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Resistance to antiestrogens is one of the major challenges in breast cancer treatment. Although phosphorylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) is an important factor in endocrine resistance, the contributions of specific kinases in endocrine resistance are still not fully understood. Here, we report that an important innate immune response kinase, the IκB kinase-related TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), is a crucial determinant of resistance to tamoxifen therapies. We show that TBK1 increases ERα transcriptional activity through phosphorylation modification of ERα at the Ser-305 site. Ectopic TBK1 expression impairs the responsiveness of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen. By studying the specimens from patients with breast cancer, we find a strong positive correlation of TBK1 with ERα, ERα Ser-305, and cyclin D1. Notably, patients with tumors highly expressing TBK1 respond poorly to tamoxifen treatment and show high potential for relapse. Therefore, our findings suggest that TBK1 contributes to tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer via phosphorylation modification of ERα.
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In situations where patients experience significant negative side effects from AI therapy, discussions to discontinue treatment (and switch to an alternative endocrine therapy) should involve the cancer specialist and take into consideration the patient's risk for breast cancer recurrence and the impact of therapy on their quality of life. In some cases, patients may choose to never initiate AI treatment. In other cases, patients may choose to prematurely discontinue therapy even if therapy is well tolerated. In both settings increased knowledge by the general internists will likely facilitate discussions of risks versus benefits of therapy and possibly improve compliance to adjuvant hormone therapy.
Patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER +) early breast cancer (EBC) are at a continuous risk for distant relapse despite 5 years of standard endocrine therapy, even after 10-15 years after primary diagnosis. Hence, large randomized clinical trials were conducted to evaluate the role of extended endocrine treatment (ET) with the primary goal to prevent or at least delay distant relapse. Two very large trials of extended tamoxifen (TAM), the ATLAS and the aTTom trial, proved the efficacy of prolonged TAM particularly important after 10 years due to the carry-over effect of the five initial years. Additionally, the extended use of AIs after 5 years of tamoxifen, also proved to be efficacious in preventing late distant relapses. For letrozole (LET) it was shown in the MA.17 trial that it also improves overall survival (OS) in node-positive BC patients. There are many options and still unanswered questions related to extended ET, which are discussed in this review. The most important issue in deciding prolonged duration of ET is undoubtfully how to identify ER+ patients who benefit most from this approach. With this purpose, not only classical pathological factors have been studied, but also molecular profiles of individual tumors, which might help us in the near future to better tailor ET. Not only efficacy, but also toxicity of such prolonged treatment is essential for optimal use, particularly maintained compliance in a routine clinical practice. These issues are discussed in this review.
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Effects of raloxifene on the development of lupus in NZB/W F1 mice were evaluated in the presence and absence of estrogen by assessing the serum DNA reactivity, glomerular IgG deposition and kidney damage, B cell maturation and selection, and activation status of marginal zone and follicular B cells.
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Estradiol has antidepressive and anxiolytic actions. However, its therapeutic use is limited by its peripheral effects. Selective estrogen receptor modulators may represent an alternative to estradiol for the treatment of depressive symptoms. Here we report that tamoxifen and raloxifene decrease immobility time in the forced swim test and increases the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze in ovariectomized mice submitted to chronic unpredictable stress.
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RT-PCR, western blot, luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to study TIGAR gene regulation. Co-IPP was used to determine the role of TIGAR protein in regulating the protein-protein interaction between retinoblastoma (RB) and E2F1. MCF-7 tumour xenografts were utilised to study the role of TIGAR in tumour regression.
Live cell sialidase, water soluble tetrazolium, WST-1 cell viability, and immunohistochemistry assays were used to evaluate sialidase activity, cell survival, and the expression levels of tumor E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and host endothelial CD31+/PECAM-1 cells in archived paraffin-embedded TNBC MDA-MB-231 tumors grown in RAGxCγ double mutant mice.
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Estrogen receptor (ER) α promotes breast cancer growth by regulating gene expression through classical estrogen response element (ERE) binding and nonclassical (interaction with c-Jun at AP-1 sites) pathways. ER is the target for anti-estrogens such as tamoxifen (TAM). However, the potential for classical versus nonclassical ER signaling to influence hormone sensitivity is not known. Moreover, anti-estrogens frequently activate several signaling cascades besides the target ER, and the implications of these "off-target" signaling events have not been explored. Here, we report that p38γ MAPK is selectively activated by treatment with TAM. This results in both phosphorylation of ER at Ser-118 and stimulation of c-Jun transcription, thus switching ER signaling from the classical to the nonclassical pathway leading to increased hormone sensitivity. Unexpectedly, phosphorylation at Ser-118 is required for ER to bind both p38γ and c-Jun, thereby promoting ER relocation from ERE to AP-1 promoter sites. Thus, ER/Ser-118 phosphorylation serves as a central mechanism by which p38γ regulates signaling transduction of ER with its inhibitor TAM.
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Hormonal therapy for breast cancer is the first targeted therapy used in any type of cancer. It was used successfully without a known target for more than 50 years before Jensen described the oestrogen receptor (ER) in the 1960s. Subsequently, it was found that endocrine therapy was effective only in those patients whose tumours expressed the ER; more recently, it has been recognized that this therapy can also be effective in some patients whose tumours are ERα-negative but ERβ-positive. However, in spite of the ER being present, many tumours develop either primary or secondary resistance to various endocrine approaches. ER-containing tumours may also be classified by molecular markers as luminal A (highly hormone responsive) or luminal B (high degree of proliferation and less hormone responsiveness). Furthermore, the expression of ER, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) may change over time as tumours metastasize and progress. The addition of anti-HER2 agents such as trastuzumab and lapatinib to hormonal therapies has improved outcomes but it is unclear whether these approaches are additive or synergistic. Now, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are being successfully used in similar scenarios but once again it is unclear whether the effect of this combination therapy is synergistic; however, mTOR inhibitors produce little response as single agents. In particular, the addition of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus has improved disease-free and overall survival in randomized studies in metastatic disease when added either to an aromatase inhibitor or to tamoxifen. To date, however, no specific biomarkers for the use of everolimus have been reported. Further studies are needed to identify and validate targets of therapy in endocrine-responsive breast cancer.
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Tamoxifen, a selective oestrogen receptor (ER) modulator, increases bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women and decreases BMD in premenopausal women. We hypothesised that inherited variants in candidate genes involved in oestrogen signalling and tamoxifen metabolism might be associated with tamoxifen effects in bone.
Of 18,861 patients, a total of 1,102 had received an iCR therapy. The mean overall observation time was 3.6 years. Results showed that iCR was not associated with an increase in the risk of recurrence but associated with prolonged disease-free survival. After 2 years following initial diagnosis, 14% of the control group had developed a recurrence, while the iCR group reached this proportion after 6.5 years. The primary Cox regression model controlling for age, tamoxifen use and other confounders demonstrated a protractive effect of iCR on the rate of recurrence (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.69 0.99). This effect remained consistent throughout all variations of the statistical model, including subgroup analyses. TNM status was unknown but did not bias the iCR treatment decision as investigated separately. Hence, it was assumed to be equally distributed between treatment groups. Correlation analyses showed good internal and external validity of the database.
At baseline, a higher proportion of teriparatide-treated than antiresorptive-treated patients had severe back pain (30.9% vs. 17.7%), extreme pain/discomfort (25.3% vs. 16.8%), extreme anxiety/depression (16.6% vs. 7.8%) and were confined to bed (10.0% vs. 5.3%). Teriparatide-treated patients had higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain (5.8 ± 2.42 vs. 5.1 ± 2.58) and lower mean European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores (37.7 ± 29.15 vs. 45.5 ± 31.42) than antiresorptive-treated patients. The incidence of new/worsening back pain at six months for patients on teriparatide and antiresorptives was 9.8% and 10.3% (relative risk 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.23), respectively. The incidence of severe back pain at 12 months was 1.3% and 1.6% in the teriparatide and antiresorptive treatment groups, respectively. Teriparatide-treated patients had lower mean VAS (2.71 ± 2.21 vs. 3.30 ± 2.37) and EQ‑5D (46.1 ± 33.18 vs. 55.4 ± 32.65) scores at 12 months. More teriparatide-treated patients felt better (82.7% vs. 71.0%) and were very satisfied with treatment (49.4% vs. 36.8%) compared to antiresorptive-treated patients.
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Despite recent advances in the surgical and medical treatment of breast cancer, the number of patients dying from the disease is still high. In addition to improvements of early diagnosis and treatment, the overall mortality of breast cancer could be reduced by means of preventive intervention in both women with particularly normal and with high risk. Preventing the potentially deadly disease is presumably more effective than treatment, for life quality issues as well as for the economic perspective. Chemoprevention though is still a research field with results from large prevention trials being discussed controversially. For women with a defined increased risk for breast cancer, tamoxifen may be a choice for chemoprevention, balancing carefully benefits against risks. With promising results in adjuvant settings, aromatase inhibitors may deliver better prevention treatment options in the future, nevertheless, more research is needed to reliably predict risk on an individual basis in the future.
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Connective tissue growth factor expression was found in multiple ocular tissues with relatively high levels in the corneal endothelium, lens subcapsular epithelium, and in the vasculature of the iris and retina. Wounded corneas responded with an immediate upregulation of CTGF in the epithelium at the wound margin and a sustained CTGF induction during re-epithelialization. At the onset of haze formation, CTGF protein becomes more focused in the basal epithelium. Deletion of the CTGF gene caused a 40% reduction (P < 0.01) in the cornea re-epithelialization rate in knockout mice compared with wild-type mice.
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Prevention of osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopausal patients can reduce fracture risk. In this view, the use of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) appear to be important in managing this condition. Bazedoxifene Acetate (BZA) is a third-generation SERM that showed to protect bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteopenia, and to reduce vertebral fracture risk in osteoporotic postmenopausal women; moreover, BZA decreased the non-vertebral fracture risk in a subgroup of patients at high-risk for fracture in comparison to placebo. BZA showed no stimulating effects on endometrium and breast. BZA can be a valid option in management of osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopause.
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Age at treatment and use of tamoxifen are important predictors of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The risk of induced long-term amenorrhea does not seem to be greater among mutation carriers than among women who do not carry a mutation.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays a major role in pancreatic β-cell function and survival by increasing cytoplasmic cAMP levels, which are thought to affect transcription through activation of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor CREB. Here, we test CREB function in the adult β-cell through inducible gene deletion.
Among studies in advanced breast cancer, there were two trials with sorafenib as monotherapy, four trials of sorafenib in combination with taxanes, two in combination with capecitabine, one with gemcitabine and/or capecitabine, one with vinorelbine, one with bevacizumab, one with pemetrexed and one with ixabepilone, three trials of sorafenib in combination with endocrine therapy and two trials in women with brain metastases undergoing whole brain radiotherapy. In addition, there was one trial of sorafenib added to standard chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting, and two trials in the neoadjuvant setting. In general, sorafenib was well tolerated in breast cancer patients, though its dosage had to be adjusted in some trials, and discontinuation rates were high, particularly for the combination of sorafenib with anastrozole. Sorafenib monotherapy and combinations with taxanes, bevacizumab and ixabepilone showed inadequate efficacy, while efficacy results from combinations with gemcitabine and/or capecitabine and possibly tamoxifen were more promising.
Recurrence hazards over time reveal changes in risk that may have biologic and therapeutic strategy relevance. In ER-negative tumors, a large early chemotherapy benefit is followed by a consistently low recurrence hazard over time. In ER-positive patients, the chemotherapy benefit appears concentrated mostly in earlier follow-up, and a greater recurrence risk remains.
In group C, all patients who completed the questionnaire experienced hair and scalp sensations: 87% both trichodynia and pruritus, 13% trichodynia only. Reported intensities ranged between 1 and 10. In group T, 31% of participants reported hair and scalp sensations: 12% both trichodynia and pruritus, 12% pruritus only, 7% trichodynia only. Intensities were rated between 1 and 5. No sensations were reported after week 11 in either group.
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In the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial, postmenopausal women at increased risk of breast cancer received either oral tamoxifen (20 mg/day) or raloxifene (60 mg/day) over 5 years. There were an equal number of cases of invasive breast cancer in women assigned to tamoxifen and raloxifene. There were fewer cases of noninvasive breast cancer in the tamoxifen group than in the raloxifene group (risk ratio [RR]: 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-2.02). There were more cases of uterine cancer with tamoxifen than with raloxifene (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.35-1.08). Thromboembolic events occurred less often in the raloxifene group (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54-0.91) and there were fewer cataracts and cataract surgeries in the women taking raloxifene (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92). The STAR trial has shown that raloxifene is as effective as tamoxifen in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer and has a lower risk of adverse events but a nonstatistically significant higher risk of noninvasive breast cancer. The risk of other cancers, fractures, ischemic heart disease and stroke is similar for both drugs.
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Molecular modeling, binding experiments and functional assays were performed in order to evaluate the biological action exerted by MIBE through ERα and GPER in MCF7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells.
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Neither anastrozole nor tamoxifen had any significant effect on STS activity as measured in PBLs. Anastrozole did not affect serum androstenediol concentrations.
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This cohort study identified women with breast cancer from 2008 through 2010 using health insurance claims data linked to clinical information on stage at diagnosis, current clinical status, histology, and other clinical markers. Estimated mortality rates (MRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were compared between users of aromatase inhibitors or tamoxifen, adjusted for claims-identified covariates and additionally for the clinical variables using propensity scores and proportional hazards regression models.
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Estradiol stimulated significantly CXCR4 overexpression in all the cell lines analyzed in a dose- and a time-dependent manner. Tamoxifen treatment inhibited the CXCR4 overexpression observed in estrogen-treated groups, demonstrating that estrogen strongly influences CXCR4 expression in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Cells treated with E2, CXCL12 and E2 combined with CXCL12 exhibited significant cell migration, which was suppressed when tamoxifen and AMD3100 were present.
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We analyzed patients treated for an endometrial carcinoma from 1994 to 2004: patients without breast cancer (group 1), patients with a previous breast cancer without tamoxifen (group 2) and patients treated for breast cancer with tamoxifen (group 3). Survival rates were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a Log rank test, multivariate analysis was performed with a Cox regression model.
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A 60-year-old postmenopausal woman diagnosed as primary osteoporosis began to take raloxifene. The spontaneous microaggregates of platelets induced by shear stress were accelerated after the treatment, concomitant with the significant upregulation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). After the cessation of raloxifene, the spontaneous microaggregates of platelets and the acceleration of ADP-induced p44/p42 MAP kinase phosphorylation was diminished. We concluded that raloxifene caused platelet hyperaggregability to shear stress and p44/p42 MAP kinase was involved in the pathological state.
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The modulatory action of estradiol (E2) on the GnRH network can be exerted indirectly on presynaptic neurons or directly on estrogen receptors (ERs) located within GnRH hypothalamic neurons. Using the GnRH-producing GT1-7 cell line, we have investigated whether E2 is able to modify the response of these cells to norepinephrine (NE) stimulation. A 48-h exposure of GT1-7 cells to 10 nM E2 reduced NE-induced cAMP accumulation. However, 15-min exposure was enough to induce this inhibitory action, provided that a hormone-free period of 48 h after steroid treatment was allowed. Furthermore, this effect was mimicked by E2 coupled to (E-BSA), indicating that it may be exerted through a membrane-mediated mechanism. In addition, competition experiments using E-BSA coupled to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) revealed the presence of cell membrane-binding sites for E2. Binding of E-BSA coupled to FITC was blocked by preincubation of cells with either E2, antiestrogen ICI 182 780, or tamoxifen. Moreover, fluorescence staining of non-permeabilized cells with antibodies against receptors alpha and beta confirmed the presence of both receptor subtypes at the cell membrane. To determine the nature of the ER involved in this response, specific agonists for ERalpha 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT) and ERbeta 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) were used. Since PPT, but not DPN, reproduced the effect of E2, it is suggested that estrogen-induced modulatory action on NE responsiveness was mediated by the ERalpha isoform. Taken together, these results indicate that E2 modulates the adrenergic sensitivity of GT1-7 cells by a mechanism compatible with the activation of membrane-associated ERs.
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Eight hundred and thirteen patients with early arthritis included in the ESPOIR cohort had a clinical examination, laboratory tests (viral serology, immunological tests, and cytokine profile), and radiographs. We determined the prevalence of lymphopenia at baseline and after 3 years, associated factors, diagnoses, and risk of infection or malignancy.