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Persantine (Dipyridamole)

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Generic Persantine is a coumarin anticoagulants. Generic Persantine is indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement. Generic Persantine keeps blood flowing smoothly by preventing blood cells from clumping together (coagulating).

Other names for this medication:

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Argatroban, Plavix, Salagen, Arixtra


Also known as:  Dipyridamole.


Generic Persantine is a coumarin anticoagulants.

Generic Persantine is indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement. Generic Persantine keeps blood flowing smoothly by preventing blood cells from clumping together (coagulating).

Persantine is also known as Dipyridamole.

Generic name of Generic Persantine is Dipyridamole.

Brand name of Generic Persantine is Persantine.


You can take Generic Persantine with or without food.

The recommended Generic Persantine dose is 75-100 mg four times daily.

Try to take this Generic Persantine at the same time each day.

Do not store in the bathroom.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Persantine suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Persantine and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Persantine overdosage: warm feeling, flushes, sweating, restlessness, weakness, dizziness.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Persantine are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Persantine if you are allergic to Generic Persantine components.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you have unstable angina.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you have had recently sustained myocardial infarction or hypotension.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you use anticoagulants ("blood thinners"), aspirin, valproic acid.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Persantine taking suddenly.

persantine 50 mg

To compare the diagnostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography with dipyridamole thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), we performed both tests on 54 patients who also underwent coronary arteriography. Dobutamine was infused at an incremental regimen of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 Dipyridamole was infused at a rate of 0.14 over 4 min. Dobutamine stress echocardiography detected 40 (93%) and SPECT 42 (98%, P = ns) of the 43 patients with significant CAD, defined as > or = 50% diameter stenosis. The specificity was 73% (8 of 11) for both tests. The sensitivity for detecting individual coronary artery stenosis with dobutamine stress echocardiography was 81% (30 of 37) for the left anterior descending artery, 75% (24 of 32) for the right coronary artery, and 61% (17 of 28) for the left circumflex artery. For SPECT it was 89%, 97% (P < 0.05 vs dobutamine stress echocardiography) and 75%, respectively. Among the 97 stenotic coronary arteries, 17 had mild to moderate stenosis (50%-69% diameter stenosis) and 80 had severe stenosis (> or = 70% diameter stenosis). With dobutamine stress echocardiography, 53% of the arteries with mild to moderate stenosis were identified vs 78% of those with severe stenosis (P < 0.05). With SPECT, the sensitivity was 82% (14 of 17) in mild to moderate stenosis and 89% (71 of 80) in severe stenosis (P = ns). No major side effects occurred during either test. Thus, both dobutamine stress and SPECT are highly sensitive for detection and localization of CAD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Exercise combined with dipyridamole during thallium stress testing in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) increases the frequency of angina and ischemic ST changes in the electrocardiogram. Evidence for an increase in thallium abnormalities has been inconclusive. We prospectively examined 54 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography and tomographic thallium with dipyridamole (0.57 mg/kg) alone and combined with symptom-limited dynamic arm exercise. Most patients presented with a history of chest pain and 49 had angiographic evidence of significant coronary stenosis (50% diameter narrowing). Thallium abnormalities were scored blindly by consensus. The number of abnormal segments (total and ischemic) and indexes of left ventricular dysfunction, such as increased lung uptake or ischemic dilation, were compared in the 49 patients with CAD. During arm exercise more patients had evidence of ischemia (39 vs 30; p < 0.001), and the number of ischemic segments increased significantly from 1.3 +/- 1.5 to 2.5 +/- 2.2 (p < 0.001). There was also a significant increase in the indexes of left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic dilation (10 vs 4 patients; p < 0.03) and increased lung uptake (16 vs 5 patients; p < 0.001). Patients who exercised had increased thallium evidence of extent and severity of ischemia and more frequent indexes of left ventricular dysfunction. Thus, symptom-limited arm exercise improves detection of extent and severity of ischemia in patients with CAD undergoing dipyridamole thallium stress testing.

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Using an in vivo assay of tumor cytotoxicity (the subrenal capsule assay in nude mice), two therapeutic strategies for the treatment of advanced human transitional cell carcinoma have been evaluated: 1) the use of 5-fluorouracil in combination with cisplatin and 2) the ability of the chemosensitizer dipyridamole to augment the cytotoxicity of CDDP and 5FU. A moderate cytotoxic response of human TCC line DU-4284 to single agent CDDP was seen; it was dose dependent at minimally toxic doses [maximal cytotoxicity--27% tumor survival (%TS) relative to control]. Efficacy was further significantly enhanced by the addition of DP [11%TS (p = .008)]. 5FU at minimally toxic doses (100 and 150 mg./kg.) also demonstrated moderate dose-dependent cytotoxic activity (35 and 31%TS, respectively) which was further enhanced by DP [21%TS (p = .03) and 18%TS (p = .05)]. A constant dose ratio of CDDP/5FU when diluted showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity; at the highest dose dilution studied, substantial cytotoxic efficacy (17%TS) was attained. The cytotoxicity of 5FU/CDDP was order independent (p = .95). The addition of DP to this combination (5FU/CDDP) further enhanced efficacy; host toxicity was not substantially enhanced. A multiple regression analysis confirmed a statistically significant effect of DP with both CDDP and 5FU (p = .001 and 0.0001, respectively); tests for trend showed no significant interaction (p = 0.33 for all models). It is concluded that, in this preclinical in vivo model of human bladder cancer, 1) CDDP and 5FU show substantial enhanced efficacy when combined, and 2) DP serves as an in vivo chemosensitizer of both CDDP and 5FU; DP further augments the efficacy of this binary combination. These data would indicate the potential of this ternary (5FU/CDDP/DP) drug therapeutic regimen for clinical trial to treat advanced bladder cancer.

persantine drug class

Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) were isolated from serum of hypercholesterolemic guinea-pigs, and the effect of these lipoproteins on guinea-pig platelets was studied. VLDL (greater than 100 microgram/ml) and LDL (greater than 400 microgram/ml) were found to cause aggregation of gel-filtered platelets (GFP), although the extent of GFP aggregation by LDL was smaller than that by VLDL. In platelet-rich plasma, however, lipoproteins could not induce platelet aggregation. VLDL and LDL even at the low concentrations at which lipoproteins alone could not induce aggregation potentiated ADP-induced aggregation of GFP. VLDL-induced aggregation of GFP was inhibited by apyrase (0.2--1.0 mg/ml) in a concentration-related manner. Prostaglandin E1, dipyridamole, potassium cyanide and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid inhibited VLDL- and ADP-induced aggregation of GFP in the almost same degree. Inhibitions of VLDL-induced GFP aggregation by acetylsalicylic acid and albumin were slightly stronger than that of ADP-induced aggregation. These findings suggest that lipoproteins modulate platelets so that endogenous ADP can be released from platelets.

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Atherosclerotic heart disease is the leading cause of death in patients with end stage renal disease, but its non invasive detection remains difficult because of a low efficacy of exercise testing. The aim of the study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of thallium myocardial imaging after dipyridamole combined with exercise. Forty two chronic dialysis patients (34 men, 8 women) aged 55 +/- 11 years (range: 36 to 75) without symptom of angina nor myocardial infarction were studied. In each patient, an echocardiography, a myocardial scintigraphy with dipyridamole combined with symptom-limited exercise, and coronarography were performed. A coronary heart disease was diagnosed by coronarography in 10 patients (4.5 and 1 respectively with 1, 2 and 3 vessels diseased). Echocardiography detected a left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in 26 patients and a regional asynergia in 14 patients. A positive scintigraphy was present in 11 patients. Three false-positive and 2 false-negative on scintigraphy were noted. Sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were respectively evaluated at 80, 73, 73 and 93%. All the five patients with either false-positive or false-negative scintigraphy exhibited a LVH. CONCLUSION. In chronic dialysis patients, coronary heart disease may be detected by thallium myocardial imaging after dipyridamole combined with exercise.

persantine drug classification

Persantine combined with TNF-a enhances antiproliferative activity in human tumor cells. We hypothesized that the vasodilator persantine would ameliorate acute pancreatitis (AP) in vitro. Rat pancreatic ductal cells were cultured using standard techniques. Acute pancreatitis was induced by adding cerulein (10(-9) M) or TNF-a (200 ng/ml). AP was verified by increased amylase production. Persantine was added at concentrations from 0.1 uM to 100 uM post cerulein or TNF-a treatment. Statistical analysis was achieved by ANOVA. Amylase production was significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared with control upon stimulation with either cerulein or TNF-a. When persantine was added in graded concentrations from 0.1 uM to 100 uM to cerulein treated cells, it decreased amylase production significantly (p < 0.05) at 100 uM. However, when persantine was added to TNF-a treated cells, it decreased amylase production (p < 0.05) at the lower concentrations of 0.1 uM and 1 uM. We have shown for the first time that AP, resulting from either mild (cerulein) or severe (TNF-a) stimulation, is significantly improved by treatment with persantine.

persantine 10 mg

Thirty-six mongrel dogs were used. After systemic heparinization (150 U/kg), a 5 mm longitudinal coronary incision was made with looped non-elastic monofilament sutures or elastic sutures applied proximally and distally. The incised coronary artery was exposed to non-humidified carbon dioxide, humidified carbon dioxide with lactated Ringer solution, or humidified carbon dioxide with heparin and dipyridamole-added lactated Ringer solution for 10 or 20 min in each group. After gas insufflation, the incised coronary artery was repaired, then, the coronary was reperfused. Perfusion-fixation was done for observation of the coronary endothelium by scanning electron microscopy. The adverse effect on the endothelium was graded as follows: grade 1, appeared normal; grade 2, few blood cells deposited; grade 3, many blood cells deposited; grade 4, few endothelial cells delaminated with blood cells deposited; grade 5, many endothelial cells delaminated with blood cells deposited.

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370 questionnaires (222 private practices (PP), 117 hospitals (HO), 31 university hospitals (UH)) were evaluated.

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Mean Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction frame count significantly decreased after dipyridamole in both groups. At baseline, mean values of the single photon emission computed tomography score were 31.5 +/- 1.6 and 25.1 +/- 2.1 in groups A and B, respectively. After dipyridamole, they increased from 31.5 +/- 1.6 to 37.8 +/- 1.4 (P < 0.001) in group A, whereas a further decrease to 15.0 +/- 1.2 (P < 0.005) was observed in group B.

persantine dose calculation

RTPE demonstrated that cardiac tumors have greater microvascular blood volume and regional blood flow when compared with thrombi. Dipyridamole stress was useful in differentiating MT from BT.

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High-dose dobutamine-stress and high-dose dipyridamole-stress echocardiographies have comparable diagnostic accuracies, with a slightly higher sensitivity with dobutamine and a slightly higher specificity with dipyridamole.

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Evidence was obtained for the augmentation of cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) when hyperthermia and dipyridamole (DP) were combined in vitro. Nontoxic levels of DP enhanced the combined cytotoxicity of 5-FU and heat against HeLa and B16 melanoma cells, and the 50% effective concentration of 5-FU decreased 7.3 fold for HeLa cells and 3.0 fold for B16 melanoma cells, when exposed to heat plus DP. This combined effect did not depend on intracellular increases in the concentrations of 5-FU. Thus hyperthermia together with DP seems to improve the sensitivity of tumor cells to 5-FU. As the sensitivity of colorectal cancer tissue to drugs is low, 5-FU plus hyperthermia and DP shows promise for the treatment of such patients.

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Ingestion of 1.2 g Bay g 6575 daily for 1 week by six healthy volunteers had no effect on blood-coagulation, fibrinolysis, or platelet aggregation in vitro, but it seemed to inhibit platelet aggregation in vivo (shown by a smaller reduction in the platelet aggregate ratio after venous occlusion). Plasma drawn from five volunteers after ingestion of a single dose of 1.2 g of the drug stimulated prostacyclin release from slices of rat aorta which had been washed until they stopped releasing anti-aggregating substances, whereas plasma from the same individuals before ingestion of the substance did not. Administration of either Bay g 6575 or dipyridamole alone had no effect on platelet aggregation in vitro, but combined administration resulted in a striking and prolonged inhibition of A.D.P.-induced platelet aggregation. It is proposed that the previously described antithrombotic properties of Bay g 6575 in animals are due to stimulation of prostacyclin release from the vessel wall, and that this effect is also demonstrable in man.

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Randomized trials of fractional flow reserve-guided percutaneous coronary interventions established an objective, quantitative, outcomes-driven standard of physiological stenosis severity. However, pressure-derived fractional flow reserve requires invasive coronary angiogram and was originally validated by comparison to noninvasive PET.

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Possible roles of dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and dibutyryl-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in regulation of hepatocyte DNA synthesis were examined using primary cultures of young-adult rat hepatocytes maintained in arginine-free medium. Throughout the experimental period, nonparenchymal cells were hardly observed in the selective medium. When epidermal growth factor (EGF) was added to the cultures, a transient increase in the intracellular cAMP level preceded the elevation of hepatocyte DNA synthesis. EGF-stimulated hepatocyte DNA synthesis was remarkably enhanced by the elevation of the intracellular cAMP level induced by treatment with cAMP alone or a combination of cAMP and theophylline, an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Furthermore, the early elevation of intracellular cAMP alone, which was induced by treatment with the combination of cAMP and theophylline, caused a remarkable increase in hepatocyte DNA synthesis. On the other hand, addition of EGF to the cultures caused a rapid decrease in the intracellular cGMP level followed by an increase in hepatocyte DNA synthesis. EGF-stimulated hepatocyte DNA synthesis was severely suppressed or completely inhibited by the elevation of the intracellular cGMP level induced by treatment with cGMP alone or a combination of cGMP and dipyridamole, a specific inhibitor of cGMP phosphodiesterase. These findings indicate that cAMP and cGMP act oppositely on the regulation of DNA synthesis of young-adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture: cAMP plays a positive role, whereas cGMP plays a negative role. Also it is strongly suggested that an early elevation of the intracellular cAMP level is essential for the onset of DNA synthesis in hepatocyte primary cultures.

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We report an unselected series of eight patients younger than 6 months of age with Kawasaki disease evaluated between January 1982 and May 1984. The incidence of coronary artery aneurysms (six patients) and the mortality (two patients) were unusually high in this small series. Because of the confusing clinical presentation in three patients, diagnosis was delayed until pathologic or echocardiographic evidence of coronary vasculitis or aneurysm was discovered. The currently accepted clinical criteria for Kawasaki disease may not always identify patients with the pathologic findings of the syndrome who are younger than 6 months of age. The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease and echocardiographic evaluation of the coronary arteries should be considered in young infants with prolonged fever of unknown origin.

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Loss of β-cell mass is a cardinal feature of diabetes. Consequently, developing medications to promote β-cell regeneration is a priority. cAMP is an intracellular second messenger that modulates β-cell replication. We investigated whether medications that increase cAMP stability or synthesis selectively stimulate β-cell growth. To identify cAMP-stabilizing medications that promote β-cell replication, we performed high-content screening of a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor library. PDE3, -4, and -10 inhibitors, including dipyridamole, were found to promote β-cell replication in an adenosine receptor-dependent manner. Dipyridamole's action is specific for β-cells and not α-cells. Next we demonstrated that norepinephrine (NE), a physiologic suppressor of cAMP synthesis in β-cells, impairs β-cell replication via activation of α(2)-adrenergic receptors. Accordingly, mirtazapine, an α(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist and antidepressant, prevents NE-dependent suppression of β-cell replication. Interestingly, NE's growth-suppressive effect is modulated by endogenously expressed catecholamine-inactivating enzymes (catechol-O-methyltransferase and l-monoamine oxidase) and is dominant over the growth-promoting effects of PDE inhibitors. Treatment with dipyridamole and/or mirtazapine promote β-cell replication in mice, and treatment with dipyridamole is associated with reduced glucose levels in humans. This work provides new mechanistic insights into cAMP-dependent growth regulation of β-cells and highlights the potential of commonly prescribed medications to influence β-cell growth.

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Recent developments have permitted myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to become a new method of noninvasively assessing myocardial perfusion in humans. Preliminary studies of myocardial perfusion imaging during adenosine, dipyridamole, and dobutamine stress echocardiography have shown excellent agreement with either radionuclide uptake or quantitative angiography. This article reviews the recent advances in microbubble technology, ultrasound imaging, and myocardial physiology that have made contrast echocardiography a potential new gold standard for perfusion imaging in the new millennium.

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The noninvasive identification of a high-risk subgroup among women with chest pain and unknown coronary artery disease is an unresolved task to date.

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This study was undertaken to develop new dipyridamole (DP) formulations with acidic microenvironmental pH-modifiers for improving dissolution and absorption under hypochlorhydric conditions. Dipyridamole granules (DPG) with ten acidic pH-modifiers were prepared with conventional wet granulation, and their manufacturability, stability and dissolution behavior were characterized. Pharmacokinetic profiling of the optimized DPG with acid was carried out in omeprazole-treated rats as a hypochlorhydric model. On the basis of the manufacturability, stability and dissolution behavior of new DPG formulations, p-toluenesulfonic acid (TS) was found to be a suitable acidic pH-modifier for DPG formulation. Although DPG showed pH-dependent dissolution behavior, DPG with TS exhibited a high rate and extent of dissolution in both acidic and neutral media. After oral administration of DPG (10mg DP/kg) in omeprazole-treated hypochlorhydric rats, there was ca. 40% reduction of the area under the curve of plasma concentration vs. time from zero to 3h (AUC(0-3)) for DPG compared with that in normal rats. However, AUC(0-3) for DPG/TS under hypochlorhydria was almost identical to that of DPG in normal rats. From these findings, the addition of TS as a microenvironmental pH-modifier in DP formulation might be beneficial in expanding the therapeutic potential of DP in hypochlorhydric patients.

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The tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role during tumor development. Integrated combination of drugs that target tumor microenvironment is a promising approach to anticancer therapy. Here, we report a multifunctional combination of low-cytotoxic drugs composed of dipyridamole, bestatin and dexamethasone (DBDx) which mainly acts on the tumor microenvironment shows highly potent antitumor efficacy in vivo. In mouse hepatoma H22 model, the triple drug combination showed synergistic and highly potent antitumor efficacy. The combination indices of various combinations of the triple drugs were between 0.2 and 0.5. DBDx inhibited the growth of a panel of human tumor xenografts and showed no obvious systemic toxicity. At tolerated doses, DBDx suppressed the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402, HepG2, and lung adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts by 94.5%, 93.7% and 96.9%, respectively. Clonogenic assay demonstrated that DBDx showed weak cytotoxicity. Western blot showed that Flk1 and Nos3 were down-regulated in the DBDx-treated group. Proteomic analysis showed that DBDx mainly affected the metabolic process and immune system process; in addition, the angiogenesis and VEGF signaling pathway were also affected. Conclusively, DBDx, a multifunctional drug combination of three low-cytotoxic drugs, shows synergistic and highly potent antitumor efficacy evidently mediated by the modulation of tumor microenvironment. Based on its low-cytotoxic attributes and its broad-spectrum antitumor therapeutic efficacy, this multifunctional combination might be useful in the treatment of cancers, especially those refractory to conventional chemotherapeutics.

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Currently used methods for assessment of coronary flow reserve are invasive and require extensive laboratory equipment. Recently, noninvasive assessment of coronary flow reserve by transesophageal Doppler evaluation of coronary sinus (CS) or left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow has been proposed. Direct comparison between these two techniques is lacking.

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persantine drug interactions 2017-04-23

Antiplatelet therapy is effective for secondary buy persantine prevention of atherothrombotic stroke. Aspirin, the more frequently used antiplatelet drug, prevents 13 to 17% of ischemic events after stroke. New and more effective antiplatelet therapies are needed.

persantine 75 mg 2016-11-06

31 patients underwent dipyridamole stress MCE and quantitative coronary angiography. Intravenous MCE was performed by continuous infusion of Levovist. Images were obtained from the apical four chamber view with alternating pulsing intervals both at rest and after dipyridamole buy persantine infusion. Images were analysed offline by placing regions of interest over both endocardial and epicardial sides of the mid-septum. The background subtracted intensity versus pulsing interval plots were fitted to an exponential function, y = A (1 - e(-betat)), where A is plateau level and beta is rate of rise.

persantine 25mg tabs 2016-08-28

Blood and plasma specimens from patients receiving heparin were collected and stored under various conditions. The effect of these conditions on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was assessed. Four APTT reagents were used. Blood samples centrifuged at 600 X g gave slightly shorter APTTs than samples centrifuged at 940 X g and 2200 X g. Storage of uncentrifuged citrated-blood at room temperature resulted in 15-29% shortening of the APTT, depending on the reagent used. Storage of the same blood samples at 4 degrees C resulted in 6-19% lengthening of the APTT. The presence of HEPES-buffer in citrated-blood shortened the APTT of heparinized patient specimens, but not buy persantine of normal specimens. When blood was collected in a mixture of citric acid, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD-mixture), storage at room temperature induced 0-11% decrease of the APTT, depending on the reagent used. Storage of CTAD-blood at 4 degrees C resulted in 7-19% lengthening of the APTT. Shortening of the APTT could be explained by release of platelet factor 4 (PF4). Release of PF4 could be inhibited by CTAD-mixture. These data suggest that storage of CTAD-blood at room temperature is the best pre-analytical condition for reliable monitoring of heparin therapy by the APTT.

persantine medication 2016-08-11

Of the 198 patients randomized to dipyridamole, 134 completed the add-on and only 12 the monotherapy phase. Of the 202 patients randomized to placebo, 162 reached the add-on and only 12 the monotherapy phase. Serious adverse events occurred in 15 patients with dipyridamole and in 12 with placebo (7.6% vs 6.0, P=0.52). Increase over the baseline treadmill exercise test was similar in the treatment groups at each stage of the trial for all the main efficacy parameters: total buy persantine treadmill exercise test duration; time to first anginal pain (except for a -13 s difference in favour of placebo at week 24;P=0.040); time to ST segment depression >0.1 mVolt (except for a +21 s difference in favour of dipyridamole at week 8;P=0.024; this latter difference was totally attributable to patients with lower exercise tolerance--Bruce stage II at study entry).

persantine cost 2017-12-17

High-dose dobutamine-stress and high-dose dipyridamole buy persantine -stress echocardiographies have comparable diagnostic accuracies, with a slightly higher sensitivity with dobutamine and a slightly higher specificity with dipyridamole.

persantine drug 2017-09-08

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with platelet hyperaggregability as well as an increase in morbidity and mortality from myocardial infarction and stroke. Enhanced platelet activation in PAD may substantially contribute to these adverse outcomes. A relative resistance to aspirin therapy has been reported in patients with PAD. Therefore, clopidogrel may be superior to aspirin in treatment of PAD. Furthermore, the aspirin + clopidogrel combination could be more effective than monotherapy but its risk-benefit ratio has yet to be evaluated. Clopidogrel is preferable to ticlopidine because of its safer profile and the convenience of once-daily administration. The glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitors may also find a place as short-term therapy after peripheral angioplasty. There is a need to consider the use of clopidogrel in patients who cannot tolerate aspirin. Patients who have an event while taking aspirin also present a problem. One possibility here is to substitute aspirin with clopidogrel or to add clopidogrel to buy persantine the aspirin. Although these options are currently not evidence based in patients with PAD, there is emerging evidence showing that they are realistic choices.

persantine brand name 2017-03-01

Microvascular dysfunction can be demonstrated in most patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), both in the hypertrophied and nonhypertrophied myocardial walls, mostly due to intimal and medial hyperplasia of the intramural coronary arteries and subsequent lumen buy persantine reduction. As a consequence, regional myocardial ischemia may be triggered by exercise, increased heart rate, or arrhythmias, in areas which are unable to increase myocardial blood flow. In patients with HCM, microvascular dysfunction leading to severe myocardial hypoperfusion during maximal hyperemia represents a strong predictor of unfavorable outcome, left ventricular remodeling with progressive wall thinning, left ventricular dysfunction, and heart failure. Accurate quantitative assessment of microvascular dysfunction and myocardial ischemia is not easily feasible in clinical practice. Although signs of inducible myocardial ischemia may be detected by electrocardiogram, echocardiography, or myocardial scintigraphy, the vasodilator response to dipyridamole by positron emission tomography is considered the method of choice for the assessment of maximal regional and global flow. Cardiac magnetic resonance provides further information, by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), which may show areas where replacement fibrosis has occurred following microvascular ischemia and focal necrosis. LGE areas colocalize with severe regional microvascular dysfunction, are associated with increased prevalence of ventricular arrhythmias, and show more extensive distribution in the late stages of the disease, when heart failure is the dominant feature. The present review aims to provide a concise overview of the available evidence of microvascular dysfunction and ischemia eventually leading to disease progression and heart failure in HCM patients.

persantine 50 mg 2016-02-06

31 men undergoing routine buy persantine cardiac catheterisation for investigation of chest pain were studied.

persantine drug class 2016-10-14

A retrospective review buy persantine of all 33 patients undergoing long-term LVAD implantation between June 1, 2006 and July 31, 2008 at our institution for any indication was conducted. Anticoagulation consisted of heparin (intravenous or subcutaneous) followed by transition to Coumadin therapy to a target INR of two to three. Antiplatelet therapy consisted of low-dose aspirin and dipyridamole.

persantine tablets 2015-06-24

To evaluate the usefulness of thallium-201 myocardial SPECT using dipyridamole infusion combined with low level exercise (Dp-method) for the detection of the ischemic heart disease, we performed both Dp-method and maximum physical exercise SPECT (Ex-method) in the same 28 patients, and compared the results obtained by the two methods. In the visual evaluation, the detectability of each stenotic coronary territory by Dp-method tended to be higher than that by Ex-method (accuracy 71% vs 67%). The severity of the defect and the degree of the redistribution were higher by Dp-method than those by Ex-method. In the washout rate (WR) analysis in 14 angina pectoris patients, the detectability (accuracy) by Dp-method was significantly higher than that by Ex-method (86% vs 64%; p less than 0.05). In comparison of mean WR values in normal subjects (10 cases for Dp-method and other 8 cases for Ex-method), mean WR by Dp-method was as high as that by Ex-method and the deviation of WR value among subjects was very small. This was probably due to the effect of the low level exercise. These results suggested that Dp-method was more excellent than Ex-method in the evaluation of the ischemic heart disease, and was a buy persantine useful method of the daily routine work. The incidence of chest symptom and the electrocardiographic ST-depression was as high by Dp-method as that by Ex-method. The filling defects in Dp-method were thought to be induced not only by the difference in the relative increase of the myocardial perfusion, but also by the myocardial ischemia.

persantine overdose 2015-12-13

The purpose of this work was to examine the relationship between the antiaggregatory activity of the vascular wall and the metastatic spread of experimental tumors. Rats with the tumor "Myosarcoma-1" displayed, on the average, a 30% reduction in the antiaggregatory activity of buy persantine the aortic wall. Three-week of the animals with a combination of the drugs dipyridamole (0.84 mg/kg per os), phytin (14 mg/kg per os), glutamic acid (28 mg/kg per os) restored the antiaggregatory properties of the vascular wall virtually up to the control values. The similar result was observed with cordarone (60 mg/kg intraperitoneally): the antiaggregatory properties of the vascular wall increased on the average by 50%. The metastatic spread of tumor cells in mice with Lewis carcinoma of the lung decreased on the average twice while treating them with these agents. The findings point to the fact that drug correction of the antiaggregatory activity of the vascular wall reduces the rate of metastatic spread.

persantine drugs 2016-07-07

A new methodology to improve the hemocompatibility of polyurethane (medical grade Pellethane D-55) surfaces is reported. The approach is essentially based on a photochemical immobilization reaction. Two new conjugate molecules, compounds 2 and 3, were prepared. They consist of (i) dipyridamole, a well-known inhibitor of platelet activation, and a vasodilating drug with clinical application, for instance before and during pecutaneous transluminar coronary angioplasty (Dottering); and (ii) an aryl azide, a moiety that exhibits marked photoreactivity. In 2, the dipyridamole unit is directly linked to the aryl azide (via an ester bond), while a short spacer chain separates both units in 3. Upon irradiation of 2 or 3, adsorbed onto the polyurethane foil, the aryl azide is converted into a highly reactive species which reacts with a nucleophilic group on the polymer surface. In this way, the dipyridamole is covalently linked to the polymer. The underlying principle is also used in photoaffinity labeling, a well-known technique in biochemical studies on enzyme structure and function. From UV extinction experiments it could be deduced that the surface-density of immobilized 2 is 4.9 nmol/cm2. The surface buy persantine density for 3 was 14.6 nmol/cm2. The surfaces were subjected to an in vitro thrombin generation assay. This assay gives a valuable impression about the hemocompatibility of artificial surfaces. These experiments revealed that the clotting times were substantially prolonged as a result of the photoimmobilization of dipyridamole. This was especially the case for immobilized 3. This effect cannot be readily explained. Possibly, the enhanced activity of immobilized 3 is due to the spacer chain. An alternative explanation is that the surface density is larger for 3 than for 2. In addition, the photomodified surfaces were incubated with platelet-rich blood plasma (37 degrees C, 30 min) and subsequently examined by scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of the blood platelets adhered to the surface also showed that hemocompatibility increased in the order untreated polyurethane < polyurethane with immobilized 2 < polyurethane with immobilized 3. Future work will concentrate on evaluation of the role of the spacer (length, hydrophilicity, etc.), as well as on the possible use of this approach with respect to the construction of biomaterials with improved in vivo biocompatibility, in particular hemocompatibility.

persantine and alcohol 2015-02-18

The meta-analysis of trials involving aspirin alone against placebo showed a risk reduction on strokes (17% reduction, p = 0.02), "important vascular events", i.e. a combination of vascular deaths, non-fatal strokes and non-fatal myocardial infarction (18% reduction, p = 0.003). Fatal vascular events (vascular deaths and fatal strokes) did not seem to be reduced at all. The overall mortality was reduced by 10%, but this reduction failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.23). The meta-analysis of trials involving aspirin combined with dipyridamole showed more important risk reductions on every outcome whether fatal or not. Strokes were reduced by 42% (p < 0.001), fatal strokes by 43% (p = 0.02) and vascular deaths by 24% (p = 0.07, not significant). buy persantine The overall mortality was reduced by 30% (p = 0.004). Direct comparisons of aspirin with aspirin plus dipyridamole did not indicate differences between the two treatment regimens. However the sample sizes involved in these comparisons were far too small to be informative. Indirect comparisons yielded statistically significant results in favour of the combination in terms of "important vascular events" (p = 0.007), all strokes (p = 0.007) and fatal strokes (p = 0.03). The results were also in favour of the combination but not statistically significant in terms of all deaths (p = 0.10) and vascular deaths (p = 0.08).

persantine medication classification 2017-11-12

287 studies involving 135 000 patients in comparisons of antiplatelet therapy versus control buy persantine and 77 000 in comparisons of different antiplatelet regimens.

persantine generic name 2017-08-22

Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was used to determine the effects of diethyldithiocarbamate, dipyridamole, catechin and verapamil on the generation of reactive oxygen species in human leukocytes, and on superoxide generated by chemiluminescence of the hypoxanthine xanthine-oxidase reaction. These agents reduced the luminol enhanced chemiluminescence response of Cymbalta Dosing Information activated leukocytes, most probably by inhibiting the superoxide generation reaction. On the other hand, citrate and diethylcarbamazine, produced a slight increase of the luminol enhanced chemiluminescence of leukocytes.

persantine dosage chart 2017-05-07

There was no complication during the dipyridamole test, whereas 2 ischemia-dependent, sustained ventricular tachycardias occurred during the dobutamine test. Limiting side effects were observed in 2% of dipyridamole and in 3% of dobutamine stresses. The echocardiogram was positive in 459 patients. During a mean follow-up of 28 +/- 24 months, 58 patients died, 33 had a nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 158 underwent early (< or =3 months) and 64 late (>3 months) revascularization. Multivariate predictors of hard events (death, infarction) were positive echocardiographic results (hazard ratio [HR] 2.9) and resting wall motion score index (WMSI) (HR 2.3). In considering major events (death, infarction, late revascularization) as end points, positive echocardiographic result (HR 4.3), scar (HR 2.2), and resting WMSI (HR 1.7) were independent prognostic predictors. The 5-year survival rates for the ischemic and nonischemic groups were, respectively, 80% and 91% (HR 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8-8. Daily Cialis Dose 4; P <.0001) considering hard cardiac events and 65% and 88% (HR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1-5.9; P <.0001) considering major events. Multivariate predictors of major events were positive echocardiographic results (HR 8.2) and male sex (HR 2.5) for the intermediate-risk group and positive echocardiographic results (HR 2.9), resting WMSI (HR 1.8), and prior Q-wave myocardial infarction (HR 1.8) for the high-risk group.

persantine 10 mg 2017-09-25

In patients with no previous myocardial infarction and good resting left ventricular function, compared with exercise ECG, dipyridamole echocardiography has a similar sensitivity and a higher specificity for the noninvasive detection of Lasix Usual Dosage angiographically assessed coronary artery disease. Dipyridamole echocardiography also provides information in addition to that provided by exercise ECG for predicting death, infarction, and all events when the presence as well as the timing, severity, and extension of dipyridamole-induced wall motion abnormalities are considered.

persantine generic 2017-07-04

Reduced septal uptake of thallium-201 during exercise is frequently observed in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and normal coronary arteries. This may reflect normal coronary autoregulation in response to lower septal oxygen demand; thus, dipyridamole, which uniformly exploits flow reserve, would be more accurate for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Sixteen patients with LBBB underwent exercise and dipyridamole thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and coronary angiography within 3 months. Sensitivity for detection of left anterior descending CAD (greater than 50% stenosis) was 0.83 for exercise and 1.00 for dipyridamole. Specificity was 0.30 (visual) or 0.20 (quantitative analysis) for exercise and 0.80 (visual) or 0.90 (quantitative) for dipyridamole (p less than 0.05). Dipyridamole combined with quantitative analysis also improved specificity of Singulair Pill CAD detection overall (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that pharmacologic vasodilation is more accurate than exercise when diagnosing CAD by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with LBBB.

cost of persantine 2016-11-20

Between 1975 and 1998, 27 patients aged 3 months to 14 years underwent replacement of the aortic, mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary valves. Five different types of prosthetic valves were used; three were mechanical valves and two were bioprosthetic valves. There were 3 hospital deaths. Among the 24 survivors there were 4 late deaths. Arrhythmia requiring pacemaker implantation occurred in 2 cases after AVR and TVR. Thromboembolic events occurred in 3 patients, all with mechanical valves in pulmonary position. Infective endocarditis occurred in 1 patient after PVR with a mechanical valve. No bleeding complication occurred among the patients on a regimen of Coumadin and Dipyridamole. Two patients, both with Hancock Augmentin Adult Dose bioprosthesis, required a second valve replacement on account of severely calcified changes. Mechanical valves in left side heart had a satisfactory long-term performance. One patient who had undergone MVR for congenital parachute mitral valve received reoperation for growth. A larger sized prosthetic valve should be used at the first replacement, and special procedures including supra-annular positioning or annular augmentation are recommended for MVR or AVR respectively.

persantine generic names 2016-08-11

The aim of the present study was to investigate CFR in hypertensive patients with or without left Prednisone Y Alcohol ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).

persantine dosage 2017-08-01

At coronary angiography, 312/475 (66%) patients showed significant stenosis. In the overall population, MPI showed a high accuracy in unmasking significant coronary stenosis, independently of the stress protocol adopted (AUC .76 for exercise vs .78 for vasodilator; P = NS). However, in case of an exercise stress test, a significant interaction between peak %HR and MPI Trileptal Generic Cost diagnostic power was evident. While an elevated accuracy was still maintained in "Group 1" patients (AUC .79; P vs maximal exercise = NS), a significant drop was demonstrated in "Group 2" patients (AUC .66; P vs maximal exercise = .012, and P vs "Group 1" = .042).

persantine dose 2016-02-18

1. Using the incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine as a proliferation marker, the effects of various nucleosides and nucleotides on endothelial LLC-MK2 cells were studied. We found that ATP, ADP, AMP and adenosine in concentrations of 10 microM or higher stimulate the proliferation of these cells. 2. Inhibition of ecto-ATPase (EC, 5'-nucleotidase (EC or alkaline phosphatase (EC significantly diminished the stimulatory effect of ATP, indicating that the effect is primarily caused by adenosine and not by adenine nucleotides. Also, the effect depends only on extracellular nucleosides, since inhibition of nucleoside uptake by dipyridamole has no influence on proliferation. 3. Other purine nucleotides and nucleosides (ITP, GTP, inosine and guanosine) also stimulate cell proliferation, while pyrimidine nucleotides and nucleosides (CTP, UTP, cytidine and uridine) inhibit proliferation. Furthermore, the simultaneous presence of adenosine and any of the other purine nucleosides is not entirely additive in its effect on cell proliferation. At the same time any pyrimidine nucleoside, when Cymbalta Dosage Forms added together with adenosine, has the same inhibitory effect as the pyrimidine nucleoside alone. 4. Apparently these proliferative effects are neither caused by any pharmacologically known P1-purinoceptor, nor are they mediated by cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, or D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate as second messenger, nor by extracellular Ca2+. 5. Therefore, we conclude that various purine and pyrimidine nucleosides can influence the proliferation of LLC-MK2 cells by acting on putative purinergic and pyrimidinergic receptors not previously described.

persantine dose calculation 2017-05-24

Loss of inhibitory GABAergic modulation may induce hyperexcitability of neuronal elements and potentiate their vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. It has been also found that the adenosine system interacts with the GABAergic system during ischemia and anoxia where the adenosine receptors as well as the GABAergic receptors may conscript the same intracellular pathway to increase tolerance to ischemia. Therefore, it was aimed to study whether dipyridamole (CAS 58-32-2), an adenosine uptake inhibitor, or adenosine (CAS 58-61-7) could affect the rat brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, CAS 56-12-2) level after induction of cerebral ischemia, and to test their effect on the Levaquin Generic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity of the ischemic rat brain. Ischemia was induced by bilateral clamping of the common carotid arteries for 60 min followed by reperfusion for other 60 min. Dipyridamole was administered alone and in combination with adenosine and the effect of the drugs on the brain GABA level as well as on LDH activity was determined. The results show that dipyridamole could protect the brain of rats against the ischemic insult, while adenosine when administered separately failed to influence the selected parameters. Protection of the rat brain by dipyridamole might be related to the elevated level of GABA.

persantine oral dose 2017-05-15

In this randomized, open-label, 4-week trial, 114 patients who had an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomized to receive either a standard or slow dose escalation scheme of dipyridamole. Participants were Vasotec Medication asked to report the four most common side effects of dipyridamole in a study diary on study days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28. They were asked to score headache intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Participants were unaware that the trial was focused on headaches. Primary end point was to determine if a slow dose escalation scheme reduces the percentage of patients with headaches. Secondary objective was to determine the number of patients who discontinued treatment with dipyridamole because of headaches.

persantine drug classification 2017-08-14

In the first study group 46 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty were randomised to receive dipyridamole or conventional treatment before PTCA. In the second study group 11 patients were investigated, receiving PTCA of restenosis following PTCA carried Bystolic Cost out 6 months earlier.

persantine 25 mg 2016-11-05

Extramural coronary arteries were mildly or moderately dilated to ectatic in 49/59 angiograms. Histologic examination disclosed loss of medial smooth muscle, increased medial collagen, and duplication of internal elastic lamina. Basal coronary flow was appreciably increased. Hyperemic flow was comparable to controls. Remodeling of the microcirculation was based upon coronary arteriolar length, volume and surface densities. Coronary atherosclerosis was absent in both the arteriograms and the necropsy specimens.

persantine dosing chart 2015-06-20

Ninety consecutive patients who were not completely disabled for exercise underwent dipyridamole Tc-99m sestamibi cardiac single photon emission computed tomography with a protocol of exercise supplementation (DipEx). The heart-to-liver activity ratio, hemodynamics, and electrocardiographic changes were studied. The findings were compared with those of a control group (Dip) composed of 99 patients who underwent dipyridamole infusion alone. Patients with left bundle branch block, pacemaker, and atrial fibrillation were excluded. The DipEx patients tolerated the protocol, exercising 4.2 +/- 1.3 minutes on the treadmill (Bruce protocol). Compared with Dip, patients in the DipEx group had a higher heart-to-liver activity ratio (1.3 +/- 0.4 vs 1.6 +/- 0.5, respectively; P =.00001), had no incidence of hypotension (6% vs 0%, respectively; P =.03), and had a higher sensitivity of the ECG to detect ischemia (6% vs 34%, respectively; P =.003). The increase in sensitivity seen in the DipEx group was accompanied by a significant decrease in specificity compared with the Dip group (67% vs 100%, P =.000001).

persantine drug interactions 2015-04-03

The mechanism by which enhanced external counterpulsation therapy exerts its beneficial effects on chronic and symptomatic stable angina is largely unknown. To clarify the mechanism of action of enhanced external counterpulsation, we used(13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography to evaluate myocardial perfusion.