and overall signs and symptoms.

nizoral tab 2017-03-08

A Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection of guinea pigs induced by an occlusive procedure is described. The method of evaluation permits comparison of efficacy of antifungal agents which are not tested simultaneously. Activity was demonstrated following topical application of clotrimazole, miconazole, tolnaftate or griseofulvin and oral administration of griseofulvin. Oral Reglan 5mg Dosage ketoconazole had little effect in this dermatophyte model.

nizoral pill 2015-11-07

Sixty-six hirsute women were randomized and treated with 1) flutamide (n = 15), 250 mg/day; 2) finasteride (n = 15), 5 mg/day; 3) ketoconazole (n = 16), 300 mg/day; and 4) ethinyl estradiol (EE)-cyproterone acetate (CPA; n = 20), 0.01 mg EE/day for the first week, 0.02 mg EE/day for the second week, and 0.01 mg EE/day for the third week, followed by a pause of 7 days, then 12.5 mg CPA/day added during the first 10 days of every month for 12 months. Hirsutism was evaluated by the Ferriman-Gallwey score, and hair diameter and hair growth rate were determined by a special image analysis processor in basal conditions and after 90, 180, 270, and 360 days of treatment. All treatments produced a significant decrease in the hirsutism score, hair diameter, and daily hair growth rate: flutamide, -55 +/- 13%, -21 +/- 14%, and -37 +/- 18%; finasteride, -44 +/- 13%, -16 +/- 12%, and -27 +/- 14%; ketoconazole, -53 +/- 18%, -14 +/- 12%, and -30 +/- 21%; and EE-CPA, -60 +/- 18%, -20 +/- 11%, and -28 +/- 21%. Some differences existed among treatments with regard to effectiveness; EE-CPA and flutamide seem to be the most efficacious in improving hirsutism. For the hirsutism score, a greater decrease was seen with EE-CPA (-60 +/- 18%) than with finasteride (-44 +/- 13%; P < 0.01) and a greater decrease was seen with flutamide (-58 +/- 18%) than with finasteride (-44 +/- 13%; P < 0.05). Flutamide is the fastest in decreasing hair diameter; EE-CPA is the fastest in slowing Vermox Y Alcohol down hair growth, even though at the end of the treatment there was a significant difference between flutamide and finasteride only (-41 +/- 18% vs. -27 +/- 14%; P < 0.05). Flutamide, ketoconazole, and EE-CPA induced a significant decrease in total and free testosterone, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androstenedione plasma levels. During the EE-CPA treatment, gonadotropins were suppressed, and the sex hormone-binding globulin level increased. Finasteride induced a decrease in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and an increase in testosterone levels. Very few side-effects were observed during treatment with low doses of flutamide, EE-CPA, and particularly finasteride. Flutamide induced a decrease whereas EE-CPA induced an increase in triglycerides and cholesterol, showing higher values within the normal range. Ketoconazole induced several side-effects and complications, and several people dropped out of the study. Despite different modalities of action and significantly different effects on androgen levels, low doses of flutamide, finasteride, and EE-CPA constitute very satisfactory alternative therapeutic regimens in the treatment of hirsutism.

nizoral 1 review 2016-12-13

To examine the clinical pathology and management of Paecilomyces lilacinus keratitis.