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Parlodel

Generic Parlodel is the most effective preparation in struggle against female diseases as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Generic Parlodel can also be helpful for patients with Parkinson`s disease and its symptoms caused by low levels of dopamine in the brain. Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Apokyn, Mirapex, Requip

 

Also known as:  Bromocriptine.

Description

Generic Parlodel is created using perfect medical formula which is a magnificent weapon against women problems such as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Target of Generic Parlodel is to reduce prolactin level and help to produce breast milk and fertility in women.

Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level. When it is used for treatment of Parkinson disease, it works by stimulating dopamine receptors in some certain brain parts.

Parlodel is also known as Bromocriptine, Proctinal.

Generic Parlodel is a hormone (dopamine agonist).

Generic Parlodel can't lead to vaginal bleeding, uterine or breast cancer, breast tenderness.

Generic name of Generic Parlodel is Bromocriptine.

Brand name of Generic Parlodel is Parlodel.

Dosage

Generic Parlodel is available in the form of tablets (2.5 mg) which should be taken by mouth with meals or without it.

Take Generic Parlodel every day at the same time and remember that its dosage depends on patient's health state.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Parlodel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Parlodel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Parlodel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are allergic to Generic Parlodel components.

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Generic Parlodel in case of having uncontrolled high blood pressure, blood poisoning, having recently given birth or have coronary artery disease (chest pain) or any other severe heart disease.

In case you take Generic Parlodel while using birth control pills, remember that birth control pills become less effective

Patients under 15 years should be extremely careful with Generic Parlodel.

Avoid alcohol.

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It can be dangerous to stop Generic Parlodel taking suddenly.

parlodel drug study

Ropinirole (4-[2-(dipropylamino)ethyl]-2-indolinone monohydrochloride) a nonergoline dopamine receptor agonist with high affinity for native dopamine D(2)-like receptors in human caudate tissue, was tested with respect to the stimulation of postsynaptic brain dopamine receptors in standard preclinical models of Parkinson's disease. Additionally, in these animal models the antiparkinsonian activity of ropinirole was compared to that of bromocriptine. The ED(50)s (95% confidence limits) of ropinirole and bromocriptine on the turning behavior in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were 20.17 mg/kg (14.27-26.88 mg/kg) and 11.99 mg/kg (9.37-14.17 mg/kg), respectively. The ED(50)s (95% confidence limits) of ropinirole and bromocriptine on the catalepsy induced by reserpine were 18.55 mg/kg (15.29-22.99 mg/kg) and 12.56 mg/kg (10.25-14.64 mg/kg), respectively. Ropinirole and bromocriptine had no effect on the tremors induced by oxotremorine in mice, whereas atropine markedly suppressed the tremors. The ED(50)s (95% confidence limits) of ropinirole and bromocriptine on the tremors in VMT-lesioned monkeys were 0.18 mg/kg (0.12-0.29 mg/kg) and 2.63 mg/kg (1.06-6.45 mg/kg), respectively. In rodent parkinsonian models, bromocriptine was more potent than ropinirole; however, in the nonhuman primate parkinsonian model, ropinirole was a more potent inhibitor of parkinsonian activity than bromocriptine. This study suggests that ropinirole is a dopamine D(2)-like receptor agonistic drug of potential use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

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Glycoprotein-secreting pituitary tumors are uncommon. With increased awareness that pituitary tumors may secrete FSH, LH, TSH, and the alpha-subunit, either as a sole product or in any combination, these tumors are more likely to be recognized. The standard therapy is surgical resection and, possibly, postoperative radiotherapy for residual tumor mass or persistent hormonal secretion. We report a patient with a FSH- and alpha-subunit-secreting tumor who refused surgery and was treated with the dopamine agonist bromocriptine as primary therapy. Bromocriptine treatment resulted in reduction of serum FSH and alpha-subunit levels to normal, improvement of visual field defects, and improvement in hypogonadism despite lack of demonstrable change in tumor size, as assessed by computed tomographic scan. Chromatographic analysis of the serum revealed distinct peaks corresponding to those of labeled FSH and alpha-subunit. The clinical and biochemical responses in this patient suggest that some glycoprotein-secreting tumors may be responsive to dopamine agonist therapy.

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This study investigated whether photoperiod-induced changes in circulating prolactin levels, which have been observed in the Djungarian hamster ( Yellon and Goldman, '83; Duncan and Goldman, ' 83a ), might be involved in seasonal pelage color changes in this species. Injection of ovine prolactin (100 micrograms/day) inhibited the short photoperiod-induced winter molt. This finding indicated that the suppression of endogenous prolactin levels normally occurring in short photoperiod-housed hamsters (Duncan and Goldman, ' 83a ) may induce the winter molt. Suppression of prolactin secretion with bromoergocryptine (200 micrograms/day) strongly inhibited the spring molt, while concomitant treatment with ovine prolactin (100 micrograms/day) overcame this effect of bromoergocryptine. Injection of bromoergocryptine (200 micrograms/day) stimulated the winter molt in castrated hamsters housed in long photoperiod; concomitant injection of prolactin (100 micrograms/day) reversed this effect as well. These findings strongly suggested that an increase in endogenous prolactin levels may be necessary for the development and maintenance of the summer pelage.

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A 59-year-old man, who was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease and depression seven years ago and was on oral antiparkinsonian agents, antianxiety agents, and antidepressants, developed a high fever, disturbed consciousness, and marked muscle rigidity after discontinuation of etizolam and amitriptyline. He was admitted to a nearby hospital. Hypothyroidism had been noted two months before admission. Marked muscle rigidity and increased serum CK were observed. Since discontinuation of benzodiazepine has been known to rarely trigger a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), he was diagnosed as having NMS. After receiving dantrolene and bromocriptine, these symptoms temporarily improved but he again developed consciousness disturbance, and convulsive seizures associated with an elevated serum CK. He was transferred to our hospital. On admission, the CK level was normal at 168 IU/l, while free T4 was 0.6 ng/dl (normal range, 0.9-2.3) and TSH was 108.7 mU/ml (normal range, 0.2-4.2) in serum, indicating the presence of primary hypothyroidism. As an increase in thyroid hormone dosage improved the thyroid function to normal level, his disturbed consciousness and muscle rigidity gradually improved. Convulsive seizure and recurrence of NMS in a short interval are unusual in neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In this patient, hypothyroidism may have contributed to the development of malignant syndrome through metabolic changes of the central dopaminergic system, and discontinuation of etizolam, a kind of benzodiazepine, may have triggered NMS, since there has not been reported that discontinuation of antidepressants including amitriptyline triggers NMS.

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Although it is well established that PRL is present in the maternal serum, fetal serum, and amniotic fluid during human pregnancy, the precise interrelationship among those three compartments is unknown. In order to elucidate the intercompartmental relationship, several experiments were undertaken. Results are as follows: 2. The concentration of amniotic fluid PRL was different from that of maternal or fetal serum PRL during gestation. 2. There was no correlation between amniotic fluid and maternal or cord serum PRL at delivery. 3. Although bromocriptine suppressed the secretion of maternal serum PRL abruptly, the concentration of amniotic fluid PRL remained unchanged after the administration of bromocriptine at mid-gestation. 4. Analysis of molecular size of PRL by Sephadex G-100 column gel filtration revealed that the elution profiles of maternal serum PRL, fetal serum PRL, and amniotic fluid PRL differed from one another and furthermore, they were similar to those of adult pituitary PRL, fetal pituitary PRL, and decidual PRL, respectively. 5. PRL which was secreted from decidua could transfer to amniotic cavity across the fetal membrane. 6. Decidual PRL and amniotic fluid PRL have a biological activity. These results suggest that three compartments of PRL secretion during human pregnancy are independent each other and, furthermore, possible origin of amniotic fluid PRL is decidua.

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We randomly assigned 46 patients with hyperprolactinemia-induced ED to receive bromocriptine (trial group, n = 23) and bromocriptine plus CXC (control group, n = 23), respectively, both for 12 weeks. Then we compared the two groups of patients in erectile function and the levels of serum prolactin and testosterone.

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Among 537 cases, 56 were included (48 men, mean age 46 years). Misuse was observed in ten cases (18%). In 25 cases (44.6%), a previous psychiatric history was documented. Main drugs involved were nervous system (63.6%) followed by respiratory (7.8%), alimentary tract and metabolism (7.8%), dermatological (5.2%) and anti-infective (5.2%) agents. Case/noncase analysis found an association with dopaminergic agonists (pergolide, pramipexole, bromocriptine, piribedil), benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam) and serotoninergic antidepressants (taken as a whole), but not antipsychotics or antiepileptics. Association was also found with varenicline, isotretinoin, interferon alpha-2b, rimonabant, benfluorex, topiramate and antiviral drugs (ribavirin, efavirenz).

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Immature female rats were bilaterally lesioned in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) or hypothalamic ventromedial-arcuate region (VMAR) at 21 days of age and daily injected with the dopamine (DA) agonist bromocriptine (CB-154) through day 26. Estimation of the serum LH and FSH concentrations following ovariectomy and two injections of 0.05 micrograms oestradiol benzoate (OB)/100 g b.w. revealed that the desensitization to the negative feedback effect of OB induced by lesioning of the MPOA was almost completely prevented by CB-154. A similar effect of the drug was not found in rats lesioned in the VMAR. The DA antagonist alpha-methyldopa (alpha-MD) was then bilaterally implanted in the MPOA or VMAR of 28-day-old females. Evaluation of the gonadotrophin-inhibiting effect of OB on days 30-31 showed that medial preoptic, but not hypothalamic implants of alpha-MD reduced the sensitivity to the inhibitory action of OB. It is proposed that diminution of the dopaminergic activity in the MPOA may play a role in the prepubertal desensitization to the negative oestrogen feedback in female rats.

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The effect of chronic bromocriptine administration (7.5-20 mg/day for 1-32 months) on the size of "nonsecreting" pituitary adenomas (NPA) was studied in 20 patients. Brain computed tomography showed a marked reduction of the adenoma in one patient after 1 month of treatment (7.5 mg/day); further scans taken 2 and 15 months later, under the same bromocriptine dose, did not show any other variations in the tumoral mass. In the remaining 19 patients, no changes in tumor size were documented by CT during the treatment. Four patients had a worsening of visual fields during bromocriptine administration and they were referred for neurosurgery. In conclusion, bromocriptine was ineffective in reducing tumor size in all but one patient with NPA and, in some cases, it did not prevent tumor growth as is suggested by the worsening of visual fields. Thus, bromocriptine treatment, at least at the doses capable of shrinking macroprolactinomas, seems to be of limited value in patients with NPA.

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Human GH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells were cultured for periods from 4 days up to 3 weeks without or with octreotide (10 nM) and/or bromocriptine (10 nM). The effects of these drugs were measured on GH release, intracellular GH concentrations and intracellular GH mRNA levels.

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No treatment is required for the postpill amenorrheic patients with normal estradiol and prolactin levels. If hyperprolactinemia is detected, bromocriptine may be used as a treatment to promote normal menstrual bleeding and ovulation.

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We have studied the effect of various agents on the decreases in striatal levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites which were observed 14 days after an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of 50 micrograms 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to mice. A pretreatment of mice with either a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor (alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine), a D2 receptor agonist (bromocriptine) or antagonist (haloperidol), or a vesicular uptake inhibitor (tetrabenazine) did not modify the 6-OHDA-induced decreases in DA and metabolites, indicating that DA synthesis, vesicular storage and neuronal firing rates are not mainly involved in the 6-OHDA-induced toxicity on the DA neurons. Conversely, a pretreatment with L-DOPA + benserazide potentiated the 6-OHDA-induced decreases in striatal levels of DA, homovanillic acid and 3-methoxy-tyramine. This effect was not due to an increased 6-OHDA uptake via the neuronal carrier since a pretreatment with L-DOPA + benserazide, performed 1-1.5 h before sacrifice, decreased the apparent affinity of the uptake, an effect which disappeared when considering the total DA concentration present in incubation medium ([3H]DA and cold released DA). In conclusion, potentiation of the 6-OHDA neurotoxicity by L-DOPA rises again the important problem of the safety of the latter drug in therapeutics.

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In order to investigate the role of central dopaminergic receptors in the control of vasopressin release and in cardiovascular regulation, the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of dopamine (DA) and bromocriptine (BC), a specific DA agonist, were compared in the anesthetized dog. The drugs were infused over a 20-min period into a lateral ventricle. DA brought about a transient decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, a slight increase in heart rate toward the end of the experiment, and a suppression of vasopressin release. BC increased heart rate and decreased blood pressure to a greater extent than did DA, and doubled the plasma vasopressin concentration. The increase in vasopressin secretion preceded the fall in blood pressure, ans was, therefore, due to a direct central action of BC. Although in these circumstances it is difficult to determine the role of dopaminergic neurons in the control of vasopressin release, there is some reason to believe that this role may be expressed by the actions of BC under the present experimental conditions.

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Two types of rat pituitary tumour cells secreting both prolactin (Prl) and growth hormone (GH) were cultured in vitro either on plastic dishes or on surfaces coated with an extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from bovine corneal endothelium. The presence of ECM caused an increase in Prl but a decrease in GH. On one cell line the Prl response to thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) was increased by ECM. There was an increase in the rate of spread of the cultures, an increase in cell protein, and DNA synthesis and a change in cell morphology when ECM was used. It is suggested that these observations can be explained by a sensitizing action of ECM to growth factors present in serum.

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In order to study the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in men referring for severe oligospermia, the hormonal pattern of 57 oligospermic men was compared to those of 19 healthy volunteers. Fourteen patients had plasma gonadotrophin levels in the normal range contrasting with low plasma testosterone (T) levels. An hyperprolactinemia was found in 2 of these men who were treated with bromocriptine. A dramatic increase in sperm count was obtained on month 9 to 12 of the therapy and 5 pregnancies were obtained. Two men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and azoospermia were treated with gonadotrophins. Such a treatment induced a desquamation of immature germinal cells in the sperm on month 6 and the maturation et spermatozoa on month 18. By contrast to the latter patients, 8 men had a decrease in plasma T levels without clinical signs of hypoandrogenism. The spermocytogram showed numerous immature germinal cells. On month 7 of a treatment using gonadotrophins, the sperm count rose and 4 pregnancies were obtained after 3 to 12 months of therapy. In 2 patients an isolated FSH deficiency was suspected on the basis of undetectable FSH levels unresponsive to the infusion of GnRH. These patients were treated with hMG. This treatment induced a sharp increase in sperm count on month 6. Forty-three patients had an increase in either LH and/or FSH: 24 men had plasma testosterone and LH levels in the normal ranges, contrasting with an increase in plasma FSH level. In such men, the mean of testosterone level was significantly (p less than 0.001) lower than in controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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The ascending dopamine system of the mammalian brain has been associated with motor, mnemonic and goal-directed or reward-related behaviour. The most progress in understanding the cortical mechanisms of dopaminergic modulation of function has been made with regards to short-term mnemonic (or working memory) function. Research in experimental animals strongly suggests that stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex can ameliorate spatial working memory related cognitive deficits, and may even enhance cognitive function in healthy animals. Research in humans has not been able to clearly replicate these findings, partly due to the lack of available agents that can safely be used. Low doses of dopamine D2 receptor agonists such as bromocriptine and pergolide may be able to enhance working memory and executive functions, but these effects may be dependent on the nature of the tasks used and the baseline performance levels of the subjects. Thus, the effects of dopaminergic cognitive enhancers may not be simple, or uniform across subjects. Systematic studies in humans carefully controlling task parameters are needed in order to specify the potential cognitive processes open to enhancement with dopaminergics. However, since the DA receptor subtypes in different brain regions appear to differentially influence similar functions, carefully defining the cognitive processes to be tested against potential therapeutics is an equally important goal. Studies in patients groups using selective dopaminergics are rather restricted, but show promise for designing large-scale clinical trials into the cognitive enhancing properties of potential therapeutic agents that act through the dopamine system.

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After treatment with CB 154 of a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma a morphological study reveales that many cells present a positive immunofluorescent reaction with anti-ovine prolactine antibody. At the ultra structural level, many granulations and vacuolated dense bodies can be observed.

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During and following hypoxic exposure young male hypothyroid hamsters treated with the dopamine D(2) receptor agonist bromocriptine increased breathing, while ventilation was depressed in bromocriptine-treated euthyroid hamsters. Moreover, D(2) receptor expression was increased in carotid bodies and striatum, but not in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) of hypothyroid relative to euthyroid hamsters. Here ventilation was determined in older male hypothyroid and euthyroid hamsters given vehicle or bromocriptine, and exposed to baseline air, hypoxia, and then air. Bromocriptine without hypoxia served as a time control. Relative to vehicle, bromocriptine depressed ventilation in both groups exposed to air or to hypoxia, but hypothyroid bromocriptine-treated hamsters increased ventilatory responsiveness to hypoxia, while euthyroid hamsters decreased ventilatory responsiveness to hypoxia and exhibited post-hypoxic depression. Hypothyroidism had no effect on D(2) receptor expression in carotid bodies or striatum, but increased it in the NTS. Thus, in hamsters bromocriptine modulates breathing and expression of D(2) receptor depending on the length of hypothyroidism.

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Growth hormone was measured by radioimmunoassay in blood samples collected from ewes during the hormonal induction of lactation and during hand-milking post partum. Ovariectomized ewes were induced to lactate with injections of progesterone + oestradiol benzoate every 3 days for 30 days (priming phase) and then daily injections of dexamethasone for 5 days (trigger phase). The ewes were then milked daily. Immunoreactive GH levels fluctuated considerably but were generally in the range 1-15 ng/ml during all phases of lactation and were unaffected by bromocriptine treatment. Milk yield was unrelated to GH levels. Growth hormone was also measured in blood plasma taken at frequent intervals around the time of milking in lactating ewes approximately 4 weeks post partum. Although a clear prolactin response to milking was observed, there was no indication of a GH response. Although there is probably a minimum requirement for GH for lactation, a relationship between immunoreactive GH levels and milk yields was not established, perhaps because of limitations of the radioimmunoassay to detect all the biologically active GH

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34 crossbred and purebred bitches referred for possible pregnancy termination. Seven additional pregnant bitches were used as controls.

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Prolactin (PRL) is synthesized by lactotropic pituitary cells. The corresponding hormonal preparations is dispensed as lactin. Bromocriptine is a dopamine agonist, dopamine being a natural inhibitor of PRL-secretion. PRL receptors in the testis are located on the interstitial cells. PRL effect on the testis depends on the age and species of animals. In the immature animals as well as in the photoperiodic ones PRL stimulates the testis development and the testicular secretion; bromocriptine decreases androgen concentration. In the postpubertal animals PRL is a melatonin antagonist in the dark time but LH synergist at the exposure to light. A high PRL concentration inhibits gonadoliberin formation, LH secretion; testosterone concentration and especially dihydrotestosterone concentration decrease (or do not change) with an elevation of estradiol level that on the whole results in feminization. The cerebral transmitters promoting or inhibiting sexual behavior are involved in the interaction with PRL. Administration of PRL, experimental or pathological hyperprolactinemia are followed by the suppression of ejaculation. Bromocriptine (parlodel) appears to be a pathogenetic therapeutic agent in hyperprolactinemia.

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Long term levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease is associated with the development of motor complications including abnormal involuntary movements and a shortening response to each dose (wearing off phenomenon). It is thought that dopamine agonists can reduce the duration of immobile off periods and the need for levodopa therapy whilst maintaining or improving motor impairments and only minimally increasing dopaminergic adverse events.

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A patient with a macroprolactinoma was treated with bromocriptine 15 mg daily. Both the size of the tumour as shown by computed tomography and the serum prolactin concentration decreased over several months but then increased. The dose of bromocriptine was increased to 40 mg daily but tumour growth continued, and the tumour was resected. Production of prolactin by cultured cells was not inhibited by high concentrations of bromocriptine, suggesting that regrowth of the tumour was due to cells resistant to dopamine agonist action. This case of regrowth of a prolactinoma during bromocriptine treatment after an initial reduction in size indicates the need for close surveillance especially of patients whose serum prolactin concentration fails to fall into the normal range with bromocriptine treatment.

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Seventy-eight mothers who did not want to breast-feed their newborn infants took part in a trial to assess whether metergoline could effectively suppress puerperal lactation. Metergoline 8 mg/day was given to 69 women within 24 hours after delivery and continued for five days to prevent lactation. The remaining nine women were given a course of metergoline once lactation had started. The drug was effective in both preventing and suppressing lactation. Milk secretion, engorgement, and pain were significantly reduced in women taking metergoline. Metergoline has a similar effect to bromocriptine in suppressing lactation, but its mechanism of action remains unknown.

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First report on nine patients suffering from psoriasis who were treated with somatostatin or bromocriptin or both. These are inhibitors of HGH. The therapeutical effect on skin lesions and psoriatic alterations to joints is described.

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To investigate the potential risk for developing visual loss during single or multiple pregnancies in women with pituitary adenomas.

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Effects of dopaminergic drugs on the degranulation of mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells) and the nitric oxide production from macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) were studied. Among the dopaminergic agonists and antagonists tested, bromocriptine, 7-OH-DPAT, haloperidol, and clozapine showed potent inhibitions of mast cell degranualtion (IC50 value, 5 microM). However, these dopaminergic agents did not affect the tyrosine phosphorylations of the signaling components of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI), such as Syk, PLCgamma1, and PLCgamma2.; This suggested that these signaling components were not involved in the inhibition of the mast cell degranulation by these compounds. On the other hand, dopamine, bromocriptine, 7-OH-DAPT, and haloperidol markedly inhibited the nitric oxide production from RAW 264.7 cells (IC50 values, 10-20 microM). Bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist that is routinely used for the treatment of Parkinsons disease, inhibited the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase at an early stage of the LPS-induced protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggested that these dopaminergic agents, when used for the treatment of dopamine receptors-related diseases, such as Schizophrenia or Parkinsons disease, might have additional beneficial effects.

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parlodel alcohol 2016-04-17

Levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin were evaluated in 52 cases of postpill amenorrhea at the Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Calcutta, India. All 52 patients had experienced amenorrhea for one year since discontinuation of oral contraceptive therapy. The buy parlodel incidence of postpill amenorrhea was much higher in patients with histories of oligomenorrhea or irregular menstrual periods. No relationship was seen between the number of cycles of pills used and the incidence of postpill amenorrhea. The ratio of luteinizing hormone to follicle-stimulating hormone in all cases exceeded unity, indicating that postpill amenorrhea is a type of functional secondary amenorrhea.

bromocriptine parlodel dose 2017-09-08

The term constitutional short stature is used to describe clinical situations characterized by low stature, assessed using special growth nomograms, but buy parlodel which are not due to specific endocrine alterations, nor to genetic causes or skeletal dysmorphisms, nor secondary to specific organ pathologies or chronic diseases. On the basis of this definition, our paper also includes the so-called normal variants of short stature (familial short stature and constitutional delay of growth) and intrauterine growth retardation. The endocrine and auxological features of constitutional short stature are described in the literature and provide an adequate basis for the use of therapies which include, in addition to growth hormone, substances capable of stimulating the endogenous secretion of the hormone (L-dopa, bromocriptine, clonidine, GHRH, pyridostigmine), or anabolic hormones. Biosynthetic growth hormone therapy is without doubt the most widely used, both on account of the extensive clinical experience and due to the easy availability of the drug made possible by the use of the biosynthetic molecule. Many subjects affected by constitutional short stature show a good response to hGH therapy, whereas others do not benefit by this treatment. New therapies using GHRH and neurodrugs, which are certainly easier to handle and less expensive, represent a new approach to the therapy of constitutional short stature but this condition still requires further investigation.

parlodel dose 2015-01-26

Both prolactin and the suckling stimulus are involved in the suppression of LH levels during lactation in the sow. Reduction of the prolactin level by treatment with bromocriptine will result in a significant increase of the LH level, followed by a further significant increase after weaning. The suppression of LH release by the two factors is caused by a blockade at the hypothalamic level. The LH-response to an injection of LHRH is not affected by the presence or absence of prolactin and buy parlodel the suckling stimulus and therefore rules out the pituitary as the primary target organ.

buy parlodel online 2017-02-21

In a prospective randomized study, we examined whether a novel method of ovarian stimulation, the bromocriptine-rebound method, improves in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes compared with the conventional long protocol using GnRH agonist and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG). Ovulatory women with buy parlodel previous failed IVF-embryo transfer using the long protocol were prospectively assigned to either the bromocriptine-rebound method (group 1, 82 cycles) or the long protocol (group 2, 80 cycles). The bromocriptine-rebound method was the same as the long protocol, except that bromocriptine was administered daily from day 4 of the preceding cycle until 7 days before hMG stimulation. The numbers of follicles, fertilized oocytes, and embryos with superior morphology were higher in group 1 than in group 2. The rates of clinical pregnancy and live birth delivery per cycle were significantly higher in group 1 (38% and 33%, respectively) than in group 2 (21% and 19%, respectively). The mean concentration of serum PRL during hMG administration was significantly higher in group 1 than group 2. A significant correlation between the number of superior embryos and PRL concentrations was observed in group 1, but not in group 2. Next, we performed a retrospective study to investigate how the bromocriptine-rebound method exerts its beneficial effects. In the initial IVF with the long protocol, the mean concentration of serum PRL during hMG administration and the expression of PRL receptor (PRLr) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in granulosa cells were significantly higher in nonpregnant patients than in pregnant ones. When IVF was repeated with the bromocriptine-rebound method in the nonpregnant patients, the expression of PRLr mRNA decreased significantly. In conclusion, the bromocriptine-rebound method enhances embryonic development and the rate of live birth delivery in patients with previous failed IVF using the long protocol. We hypothesize that in the nonpregnant patients using the long protocol, the serum PRL concentration and PRLr mRNA expression are increased to compensate for poor postreceptor responsiveness of granulosa cells to PRL during oocyte maturation. The bromocriptine-rebound method may improve oocyte maturation in such patients by restoring postreceptor responsiveness of granulosa cells to PRL during the hypoprolactinemic period and increasing the PRL concentration by a rebound phenomenon after discontinuation of bromocriptine.

parlodel tablet uses 2015-08-02

In each experiment, rats buy parlodel were first tested repeatedly after treatment with the combination of MK-801 and morphine, and then after treatment with either drug alone.

parlodel medicine 2015-10-06

Review authors carried out data extraction and quality assessment of the included trials independently and in duplicate. We discussed discrepancies until we reached consensus. We consulted a third buy parlodel review author in cases of persistent disagreement. We contacted authors of primary studies when necessary.

parlodel 1 mg 2017-09-11

Restrictive cardiac valvulopathies observed in Parkinson patients treated with the ergoline dopamine agonist pergolide have recently been associated with the agonist efficacy of the drug at 5-hydroxytryptamine2B (5-HT2B) receptors. To evaluate whether agonism at 5-HT2B buy parlodel receptors is a phenomenon of the class of the ergolines, we studied 5-HT2B receptor-mediated relaxation in porcine pulmonary arteries to five ergolines which are used as antiparkinsonian drugs. Pergolide and cabergoline were potent full agonists in this tissue (pEC50 8.42 and 8.72). Bromocriptine acted as a partial agonist (pEC50 6.86). Lisuride and terguride, however, failed to relax the arteries but potently antagonized 5-HT-induced relaxation (pKB 10.32 and 8.49). Thus, agonism at 5-HT2B receptors seems not to be a class effect of the ergolines.

parlodel dosage hyperprolactinemia 2015-07-26

Hyperprolactinemia can be treated medically. Thus buy parlodel all patients with a normal sella turcica and those patients with only slight enlargement of the sella turcica can be treated medically with the dopaminagonist bromocriptine. This treatment is also indicated in paitents with postoperative persisting hyperprolactinemia. In contrast to hyperprolactinemia medical therapy of acromegaly is still in the experimental stage, through the dopaminagonist bromocriptine induces a decrease of growth hormone levels and improvement of the disease in many patients with acromegaly.

parlodel tab 2016-09-11

Only one randomised cross-over trial including 20 patients has compared lisuride with bromocriptine as adjunct therapy in Parkinson's disease. Both lisuride and bromocriptine improved motor fluctuations with no significant differences between the agonists. However, this conclusion is based on an unvalidated 4 point rating scale which could only record positive outcomes. This, combined with the small size of the trial, suggests that firm conclusions on motor fluctuations should not be drawn. Lisuride and bromocriptine produced similar benefits in parkinsonian impairments according to the Columbia Rating Scale. Adverse events were similar with the two agonists and no withdrawals buy parlodel were reported from either drug.

parlodel buy 2016-12-30

Twenty-nine patients with tardive dyskinesia (n = 20) or related syndromes [spontaneous dyskinesia (n = 3), levodopa-induced dyskinesia (n = 3), tardive dystonia (n = 3)] were treated with clonidine. Clinical effects of this drug were observed for up to 4 years. Seventy-five percent of patients showed at least moderate improvement, and in 50% of patients, full resolution occurred. In most cases, patients received concomitant medications, including neuroleptics and benzodiazepines. Two patients received clonidine alone, and dyskinesia was only minimally improved; however, when bromocriptine was added, prompt improvement occurred on this combined regimen. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that not only receptor supersensitivity of dopaminergic neurons but also involvement buy parlodel of noradrenergic neurons is important in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia and related syndromes.

parlodel drug 2017-05-26

Men suffering from liver cirrhosis were examined. They demonstrated a decrease in the buy parlodel blood content of gonadotropic hormones and testosterone and a rise of estradiol and prolactin. The changes indicated were more pronounced in decompensated liver cirrhosis and were associated with lipid peroxidation activation and a reduction of the count of T suppressor lymphocytes. As a result, the treatment of men suffering from decompensated liver cirrhosis and hyperprolactinemia by parlodel lowered blood prolactin and activity of lipid peroxidation. The use of chorionic gonadotropin for the treatment of men with decompensated liver cirrhosis and a low content of blood lutropin produces an immunomodulatory effect. Parlodel and chorionic gonadotropin favour a decrease of the cytolytic syndrome.

parlodel tabs 2015-08-09

Twenty-one patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations who completed a double-blind study comparing controlled-release carbidopa/levodopa (Sinemet CR4) with standard Sinemet (SS) were evaluated one year following completion of the study. Five patients remained on CR4 alone; 16 continued on CR4 plus SS, and one also required addition of bromocriptine. Patients were significantly worse (p less than 0.05) at one year compared with double-blind CR4 phase (DBCR) for nine parameters of the motor exam, six activities of daily living (ADL), Hoehn & Yahr staging, and physician's global assessment. Compared with baseline SS, patients were worse at one year for four points of the motor exam, two of mentation, behavior, and mood, and 11 parameters of ADL. Improvement at one year was noted for less action and postural tremor and decreased buy parlodel duration of dyskinesias for both comparison periods. There was elimination of early morning dystonia at one year over the DBCR period and more hours "on" without dyskinesias and fewer hours "on" with dyskinesias compared with baseline SS. Total levodopa dosage was not significantly changed over the year. These data suggest that, in long-term use, CR4 remains more efficacious than SS alone for Parkinson's patients experiencing motor fluctuations, although disease progression continues despite optimal medication.

parlodel brand name 2015-04-26

Bone metabolism was studied in 17 acromegalic patients, who responded to either medical treatment with bromocriptine (12 patients), or to transsphenoidal surgery (5 patients). Parameters of bone turnover decreased, e.g. serum acid phosphatase (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs 8.1 +/- 0.6 U/ buy parlodel l, P less than 0.05) and the ratio of hydroxyproline/creatinine (33.6 +/- 4.4 vs 18.3 +/- 2.0, P less than 0.01) in the urine. No changes were observed in parathyroid function or concentrations of calcitonin. Serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol decreased (32.6 +/- 3.6 vs 20.6 +/- 1.8 ng/l, P less than 0.01) and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increased (4.3 +/- 0.6 vs 6.7 +/- 1.0 micrograms/l, P less than 0.05). No correlation between the percentual changes in serum growth hormone levels and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol was found, suggesting an indirect effect of growth hormone on the renal 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-1-alpha-hydroxylase. The possible mechanisms involved are discussed, including the effects of growth hormone and somatomedin on bone.

parlodel generic name 2015-06-11

We used a Markov model to simulate the course of Parkinson's disease and to compare the cost effectiveness of dopamine agonists added to levodopa with that of levodopa alone in Japan. The model assumed that 60-year-old men with Parkinson's disease in Hoehn-Yahr Zoloft Cost (HY) stages 2 to 5 using levodopa were administered dopamine agonists or continued on levodopa alone. The incremental cost effectiveness of dopamine agonists used for 10 years was then estimated.

parlodel 2 mg 2015-02-10

The medical approach with long-acting BRC preparations and CV 205-502 which selectively binds D2 receptors allows one to obtain rapid normalization of PRL levels and shrinkage of macroprolactinomas in a large series of patients. These drugs are rather well tolerated also by patients proven to be untolerant to standard BRC Zocor 10mg Medication .

parlodel medication 2017-04-17

Bromocriptinee has proved to be effective in treatment of patients for hyperprolactinaemic Serevent Inhaler Generic diseases. The authors suggest that in gynaecology it should be used, first of all, in treating patients for hyperprolactinaemic sterility and galactorrhoea and, in extraordinary cases, for postpartum inhibition of lactation. Bromocriptin should be prescribed only at endocrinological institutions with facilities for follow-up control by serum prolactin assay.

parlodel drug uses 2017-01-05

Fourteen patients presented with arrested pubertal development associated with prolactin-secreting pituitary tumours; serum prolactin ranged from 4000-104,300 mU/l in the ten females and 920-68,000 in four males. Skull X-ray showed a markedly expanded pituitary fossa in eight patients. CT scan and/or air encephalography showed macroadenomas in nine, of whom seven had large suprasellar extensions to their tumours, yet only five had complained of headache and only two had visual field defects. All were treated with bromocriptine (7.5-60 mg/day) which lowered prolactin substantially in all and into the normal range in 11 (range less than 60-3090, median 105 mU/l). Puberty thereafter progressed spontaneously in 13, but in one patient, whose prolactin did not suppress completely, menarche could be induced only with clomiphene. Anterior pituitary function improved on bromocriptine. In seven patients with macroadenomas, tumour shrinkage into the pituitary fossa was complete and in two others incomplete shrinkage was followed by transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. Seven patients received pituitary irradiation, six after bromocriptine-induced shrinkage and one after transsphenoidal surgery. At follow-up 6 months to 10 years (median 5 years) after presentation, ten remain on bromocriptine with a suppressed serum prolactin, one has a normal prolactin after surgery, and three are off bromocriptine with residual hyperprolactinaemia (418-4680 mU/l). To date, four females have become pregnant and one male has fathered two children. Prolactinomas are an important, albeit rare, cause of arrested puberty and should therefore be sought. Most patients respond well to bromocriptine Reglan Medication , with or without pituitary irradiation.

parlodel tablet price 2015-06-22

27 patients (12 women and 15 men) with hyperprolactinemia were treated with the dopamine agonists lisuride (Dopergin) and bromocriptine on a cross-over basis for 3-6 months. By this treatment, plasma prolactin levels were reduced by 83 and 87%, and normalization was achieved in 13 patients in the lisuride group (average dosage 1 mg/d) and in 15 patients in the bromocriptine group (average dosage 10 mg/d). Side effects, consisting of orthostatic hypotension, vomiting and nausea, occurred in 11 patients treated with lisuride and 13 patients treated with bromocriptine, and 2 patients in the lisuride group and one in the bromocriptine group stopped the medication for this reason. There was a good correlation in the doses of both drugs used. There was a tendency for the prolactin-lowering effect of lisuride to last longer upon cessation of therapy which might be related to the higher receptor affinity of both drugs. In Valtrex Recommended Dosage general, however, the present results indicate that bromocriptine and lisuride are comparable in efficacy and side effects, but that individual patients respond better to one or the other drug.

parlodel maximum dose 2016-09-29

A report is given of 87 pregnancies in hyperprolactinaemic women treated with bromocriptine. The high prolactin level in 11 cases was caused by hypophyseal adenoma. If the plasma prolactin level exceeded 5000 mU/l during pregnancy, bromocriptine was administered until delivery. If the initial prolactin value was over 1000 mU/l, the prolactin level was measured during pregnancy, delivery and the lactational period. After weaning, the prolactin level was again elevated in the majority of cases. During pregnancy, delivery and lactation, complications which differed significantly from the usual were not observed, pregnancy and nursing took place normally. Breast feeding was not contraindicated in any of the cases. Among the newborns, adaptation disturbances and congenital malformations, showed the usual frequency. In the authors' Sinequan 25 Mg opinion pregnancies which occur during the treatment of hyperprolactinaemic patients need increased care. Complications during pregnancy, delivery and nursing period were not more frequently observed either in the mother or the newborn. The hyperprolactinaemic syndrome did not deteriorate during gestation and lactation, but its normalization can not be expected.

parlodel 10 mg 2016-02-14

She was treated with local debridement, Vermox Suspension bromocriptine, antibiotics and blood transfusion with good results. The pregnancy however terminated at 27 weeks of gestation.

parlodel online 2017-06-08

We conducted an open label investigation of bromocriptine treatment in 7 patients with active non-life threatening SLE. Patients received bromocriptine daily during the treatment phase of 6 to 9 months and were followed for 5 months after bromocriptine was discontinued. Disease activity was assessed by determination of the SLE activity Measure (SLAM) and the Toronto SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Serum prolactin concentrations and a battery of serologic and urine tests were obtained at baseline and at monthly intervals during Levaquin 5 Mg and after bromocriptine treatment.

parlodel tablet 2017-09-19

Abulia refers to impaired ability to perform voluntary actions, show initiative, make decisions along with decrease in movements, speech, thought and emotional reactions. We describe here two patients who developed this condition following bilateral insult to different sites in the centromedial core of the brain, the first following the cerebral venous thrombosis and the second after the right ACA and MCA infarct. Both these patients improved following treatment with Bromocriptine. These cases are described for proper identification and management by the clinicians.

parlodel 30 mg 2016-08-05

We used a rapid scanning stop-flow technique to study the kinetics of reduction of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) by the flavin domain of cytochrome P450-BM3 (BMR), which was shown to form a stoichiometric complex (K(D)=0.48 microM) with CYP3A4. In the absence of substrates only about 50% of CYP3A4 was able to accept electrons from BMR. Whereas the high-spin fraction was completely reducible, the reducibility of the low-spin fraction did not exceed 42%. Among four substrates tested (testosterone, 1-pyrenebutanol, bromocriptine, or alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF)) only ANF is capable of increasing the reducibility of the low-spin fraction to 75%. Our results demonstrate that the pool of CYP3A4 is heterogeneous, and not all P450 is competent for electron transfer in the complex with reductase. The increase in the reducibility of the enzyme in the presence of ANF may represent an important element of the mechanism of action of this activator.

parlodel dosing 2015-05-29

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially serious complication of ovarian stimulation in assisted reproduction technology (ART). It is characterised by enlarged ovaries and an acute fluid shift from the intravascular space to the third space, resulting in bloating, increased risk of venous thromboembolism and decreased organ perfusion. Most cases are mild, but forms of moderate or severe OHSS appear in 3% to 8% of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. The dopamine agonist cabergoline was introduced as a secondary prevention intervention for OHSS in women at high risk of OHSS undergoing ART treatment. As cabergoline seemed to be effective in preventing OHSS, other types of dopamine agonists, such as quinagolide and bromocriptine, have since been studied in ART to prevent OHSS.