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Nolvadex (Tamoxifen)

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Nolvadex is the medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of breast cancer. Nolvadex is also taken to decrease the risk of breast cancer development, especially in women after surgery and radiation due to DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ). Sometimes Nolvadex is taken to produce female ovulation and to treat McCune-Albright syndrome.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Anastrozole, Femara, Xeloda, Arimidex, Herceptin, Letrozole, Faslodex, Arimidex, Abraxane, Taxotere, Gemzar, Halaven, Capecitabine, Ibrance


Also known as:  Tamoxifen.


Nolvadex target is the treatment of breast cancer. Nolvadex is also taken to decrease the risk of breast cancer development, especially in women after surgery and radiation due to DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ). Sometimes Nolvadex is taken to produce female ovulation and to treat McCune-Albright syndrome.

Nolvadex is acting by blocking effect of female hormone called estrogen. It is antiestrogen.

Nolvadex is also known as Tamoxifen, Blastofen, Istubal, Valodex, Soltamox, Genox, Tamofen.


The dosage of Nolvadex depends on the type of your disease and health state.

Take Nolvadex once or twice a day with or without food.

Take Nolvadex tablets orally at the same time every day with water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Nolvadex suddenly.


If you overdose Nolvadex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Nolvadex overdosage: uncontrolled body shaking, unsteadiness, problems with walking, convulsions, lightheadedness, exaggerated reflexes, problems with breathing, tremor.


Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Nolvadex are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Nolvadex if you are allergic to its components.

Do not take Nolvadex if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Nolvadex if you have a history of leg or lung blood clots.

Do not take Nolvadex if you are taking anticoagulants, anastrozole.

Be very careful with Nolvadex if you suffer from or have a history of vision problems, diabetes, heart attack, stroke, high blood levels of cholesterol, high blood pressure.

Be careful with Nolvadex if you are taking phenobarbital; aminoglutethimide (such as Cytadren); cancer chemotherapy medicines (cyclophosphamide (such as Neosar, Cytoxan), letrozole (such as Femara); bromocriptine (such as Parlodel); cytotoxic cancer medicines; aromatase inhibitors; fluorouracil or mitomycin C, medroxyprogesterone (such as Provera, in Prempro Depo-Provera); rifampin (such as Rimactane, Rifadin).

Avoid people who have infections or colds.

Do not take Nolvadex if you are taking birth-control medications.

Avoid consuming alcohol and smoking cigarettes.

Do not drive or operate machinery while taking Nolvadex.

Do not stop taking Nolvadex suddenly.

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Resistance to antiestrogens is one of the major challenges in breast cancer treatment. Although phosphorylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) is an important factor in endocrine resistance, the contributions of specific kinases in endocrine resistance are still not fully understood. Here, we report that an important innate immune response kinase, the IκB kinase-related TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), is a crucial determinant of resistance to tamoxifen therapies. We show that TBK1 increases ERα transcriptional activity through phosphorylation modification of ERα at the Ser-305 site. Ectopic TBK1 expression impairs the responsiveness of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen. By studying the specimens from patients with breast cancer, we find a strong positive correlation of TBK1 with ERα, ERα Ser-305, and cyclin D1. Notably, patients with tumors highly expressing TBK1 respond poorly to tamoxifen treatment and show high potential for relapse. Therefore, our findings suggest that TBK1 contributes to tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer via phosphorylation modification of ERα.

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In situations where patients experience significant negative side effects from AI therapy, discussions to discontinue treatment (and switch to an alternative endocrine therapy) should involve the cancer specialist and take into consideration the patient's risk for breast cancer recurrence and the impact of therapy on their quality of life. In some cases, patients may choose to never initiate AI treatment. In other cases, patients may choose to prematurely discontinue therapy even if therapy is well tolerated. In both settings increased knowledge by the general internists will likely facilitate discussions of risks versus benefits of therapy and possibly improve compliance to adjuvant hormone therapy.

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Patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER +) early breast cancer (EBC) are at a continuous risk for distant relapse despite 5 years of standard endocrine therapy, even after 10-15 years after primary diagnosis. Hence, large randomized clinical trials were conducted to evaluate the role of extended endocrine treatment (ET) with the primary goal to prevent or at least delay distant relapse. Two very large trials of extended tamoxifen (TAM), the ATLAS and the aTTom trial, proved the efficacy of prolonged TAM particularly important after 10 years due to the carry-over effect of the five initial years. Additionally, the extended use of AIs after 5 years of tamoxifen, also proved to be efficacious in preventing late distant relapses. For letrozole (LET) it was shown in the MA.17 trial that it also improves overall survival (OS) in node-positive BC patients. There are many options and still unanswered questions related to extended ET, which are discussed in this review. The most important issue in deciding prolonged duration of ET is undoubtfully how to identify ER+ patients who benefit most from this approach. With this purpose, not only classical pathological factors have been studied, but also molecular profiles of individual tumors, which might help us in the near future to better tailor ET. Not only efficacy, but also toxicity of such prolonged treatment is essential for optimal use, particularly maintained compliance in a routine clinical practice. These issues are discussed in this review.

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Effects of raloxifene on the development of lupus in NZB/W F1 mice were evaluated in the presence and absence of estrogen by assessing the serum DNA reactivity, glomerular IgG deposition and kidney damage, B cell maturation and selection, and activation status of marginal zone and follicular B cells.

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Estradiol has antidepressive and anxiolytic actions. However, its therapeutic use is limited by its peripheral effects. Selective estrogen receptor modulators may represent an alternative to estradiol for the treatment of depressive symptoms. Here we report that tamoxifen and raloxifene decrease immobility time in the forced swim test and increases the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze in ovariectomized mice submitted to chronic unpredictable stress.

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RT-PCR, western blot, luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to study TIGAR gene regulation. Co-IPP was used to determine the role of TIGAR protein in regulating the protein-protein interaction between retinoblastoma (RB) and E2F1. MCF-7 tumour xenografts were utilised to study the role of TIGAR in tumour regression.

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Live cell sialidase, water soluble tetrazolium, WST-1 cell viability, and immunohistochemistry assays were used to evaluate sialidase activity, cell survival, and the expression levels of tumor E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and host endothelial CD31+/PECAM-1 cells in archived paraffin-embedded TNBC MDA-MB-231 tumors grown in RAGxCγ double mutant mice.

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Estrogen receptor (ER) α promotes breast cancer growth by regulating gene expression through classical estrogen response element (ERE) binding and nonclassical (interaction with c-Jun at AP-1 sites) pathways. ER is the target for anti-estrogens such as tamoxifen (TAM). However, the potential for classical versus nonclassical ER signaling to influence hormone sensitivity is not known. Moreover, anti-estrogens frequently activate several signaling cascades besides the target ER, and the implications of these "off-target" signaling events have not been explored. Here, we report that p38γ MAPK is selectively activated by treatment with TAM. This results in both phosphorylation of ER at Ser-118 and stimulation of c-Jun transcription, thus switching ER signaling from the classical to the nonclassical pathway leading to increased hormone sensitivity. Unexpectedly, phosphorylation at Ser-118 is required for ER to bind both p38γ and c-Jun, thereby promoting ER relocation from ERE to AP-1 promoter sites. Thus, ER/Ser-118 phosphorylation serves as a central mechanism by which p38γ regulates signaling transduction of ER with its inhibitor TAM.

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Hormonal therapy for breast cancer is the first targeted therapy used in any type of cancer. It was used successfully without a known target for more than 50 years before Jensen described the oestrogen receptor (ER) in the 1960s. Subsequently, it was found that endocrine therapy was effective only in those patients whose tumours expressed the ER; more recently, it has been recognized that this therapy can also be effective in some patients whose tumours are ERα-negative but ERβ-positive. However, in spite of the ER being present, many tumours develop either primary or secondary resistance to various endocrine approaches. ER-containing tumours may also be classified by molecular markers as luminal A (highly hormone responsive) or luminal B (high degree of proliferation and less hormone responsiveness). Furthermore, the expression of ER, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) may change over time as tumours metastasize and progress. The addition of anti-HER2 agents such as trastuzumab and lapatinib to hormonal therapies has improved outcomes but it is unclear whether these approaches are additive or synergistic. Now, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are being successfully used in similar scenarios but once again it is unclear whether the effect of this combination therapy is synergistic; however, mTOR inhibitors produce little response as single agents. In particular, the addition of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus has improved disease-free and overall survival in randomized studies in metastatic disease when added either to an aromatase inhibitor or to tamoxifen. To date, however, no specific biomarkers for the use of everolimus have been reported. Further studies are needed to identify and validate targets of therapy in endocrine-responsive breast cancer.

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Tamoxifen, a selective oestrogen receptor (ER) modulator, increases bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women and decreases BMD in premenopausal women. We hypothesised that inherited variants in candidate genes involved in oestrogen signalling and tamoxifen metabolism might be associated with tamoxifen effects in bone.

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Of 18,861 patients, a total of 1,102 had received an iCR therapy. The mean overall observation time was 3.6 years. Results showed that iCR was not associated with an increase in the risk of recurrence but associated with prolonged disease-free survival. After 2 years following initial diagnosis, 14% of the control group had developed a recurrence, while the iCR group reached this proportion after 6.5 years. The primary Cox regression model controlling for age, tamoxifen use and other confounders demonstrated a protractive effect of iCR on the rate of recurrence (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.69 0.99). This effect remained consistent throughout all variations of the statistical model, including subgroup analyses. TNM status was unknown but did not bias the iCR treatment decision as investigated separately. Hence, it was assumed to be equally distributed between treatment groups. Correlation analyses showed good internal and external validity of the database.

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At baseline, a higher proportion of teriparatide-treated than antiresorptive-treated patients had severe back pain (30.9% vs. 17.7%), extreme pain/discomfort (25.3% vs. 16.8%), extreme anxiety/depression (16.6% vs. 7.8%) and were confined to bed (10.0% vs. 5.3%). Teriparatide-treated patients had higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain (5.8 ± 2.42 vs. 5.1 ± 2.58) and lower mean European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores (37.7 ± 29.15 vs. 45.5 ± 31.42) than antiresorptive-treated patients. The incidence of new/worsening back pain at six months for patients on teriparatide and antiresorptives was 9.8% and 10.3% (relative risk 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.23), respectively. The incidence of severe back pain at 12 months was 1.3% and 1.6% in the teriparatide and antiresorptive treatment groups, respectively. Teriparatide-treated patients had lower mean VAS (2.71 ± 2.21 vs. 3.30 ± 2.37) and EQ‑5D (46.1 ± 33.18 vs. 55.4 ± 32.65) scores at 12 months. More teriparatide-treated patients felt better (82.7% vs. 71.0%) and were very satisfied with treatment (49.4% vs. 36.8%) compared to antiresorptive-treated patients.

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Despite recent advances in the surgical and medical treatment of breast cancer, the number of patients dying from the disease is still high. In addition to improvements of early diagnosis and treatment, the overall mortality of breast cancer could be reduced by means of preventive intervention in both women with particularly normal and with high risk. Preventing the potentially deadly disease is presumably more effective than treatment, for life quality issues as well as for the economic perspective. Chemoprevention though is still a research field with results from large prevention trials being discussed controversially. For women with a defined increased risk for breast cancer, tamoxifen may be a choice for chemoprevention, balancing carefully benefits against risks. With promising results in adjuvant settings, aromatase inhibitors may deliver better prevention treatment options in the future, nevertheless, more research is needed to reliably predict risk on an individual basis in the future.

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Connective tissue growth factor expression was found in multiple ocular tissues with relatively high levels in the corneal endothelium, lens subcapsular epithelium, and in the vasculature of the iris and retina. Wounded corneas responded with an immediate upregulation of CTGF in the epithelium at the wound margin and a sustained CTGF induction during re-epithelialization. At the onset of haze formation, CTGF protein becomes more focused in the basal epithelium. Deletion of the CTGF gene caused a 40% reduction (P < 0.01) in the cornea re-epithelialization rate in knockout mice compared with wild-type mice.

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Prevention of osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopausal patients can reduce fracture risk. In this view, the use of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) appear to be important in managing this condition. Bazedoxifene Acetate (BZA) is a third-generation SERM that showed to protect bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteopenia, and to reduce vertebral fracture risk in osteoporotic postmenopausal women; moreover, BZA decreased the non-vertebral fracture risk in a subgroup of patients at high-risk for fracture in comparison to placebo. BZA showed no stimulating effects on endometrium and breast. BZA can be a valid option in management of osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopause.

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Age at treatment and use of tamoxifen are important predictors of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The risk of induced long-term amenorrhea does not seem to be greater among mutation carriers than among women who do not carry a mutation.

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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays a major role in pancreatic β-cell function and survival by increasing cytoplasmic cAMP levels, which are thought to affect transcription through activation of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor CREB. Here, we test CREB function in the adult β-cell through inducible gene deletion.

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Among studies in advanced breast cancer, there were two trials with sorafenib as monotherapy, four trials of sorafenib in combination with taxanes, two in combination with capecitabine, one with gemcitabine and/or capecitabine, one with vinorelbine, one with bevacizumab, one with pemetrexed and one with ixabepilone, three trials of sorafenib in combination with endocrine therapy and two trials in women with brain metastases undergoing whole brain radiotherapy. In addition, there was one trial of sorafenib added to standard chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting, and two trials in the neoadjuvant setting. In general, sorafenib was well tolerated in breast cancer patients, though its dosage had to be adjusted in some trials, and discontinuation rates were high, particularly for the combination of sorafenib with anastrozole. Sorafenib monotherapy and combinations with taxanes, bevacizumab and ixabepilone showed inadequate efficacy, while efficacy results from combinations with gemcitabine and/or capecitabine and possibly tamoxifen were more promising.

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Recurrence hazards over time reveal changes in risk that may have biologic and therapeutic strategy relevance. In ER-negative tumors, a large early chemotherapy benefit is followed by a consistently low recurrence hazard over time. In ER-positive patients, the chemotherapy benefit appears concentrated mostly in earlier follow-up, and a greater recurrence risk remains.

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In group C, all patients who completed the questionnaire experienced hair and scalp sensations: 87% both trichodynia and pruritus, 13% trichodynia only. Reported intensities ranged between 1 and 10. In group T, 31% of participants reported hair and scalp sensations: 12% both trichodynia and pruritus, 12% pruritus only, 7% trichodynia only. Intensities were rated between 1 and 5. No sensations were reported after week 11 in either group.

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In the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial, postmenopausal women at increased risk of breast cancer received either oral tamoxifen (20 mg/day) or raloxifene (60 mg/day) over 5 years. There were an equal number of cases of invasive breast cancer in women assigned to tamoxifen and raloxifene. There were fewer cases of noninvasive breast cancer in the tamoxifen group than in the raloxifene group (risk ratio [RR]: 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-2.02). There were more cases of uterine cancer with tamoxifen than with raloxifene (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.35-1.08). Thromboembolic events occurred less often in the raloxifene group (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54-0.91) and there were fewer cataracts and cataract surgeries in the women taking raloxifene (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92). The STAR trial has shown that raloxifene is as effective as tamoxifen in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer and has a lower risk of adverse events but a nonstatistically significant higher risk of noninvasive breast cancer. The risk of other cancers, fractures, ischemic heart disease and stroke is similar for both drugs.

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Molecular modeling, binding experiments and functional assays were performed in order to evaluate the biological action exerted by MIBE through ERα and GPER in MCF7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells.

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Neither anastrozole nor tamoxifen had any significant effect on STS activity as measured in PBLs. Anastrozole did not affect serum androstenediol concentrations.

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This cohort study identified women with breast cancer from 2008 through 2010 using health insurance claims data linked to clinical information on stage at diagnosis, current clinical status, histology, and other clinical markers. Estimated mortality rates (MRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were compared between users of aromatase inhibitors or tamoxifen, adjusted for claims-identified covariates and additionally for the clinical variables using propensity scores and proportional hazards regression models.

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Estradiol stimulated significantly CXCR4 overexpression in all the cell lines analyzed in a dose- and a time-dependent manner. Tamoxifen treatment inhibited the CXCR4 overexpression observed in estrogen-treated groups, demonstrating that estrogen strongly influences CXCR4 expression in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Cells treated with E2, CXCL12 and E2 combined with CXCL12 exhibited significant cell migration, which was suppressed when tamoxifen and AMD3100 were present.

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We analyzed patients treated for an endometrial carcinoma from 1994 to 2004: patients without breast cancer (group 1), patients with a previous breast cancer without tamoxifen (group 2) and patients treated for breast cancer with tamoxifen (group 3). Survival rates were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a Log rank test, multivariate analysis was performed with a Cox regression model.

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A 60-year-old postmenopausal woman diagnosed as primary osteoporosis began to take raloxifene. The spontaneous microaggregates of platelets induced by shear stress were accelerated after the treatment, concomitant with the significant upregulation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). After the cessation of raloxifene, the spontaneous microaggregates of platelets and the acceleration of ADP-induced p44/p42 MAP kinase phosphorylation was diminished. We concluded that raloxifene caused platelet hyperaggregability to shear stress and p44/p42 MAP kinase was involved in the pathological state.

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The modulatory action of estradiol (E2) on the GnRH network can be exerted indirectly on presynaptic neurons or directly on estrogen receptors (ERs) located within GnRH hypothalamic neurons. Using the GnRH-producing GT1-7 cell line, we have investigated whether E2 is able to modify the response of these cells to norepinephrine (NE) stimulation. A 48-h exposure of GT1-7 cells to 10 nM E2 reduced NE-induced cAMP accumulation. However, 15-min exposure was enough to induce this inhibitory action, provided that a hormone-free period of 48 h after steroid treatment was allowed. Furthermore, this effect was mimicked by E2 coupled to (E-BSA), indicating that it may be exerted through a membrane-mediated mechanism. In addition, competition experiments using E-BSA coupled to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) revealed the presence of cell membrane-binding sites for E2. Binding of E-BSA coupled to FITC was blocked by preincubation of cells with either E2, antiestrogen ICI 182 780, or tamoxifen. Moreover, fluorescence staining of non-permeabilized cells with antibodies against receptors alpha and beta confirmed the presence of both receptor subtypes at the cell membrane. To determine the nature of the ER involved in this response, specific agonists for ERalpha 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT) and ERbeta 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) were used. Since PPT, but not DPN, reproduced the effect of E2, it is suggested that estrogen-induced modulatory action on NE responsiveness was mediated by the ERalpha isoform. Taken together, these results indicate that E2 modulates the adrenergic sensitivity of GT1-7 cells by a mechanism compatible with the activation of membrane-associated ERs.

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Eight hundred and thirteen patients with early arthritis included in the ESPOIR cohort had a clinical examination, laboratory tests (viral serology, immunological tests, and cytokine profile), and radiographs. We determined the prevalence of lymphopenia at baseline and after 3 years, associated factors, diagnoses, and risk of infection or malignancy.

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nolvadex drug interactions 2017-02-15

This study was aimed at developing a hydrophilic radioligand as an antiestrogen drug derivative to be used for imaging breast tumors. Toremifene [TOR; 4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-1-(4-(2-(N,N-di-methylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)-1-butene, as citrate salt] was selected as the starting material to be derived, since it has been used extensively as an antiestrogen drug for treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. An antiestrogen drug derivative, TOR attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), was synthesized by two experimental treatments, including a purification and a reaction buy nolvadex step. We described the synthesis of this TOR derivative, (3Z)-4-{4-[2-(dimethylamino) ethoxy] phenyl}-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-ylN,N-bis[2-(2,6-dioxomorpholin-4-yl)ethyl]glycinate (TOR-DTPA), in detail. Mass spectroscopy confirmed the expected structures. TOR-DTPA was labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), using stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) as the reducing agent. Biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. Quality controls, radiochemical yield, and stability studies were done utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography, radioelectrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, and thin-layer radiochromatography methods. The synthesized compound was found to be hydrophilic and anionic, with high stability for the duration of the testing period in vitro. The results indicated that the radiolabeled compound has estrogen-receptor specificity, especially for the breast tissue. It is highly possible that this compound could be used for imaging breast tumors as a novel technetium-labeled hydrophilic estrogen derivative radioligand.

nolvadex gyno dosage 2016-11-20

Extended adjuvant endocrine therapy (10 vs. 5 years) trials have demonstrated improved outcomes in early-stage estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer; however, the absolute benefit is modest, and toxicity and tolerability challenges remain. Predictive and prognostic information from genomic analysis may help inform this clinical decision. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the Breast Cancer Index (BCI) on physician recommendations for extended endocrine therapy and on patient anxiety and decision conflict. Patients with stage I-III, ER-positive breast cancer who completed at least 3.5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy were offered participation. Genomic classification with BCI was performed on archived tumor tissues and the results were reported to the treating physician who discussed results with the patient. Patients and physicians completed pre- and post-test questionnaires regarding preferences for extended endocrine therapy. Patients also completed the validated traditional Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory forms (STAI-Y1) pre- and post- buy nolvadex test. 96 patients were enrolled at the Yale Cancer Center [median age 60.5 years (range 45-87), 79% postmenopausal, 60% stage I). BCI predicted a low risk of late recurrence in 59% of patients versus intermediate/high in 24 and 17%, respectively. Physician recommendations for extended endocrine therapy changed for 26% of patients after considering BCI results, with a net decrease in recommendations for extended endocrine therapy from 74 to 54%. After testing, fewer patients wanted to continue extended therapy and decision conflict and anxiety also decreased. Mean STAI and DCS scores were 31.3 versus 29.1 (p = 0.031) and 20.9 versus 10.8 (p < 0.001) pre- and post-test, respectively. Incorporation of BCI into risk/benefit discussions regarding extended endocrine therapy resulted in changes in treatment recommendations and improved patient satisfaction.

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The results were generally consistent with the previous morphologic findings in this model, in which photoreceptor degeneration soon after Müller-cell ablation, accompanied by blood-retinal barrier breakdown and subsequent buy nolvadex retinal neovascularization were reported. These results are consistent with a significant contribution of Müller-cell dysfunction on retinal neuronal injury and vascular pathology at the mRNA level.

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Although the difference in coincidence did not reach significance with the current sample size, the findings suggest that epigenetic processes may play a role in the way tamoxifen induces endometrial buy nolvadex cancer.

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We generated mice with either of 2 tamoxifen-inducible SMC-specific Cre (SMC-CreER(T2)) alleles and homozygous floxed Tgfbr2 alleles. Mice were injected with tamoxifen, and their aortas examined 4 and 14 weeks later. Both SMC-CreER(T2) alleles efficiently and specifically rearranged a floxed reporter gene and efficiently rearranged a floxed Tgfbr2 allele, resulting in loss of aortic medial TBRII protein. Loss of SMC TBRII caused severe aortopathy, including hemorrhage, ulceration, dissection, dilation, accumulation of macrophage markers, elastolysis, abnormal proteoglycan accumulation, and aberrant SMC gene expression. All areas of the aorta were affected, with the most severe pathology in the ascending aorta. Cre-mediated loss of SMC TBRII buy nolvadex in vitro ablated both canonical and noncanonical TGF-β signaling and reproduced some of the gene expression abnormalities detected in vivo.

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Steroid hormones are involved on cell growth, development and differentiation. Such effects are often mediated by steroid receptors. One paradigmatic example of this coupling is the estrogen signaling pathway. Its dysregulation is involved in buy nolvadex most tumors of the mammary gland. It is thus an important pharmacological target in breast cancer. This pathway, however, crosstalks with several other molecular pathways, a fact that may have consequences for the effectiveness of hormone modulating drug therapies, such as tamoxifen. For this work, we performed a systematic analysis of the major routes involved in crosstalk phenomena with the estrogen pathway - based on gene expression experiments (819 samples) and pathway analysis (493 samples) - for biopsy-captured tissue and contrasted in two independent datasets with in vivo and in vitro pharmacological stimulation. Our results confirm the presence of a number of crosstalk events across the estrogen signaling pathway with others that are dysregulated in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. These may be involved in proliferation, invasiveness and apoptosis-evasion in patients. The results presented may open the way to new designs of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies for breast cancer treatment.

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Published data and figures from the Early Breast Cancer Clinical Trialists' Collaborative Group are explored and interpreted as supporting a concept that the prime impact of adjuvant hormonal and polychemotherapy therapy is on soon-to-emerge tumors, with the timing of benefit buy nolvadex accrual being mostly limited to the time of drug administration. Nevertheless, once benefit in reducing recurrence occurs, the benefit is maintained for years. Depending on how this is viewed, there may or may not be a carryover effect of these therapies in the setting of adjuvant breast cancer.

nolvadex 10 mg 2016-01-23

Patients with breast cancer were enrolled in a trial of adjuvant buy nolvadex AI therapy. Changes in pain and function during therapy were assessed prospectively. We selected 30 cases with AIMSS and 22 controls without AIMSS, matched for demographics and prior therapy. Serum samples collected at baseline and during treatment were assayed for multiple inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators using multiplex assays.

nolvadex buy australia 2016-02-26

Neurosteroids are synthesized de novo from cholesterol in the brain. In rodents, the Purkinje cell actively produces several kinds of neurosteroids including estradiol during neonatal life, when cerebellar neuronal circuit formation occurs. Estradiol may be involved in cerebellar neuronal circuit formation through promoting neuronal growth and synaptic contact, because the Purkinje cell expresses estrogen receptor-β. To test this hypothesis, in this study we examined the effect of estradiol on dendritic growth, spinogenesis, and synaptogenesis in the Purkinje cell using neonatal wild-type (WT) mice or cytochrome P450 aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice. Administration of buy nolvadex estradiol to neonatal WT or ArKO mice increased dendritic growth, spinogenesis, and synaptogenesis in the Purkinje cell. In contrast, WT mice treated with tamoxifen, an ER antagonist, or ArKO mice exhibited decreased Purkinje dendritic growth, spinogenesis, and synaptogenesis at the same neonatal period. Estrogen administration to neonatal WT or ArKO mice increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the cerebellum, whereas tamoxifen decreased the BDNF level in WT mice similar to ArKO mice. BDNF administration to tamoxifen-treated WT mice increased Purkinje dendritic growth. These results indicate that estradiol induces dendritic growth, spinogenesis, and synaptogenesis in the developing Purkinje cell via BDNF action during neonatal life.

nolvadex tabs 2015-07-22

The medical records of 76 postmenopausal patients on tamoxifen who were performed hysteroscopic polypectomy with endometrial ablation were evaluated more than 3 years after the procedure with recurrence of polyps, recurrent abnormal buy nolvadex uterine bleeding and surgical re-intervention.

nolvadex uk buy 2016-04-28

The aim of this study was to synthesize and present the latest available evidence regarding the use of oestrogen antagonists as empiric medical therapy for idiopathic male infertility with oligo and/or asthenoteratozoospermia through meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Systematic literature acquisition was done for English and other foreign language biomedical databases up to March, 2013. RCTs relevant to the topic were identified and critically appraised independently by two physician reviewers. Dichotomous data of pregnancy rate and adverse events were extracted for calculation of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Effect estimates were pooled using Peto method with fixed effect model. The continuous data of semen and endocrine parameters were calculated for the mean difference between pre- and post-treatment effects, the weighted mean difference (WMD) and SD between the control and intervention group were determined and pooled using the random effects model. Inter-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline for meta-analysis reporting was followed. Eleven RCTs of good methodological quality were included for meta-analysis. The pooled effect estimates showed that oestrogen antagonists use was associated with a statistically significant increased pregnancy rate compared with controls (pooled OR 2.42; 95% CI 1.47-3.94; p = 0.0004). Significant increase in sperm concentration (WMD 5.24; 95% CI 2.12, 88.37; p = 0.001) and per cent sperm motility (WMD 4.55; 95% CI 0.73, 8.37; p = 0.03) were also noted. While significant elevation of serum follicle stimulating hormone (WMD 4.19 95% CI 2.05, 6.34; p = 0.0001) and testosterone (WMD 54.59; 95% CI 15.92, 93.27; buy nolvadex p = 0.006) was associated with its use. No significant difference in adverse event was noted between oestrogen antagonists-treated group and controls. The evidence suggests that oestrogen antagonists as empiric medical therapy for idiopathic male infertility with low non-serious adverse event associated, may increase spontaneous pregnancy rate, improve sperm concentration and per cent sperm motility.

nolvadex 10mg tabs 2015-06-13

MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in vitro were treated with the fluid shearing stress and raloxifene alone or in combination, and the MC3T3-E1 cells without treatment were set as control (O group), treated with estrogen receptor antagonist ICI-182780 (10-7 mol buy nolvadex /L, I group) were set as negative control group. The cells were observed underoptical inverted microscope from cell shape, size, and nuclear shape to quantity respectively before harvested. The levels of mRNA and protein of β-catenin and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot respectively.

purchase nolvadex uk 2017-04-04

Microglia are brain macrophages and, as such, key immune-competent cells that can respond to environmental changes. Understanding the mechanisms of microglia-specific responses during pathologies is hence vital for reducing disease burden. The definition of microglial functions has so far been hampered by the lack of genetic in vivo approaches that allow discrimination of microglia from closely related peripheral macrophage populations in the body. Here we introduce a mouse experimental system that specifically targets microglia to examine the role of a mitogen-associated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), during autoimmune inflammation. Conditional depletion of TAK1 in microglia only, not in neuroectodermal cells, suppressed disease, significantly reduced CNS inflammation and diminished axonal and myelin damage by cell buy nolvadex -autonomous inhibition of the NF-κB, JNK and ERK1/2 pathways. Thus, we found TAK1 to be pivotal in CNS autoimmunity, and we present a tool for future investigations of microglial function in the CNS.

nolvadex online usa 2017-10-12

The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive lymph node-negative breast cancer buy nolvadex is being reassessed.

nolvadex reviews 2017-12-24

The cost-effectiveness of a CCC for regional ER+/PR-/HER2+ breast cancer (worst prognosis) was NZ $23,400 (US $15,800) per QALY gained, compared with NZ $368,500 (US $248,800) for local ER+/PR+/HER2- breast cancer (best prognosis Famvir 125 Mg ). Using a cost-effectiveness threshold of NZ $45,000 (US $30,400) per QALY, a CCC would be cost-effective only in the four subtypes with the worst prognoses.

nolvadex online paypal 2016-03-05

Raloxifene, alone or combined with calcitriol, and 17beta-estradiol combined with calcitriol significantly diminished total cholesterol level compared with placebo. Qualitative histological Geodon 150 Mg and histomorphometric analyses showed that both the single treatments and their combinations were able to increase the trabecular connectivity compared with placebo. The less beneficial results were obtained with 17beta-estradiol alone, whereas the more beneficial results were obtained with the combined treatments, particularly with raloxifene and calcitriol.

nolvadex 40mg tablets 2016-12-26

The VEGF and sVEGFR-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in ESCs were determined using quantitative real-time Celexa Low Dose reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Free (unbound) VEGF and sVEGFR-1 protein levels from ESCs were measured using ELISA kits.

nolvadex dosage trt 2015-11-28

Extended adjuvant (5-10 years) therapy targeted to the estrogen receptor (ER) has significantly decreased mortality from breast cancer (BC). Areas covered: Translational research advanced clinical testing of extended adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Short term therapy or non-compliance increase recurrence, but surprisingly recurrence and death does not increase dramatically after 5 years of adjuvant therapy stops. Expert commentary: Compliance ensures optimal benefit from extended antihormone adjuvant therapy.Retarding acquired resistance using CDK4/6 or mTOR inhibitors is discussed. Preventing acquired resistance from mutations of ER could be achieved with Selective ER Downregulators (SERDs), eg Cordarone Drug Information fulvestrant. Fulvestrant is a depot injectable so oral SERDs are sought for extended use. In reality, a 'super SERD' which destroys ER but improves women's health like a Selective ER Modulator (SERM), would aid compliance to prevent recurrence and death. Estrogen-induced apoptosis occurs in 30% of BC with antihormone resistance. The 'one in three' rule that dictates that one in three unselected patients respond to either hormonal or antihormonal therapy in BC occurs with estrogen or antiestrogen therapy and must be improved. The goal is to maintain patients for their natural lives by blocking cancer cell survival through precision medicine using short cycles of estrogen apoptotic salvage therapy, and further extended antihormone maintenance.

nolvadex buy 2015-11-05

The YMRS scores decreased from 38.6±4.5 to 20.0±11.1 in the tamoxifen group and increased from 37.0±6.8 to 43.1±7. Protonix Tablets 8 in the placebo group (p<0.001). (1)H MRS measurements revealed a 5.5±13.8% increase in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) tCr levels in the tamoxifen group and a 5.3±13.1% decrease in tCr in the placebo group (p=0.027). A significant correlation between the YMRS score change and tCr percent change was observed in the whole group (Spearman ρ=0.341, p=0.029). Both tCr and NAA levels in the responder group were increased by 9.4±15.2% and 6.1±11.7%, whereas levels in the non-responder group were decreased by 2.1±13.2% and 6.5±10.5%, respectively (p<0.05).

nolvadex pill 2016-12-18

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) inhibit constriction of mammalian conduit arteries. However, it is unknown whether SERMs at therapeutically achievable concentrations could reduce vascular Desyrel Maximum Dosage tone in resistance arteries. The present study aimed to examine roles of Ca(2+) influx in endothelium and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in dilatations induced by raloxifene, a second-generation SERM in myogenically active arteries.

nolvadex 10mg tab 2015-11-13

The estrogen levels in cholangiocarcinoma patients' sera were measured and correlated with clinical presentations. Estrogen receptor-α expressions in cholangiocarcinoma tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry method. KKU-100 and KKU-M213 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines were treated with 17β-estradiol and tested the proliferative Aggrenox Online Pharmacy and invasive effects.

cheap nolvadex uk 2015-06-08

Elucidating the response of breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic and hormonal based drugs is clearly important as these are frequently used therapeutic approaches. A signaling pathway often involved in chemo- and hormonal-resistance is the Ras/PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades. In the studies presented in this report, we have examined the effects of constitutive activation of Akt on the sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic- and hormonal-based drugs as well as mTOR inhibitors. MCF-7 cells which expressed a constitutively-activated Akt-1 gene [∆Akt-1(CA)] were more resistant to doxorubicin, etoposide and 4-OH-tamoxifen (4HT) than cells lacking ∆Akt-1(CA). Cells which expressed ∆Akt-1(CA) were hypersensitive to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Furthermore, rapamycin lowered the IC50s for doxorubicin, etoposide and 4HT in the cells which expressed ∆Akt-1(CA), demonstrating a potential improved method for treating certain breast cancers which have deregulated PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR signaling. Understanding how breast cancers respond to chemo- and hormonal-based therapies and the mechanisms by which they can become drug resistant may enhance our ability to treat breast cancer. These results also document the potential importance of knowledge of the mutations present in certain cancers which may permit more effective therapies.

nolvadex recommended dosage 2015-11-30

Large interindividual variation is observed in both the response and toxicity associated with anticancer therapy. The etiology of this variation is multifactorial, but is due in part to host genetic variations. Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies have successfully identified genetic variants that contribute to this variation in susceptibility to chemotherapy. This review provides an overview of the progress made in the field of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics using a five-stage architecture, which includes 1) determining the role of genetics in drug response; 2) screening and identifying genetic markers; 3) validating genetic markers; 4) clinical utility assessment; and 5) pharmacoeconomic impact. Examples are provided to illustrate the identification, validation, utility, and challenges of these pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic markers, with the focus on the current application of this knowledge in cancer therapy. With the advance of technology, it becomes feasible to evaluate the human genome in a relatively inexpensive and efficient manner; however, extensive pharmacogenetic research and education are urgently needed to improve the translation of pharmacogenetic concepts from bench to bedside.

nolvadex 30 mg 2017-05-30

After adjustment for covariates and medication use including fluorouracil and doxorubicin, the risk of AP was not significant between tamoxifen users and tamoxifen nonusers (adjusted HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.74-1.19) in the non-matching cohorts. The results revealed no dose-response trend between tamoxifen use and the risk of AP (adjusted HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.00). The comorbidities DM and gallstones were associated with a significantly increased risk of AP. Similar trends were observed in PS-matched cohorts.

buy nolvadex uk 2017-07-27

80 female Wister rats were used. Animals were divided into eight equal groups: Group I; Sham operated, Group II; subjected to ovariectomy (OVX), Group III; OVX rats received striatal injection of 6-OHDA, Groups IV-VIII; OVX rats received striatal injection of 6-OHDA and were injected daily with 17β-estradiol, tamoxifen, raloxifene, PPT and DPN respectively for 5days before 6-OHDA and continued for further 2weeks.

nolvadex drug 2015-08-12

To report a case of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) in the setting of metastatic ovarian cancer.

nolvadex pills 2015-03-21

Tamoxifen, a therapeutic and chemopreventive breast cancer drug, was chosen as a model compound because of acknowledged species specific toxicity differences. Emerging approaches utilizing electro-optical arrays and nanoreactors based on DNA/microsome films were used to compare metabolite-mediated toxicity differences of tamoxifen in rodents versus humans. Hits triggered by liver enzyme metabolism were first provided by arrays utilizing a DNA damage end point. The arrays feature thin-film spots containing an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) ruthenium polymer ([Ru(bpy)(2)PVP(10)](2+); PVP, polyvinylpyridine), DNA, and liver microsomes. When DNA damage resulted from reactions with tamoxifen metabolites, it was detected by an increase in light from the oxidation of the damaged DNA by the ECL metallopolymer. The slope of ECL generation versus enzyme reaction time correlated with the rate of DNA damage. An approximate 2-fold greater ECL turnover rate was observed for spots with rat liver microsomes compared to that with human liver microsomes. These results were supported by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of reaction products using nanoreactors featuring analogous films on silica nanoparticles, allowing the direct measurement of the relative formation rate for alpha-(N(2)-deoxyguanosinyl)tamoxifen. We observed 2-5-fold more rapid formation rates for three major metabolites, i.e., alpha-hydroxytamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and tamoxifen N-oxide, catalyzed by rat liver microsomes compared to human liver microsomes. Comparable formation rates were observed for N-desmethyl tamoxifen with rat and human liver microsomes. A better detoxifying capacity for human liver microsomes than rat liver microsomes was confirmed utilizing glucuronyltransferase in microsomes together with UDP-glucuronic acid. Taken together, lower genotoxicity and higher detoxication rates presented by human liver microsomes correlate with the lower risk of tamoxifen in causing liver carcinoma in humans, provided the glucuronidation pathway is active.

nolvadex pct buy 2017-11-06

Tamoxifen resistance has been largely attributed to genetic alterations in the epithelial tumor cells themselves, such as overexpression of HER-2/Neu. However, in the clinic, only about 15-20% of cases of HER-2/Neu amplification has actually been correlated to the acquisition of endocrine resistance, suggesting that other mechanisms must be involved as well. Using the epithelial LM05-E and the fibroblastic LM05-F cell lines, derived from the estrogen dependent spontaneous M05 mouse mammary tumor, as well as MCF-7 cells, we analyzed whether soluble stromal factors or extracellular matrix components protected against tamoxifen induced cell death. Involvement of signaling pathways was determined by using specific inhibitors and western blot, and phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor alpha by western blot and immunofluorescence. Soluble factors produced by the fibroblastic cells protect the epithelial tumor cells from tamoxifen-induced cell death through a mechanism that involves EGFR and matrix metalloproteinases upstream of PI3K/AKT. Exogenous fibronectin by itself confers endocrine resistance through interaction with β1 integrin and activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK 1/2 pathways. The conferred resistance is reversed by blocking β1 integrin. We show also that treatment with both conditioned medium and fibronectin leads to the phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor at serine-118, suggesting stromal factors as modulators of ER activity. Our results show that the tumor microenvironment can modulate tamoxifen resistance, providing an alternative explanation for why patients become refractory to hormone-therapy.

nolvadex 60 mg 2017-10-17

To evaluate the association between the interval from breast-conserving surgery (BCS) to radiotherapy (RT) and the clinical outcome among patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy.

nolvadex 50 pill 2017-12-27

Ductal carcinoma in situ develops in the milk ducts without invading the surrounding connective tissue. Progression to invasive carcinoma is slow and infrequent and is thus difficult to predict. Screening mammography has increased the number of women diagnosed with early-stage ductal carcinoma in situ. What is the best management strategy for patients whose breast biopsy suggests ductal carcinoma in situ? Is watchful waiting a reasonable option? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. Surgical resection is usually proposed to women with ductal carcinoma in situ but has not been compared with watchful waiting. Resection does not appear to have a major impact on mortality: trials of screening mammography showed no major reduction in breast cancer mortality, but screening does increase the number of diagnoses of ductal carcinoma in situ and, thus, the number of women who undergo surgery. When ductal carcinoma in situ is diagnosed by biopsy, histological examination of the surgically resected tumour reveals invasive breast cancer in about 13% to 24% of cases. Surgical removal of the tumour is usually proposed to women with ductal carcinoma in situ. Excision may be either localised (lumpectomy) or extensive (mastectomy). We found no randomised trials comparing the two approaches. Lumpectomy is usually proposed when the tumour is small (less than 20 mm) and appears to be amenable to complete excision with acceptable cosmetic results. A follow-up study of nearly 2000 women showed a recurrence rate of about 27% between 8 and 10 years after lumpectomy without further treatment. Mastectomy is usually proposed when the tumour appears to be extensive on mammography, or when complete resection with acceptable cosmetic results does not appear feasible, or when the patient chooses this option. Following mastectomy, the risk of carcinoma is similar to that of the general female population. Mastectomy and lumpectomy can both result in persistent pain, which is severe in about 13% of women. Systematic reviews of data for more than 10 000 women have shown that the following factors are statistically associated with an increased risk of recurrence after lumpectomy: age less than 50 years at diagnosis, tumours larger than 25 mm, high-grade tumours, and comedo-type necrosis. Healthy surgical margins of at least 2 mm are associated with a lower risk of recurrence. The impact of radiation therapy after lumpectomy for ductal carcinoma in situ has been evaluated in four randomised trials including a total of 3925 women. Radiation therapy reduced the risk of recurrence but did not prevent death from breast cancer. Irradiation carries a risk of skin burns and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary toxicity. It also increases the risk of persistent post-surgical pain. In two randomised placebo-controlled trials of lumpectomy with or without radiation therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ, tamoxifen (an antiestrogen) did not affect either overall or breast cancer mortality, but it reduced the risk of recurrence by about one-quarter. Adverse effects of tamoxifen include venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and endometrial cancer. In practice, women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ have a number of options, none of which seems to have a clearly superior harm-benefit balance. Surgical excision reduces the risk of progression but can lead to persistent pain. Following radical mastectomy, the risk of breast cancer is similar to that of the general population. Lumpectomy is associated with a higher risk of recurrence and thus requires closer monitoring. Radiation therapy reduces the risk of recurrence in high-risk situations but has noteworthy adverse effects. Simple clinical monitoring is a valid option for asymptomatic patients: it carries a risk of progression to invasive cancer but avoids exposing many women to the adverse effects of surgery and radiation therapy.