plavix 81 mg
The drug interactions with many classes of pharmacological agents are reviewed. Some of these drugs, such as acetazolamide, topiramate and celecoxib show a large number of interactions with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diuretics, antiepileptics, immunosupressants, anticholinesterase drugs, β-blockers, anesthetics, oral contraceptives, anticancer agents, antifungals, anti-mycobacterials, lithium, metformin and clopidogrel.
plavix generic equivalent
PRoFESS is the largest secondary stroke prevention trial to date and will directly compare two antiplatelet regimens as well as the benefit of telmisartan versus placebo.
plavix overdose treatment
Although an increasing number of patients accept dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) for coronary heart disease (CHD), the proportion of patients with DAPT who subsequently develop gastrointestinal hemorrhage continues to increase. To ensure the clinical outcomes from DES, it is important to formulate a novel continued antiplatelet therapy for patients who were administered DAPT and subsequently develop gastrointestinal hemorrhage following DES implantation. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of continued aspirin, clopidogrel or DAPT use on the incidence of clinical adverse events and gastrointestinal rebleeding in patients who received DAPT and subsequently developed gastrointestinal hemorrhage following implantation of DES for CHD. Between 2004 and 2010, 108 consecutive patients receiving DAPT developed gastrointestinal hemorrhage following DES implantation for CHD at Liuzhou General Hospital (Liuzhou, Guangxi). These patients were divided into three groups according to the novel antiplatelet therapy. The occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, heart failure or target vessel revascularization, net adverse clinical events (NACE), including major bleeding, stroke or MACE, and gastrointestinal rebleeding during clinical follow-up following the initial procedure were compared among these three groups. The results of this analysis demonstrated that the occurrence rate of MACE, NECE and gastrointestinal rebleeding was not significantly different among these groups (P>0.05). Furthermore, survival analysis was performed and although the survival curves of MACE and NECE were not significantly different among these groups, gastrointestinal rebleeding was demonstrated to be significantly different among the three groups (P<0.05), and continued aspirin or clopidogrel use was superior to continued DAPT. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that there were no significant differences in the clinical effectiveness and safety of continuing antiplatelet monotherapy or DAPT in patients who are administered DAPT and experience gastrointestinal hemorrhage following DES implantation. As for the prevention of recurrent bleeding, antiplatelet monotherapy was demonstrated to be superior to DAPT. Moreover, the treatment of patients who are administered DAPT and experience gastrointestinal hemorrhage following DES implantation must involve an evaluation of the risk of complications, including stent thrombosis, continuous bleeding and recurrent hemorrhage.
plavix usual dosage
Clopidogrel nonresponsiveness is a strong marker of the risk of cardiac death and stent thrombosis after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is unknown whether clopidogrel nonresponsiveness is a nonmodifiable risk factor or whether prasugrel with more potent and predictable platelet inhibition as measured by ex vivo techniques is associated with a positive effect on clinical outcome.
plavix 75mg medication
To evaluate the role of circulating platelets in the local injury induced by two diverse inflammatory agents, Bothrops jararaca venom (Bjv) and carrageenan.
The aim of this study was to determine whether ticagrelor increased the risk of ventricular pauses compared with clopidogrel and whether these pauses were associated with any clinical bradycardic events in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes.
plavix maximum dose
It is thought that clopidogrel bioactivation and antiplatelet response are related to cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19). However, a recent study challenged this notion by proposing CYP2C19 as wholly irrelevant, while identifying paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and its Q192R polymorphism as the major driver of clopidogrel bioactivation and efficacy. The aim of this study was to systematically elucidate the mechanism and relative contribution of PON1 in comparison to CYP2C19 to clopidogrel bioactivation and antiplatelet response.
plavix 10 mg
Consecutive patients who received a coronary stent between September 1, 2001, and August 31, 2002, at the University of Alberta Hospital and were eligible for ABC coverage were identified. Data were obtained from the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease and ABC databases.
Using 12 579 patients from Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38 (TRITON-TIMI 38), we fit risk models for ischemic events (cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, stroke) and bleeding (TIMI major/minor) over a 14.8-month follow-up and then calculated each patient's predicted risk for major ischemia and bleeding with both prasugrel and clopidogrel. We found substantial heterogeneity of the treatment effect of prasugrel (mean absolute reduction in the ischemia risk with prasugrel=1.5±3.0%, ranging from an 8.4% increased risk to a 31.2% reduction in risk for ischemia compared with clopidogrel). The mean absolute increase in the bleeding risk with prasugrel versus clopidogrel was 1.3±1.4% and ranged from a 7.9% lower risk to an 11.2% higher risk with prasugrel. The ratio of the difference in predicted ischemia risk/difference in predicted bleeding risk between prasugrel and clopidogrel was calculated for each patient to identify the proportion likely to benefit from prasugrel. Considering both ischemia and bleeding risk, a large proportion of TRITON participants (42%) were predicted to experience net benefit with prasugrel, a rate that increased if patients more strongly preferred avoiding ischemic events than bleeding.
plavix 90 tablet
Antiplatelet therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of numerous vascular events, especially in the setting of secondary prevention. DAPT with aspirin and another antiplatelet agent such as clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor has become the main stay of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) management. The underlying pathophysiologies of ACS, ischemic stroke, and transient ischemic attack (TIA) are similar. In the setting of ACS, DAPT has clearly been shown to improve outcomes over single antiplatelet therapy for up to 12 months after the ischemic event. However, the role for DAPT in the setting of ischemic stroke and TIA is less clear. The MATCH, CHARISMA, and SPS3 studies demonstrated that DAPT was associated with increased bleeding compared with single antiplatelet therapy without an appreciable reduction in ischemic events. Early initiation of DAPT proved beneficial in reducing future ischemic events in the FASTER and CHANCE trials; however, these trials did not provide enough evidence to recommend the routine use of DAPT in secondary stroke prevention, and current guidelines recommend against such therapy. DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel appears to be effective only for patients with minor stroke or TIA when started within 24 hours of the ischemic event and continued for a maximum of 21 days.
plavix tablets 75mg
In total, 52 consecutive eligible patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were enrolled (27 C+T and 25 T). Baseline characteristics and mean baseline platelet reactivity units (PRUs) were similar between the groups. The primary endpoint, the proportion of patients achieving a PRU<208 at 2 hours, was more frequently achieved in the C+T group compared to T treatment (76.0% vs 44.4%, p= 0.026). Notably, C+T therapy resulted in fewer patients with high platelet reactivity at 1 hour (56.0% vs. 14.8%), 4 hours (100.0% vs. 61.5%) and 6 hours (100.0% vs. 64%, p<0.01 for all comparisons). Furthermore, C+T therapy was associated with lower PRU values from 2 to 48 hours.
plavix dose range
Ticagrelor, beyond its antiplatelet efficacy, exerts cardioprotective effects by reducing necrotic injury and edema formation via adenosine-dependent mechanisms.
plavix 20 mg
The cohort comprised 4266 patients with a mean age of 60 years and over 72% women, of which 2034 (48%) were classified as COX-2 inhibitor users and 2232 (52%) as chronic nsNSAID users as of September 30, 2004. The 2 groups were well balanced on baseline covariates except for comorbid conditions. In the year following rofecoxib withdrawal, 174 patients (5.5%) experienced 1 or more GI events, defined as a GI-related physician visit or hospitalization. There was no statistically significant increase in the risk of a GI event between those classified as a COX-2 inhibitor or nsNSAID user at the time of withdrawal (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.69-1.54). Considering the drug exposure at the time of the event, there was no increased risk of GI events associated with the use of either COX-2 inhibitors or nsNSAID, or with the use of oral corticosteroids, low-dose aspirin, or clopidogrel, after adjustment for potential confounders.
plavix tablet 75mg
There is currently no high-level evidence to suggest that SWL in the presence of arterial aneurysm is unsafe. Experimental work on ex vivo human tissue does not suggest that SWL is causative to aneurysm rupture. With the availability of CT imaging in modern clinical practice, aneurysms of the arterial tree should be identified as part of the investigation of urinary tract calculi. SWL can be safely performed in patients with AAA, but monitoring postprocedure is mandatory, along with access to emergency vascular surgery support; importantly, any onset of new pain or symptoms should be aggressively investigated by radiologic imaging in the first instance.
plavix generic medication
Aspirin was not significantly associated with bleeding complications during or after surgery (p = 0.8). Scleral buckling (with cryotherapy and gas tamponnade) was performed in 47 % of the cases and pars plana vitrectomy in 53 % of the cases. Independent risk factors of perioperative hemorrhage were the number of cryotherapy impacts (odds ratio =1.12 [1.06; 1.20], 95 % confidence interval), transscleral drainage (OR = 4.22 [1.62; 10.98]), and use of pars plana vitrectomy (OR = 3.39 [1.36; 8.47]). Bleeding complications were associated with a lower single-operation anatomical success rate (74 % vs 84 %, p = 0.03). There was also a trend toward an association between bleeding complications, a higher total number of RD recurrences (0.19 ± 0.5 in the non-bleeding group vs 0.34 ± 0.6, p = 0.06), and a lower final visual acuity (0.5 ± 0.6 logMAR vs 0.7 ± 0.7, p = 0.09).
plavix 150 mg
Our findings revealed in-hospital and at-discharge management to be mainly based on DAPT in patients with ACS. Interventional strategies were used in the majority of patients with STEMI, while the usage and timing of immediate pre-hospital ECG from symptom onset should be improved in these patients.
The necessity to add two antiplatelet agents to an oral anticoagulant (OAC) often arises in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in routine clinical practice. The majority of AF patients have an indication for continuous OAC, and coronary artery disease co-exists in 25% of these patients. The increasing use of drug-eluting stents to minimize intrastent restenosis necessitates long-term dual antiplatelet therapy with Aspirin plus Clopidogrel to reduce the risk of early and late stent thrombosis. Combined aspirin-clopidogrel therapy, however, is less effective in preventing stroke compared with OAC alone in AF patients, and OAC alone is insufficient to prevent stent thrombosis. The management of AF patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome poses similar management complexities. Since AF and coronary artery disease with stent placement are common, it is relatively frequent to treat patients with both these conditions, where triple antithrombotic therapy with Aspirin, Clopidogrel and an OAC would be needed. Dabigatran etexilate, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor, has shown that compared with Warfarin given at a dose of 150 mg twice daily significantly reduces stroke with less intracranial bleeding, and at a dose of 110 mg twice daily has similar efficacy with less bleeding. Although, Dabigatran maintained its overall favorable profile compared with Warfarin in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy, we should always bear in mind for the sake of our AF patients that combining dual antiplatelet therapy with chronic anticoagulation with Dabigatran, as well as with Warfarin, significantly increases bleeding risk. This triple therapy association should be evaluated in the individual patient after carefully balancing bleeding versus thrombotic risk.
A transesophageal echocardiogram performed in all patients receiving dabigatran did not demonstrate an intracardiac thrombus. There were no thromboembolic complications in either group. The prevalence of major (4 of 191, 2.1%) and minor (5 of 191, 2.6%) bleeding complications in the dabigatran group were similar to those in the warfarin group (12 of 572, 2.1%; P = 1.0 and 19 of 572, 3.3%; P = .8, respectively). Pericardial tamponade occurred in 2 of 191 (1%) patients in the dabigatran group and in 7 of 572 (1.2%) patients in the warfarin group (P = 1.0). All patients who had a pericardial tamponade, including 2 in the dabigatran group, had uneventful recovery after perdicardiocentesis. On multivariate analysis, international normalized ratio (odds ratio [OR] 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-15.0; P = .04), clopidogrel use (OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.5-12.3; P = .01), and CHA2DS2-VASc score (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8; P = .01) were the independent risk factors of bleeding complications only in the warfarin group.
plavix drug contraindications
To summarize the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of ticagrelor, a selective P2Y12 receptor antagonist, and evaluate its role in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
plavix 65 mg
As part of the international prospective EPICOR registry, 29 hospitals in Germany documented 296 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-ACS and 333 with unstable angina or non-STEMI (NSTEMI)-ACS surviving the hospital phase. The statistical analysis was performed in a descriptive manner. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT01171404.
plavix 60 mg
Bristol-Myers Squibb and sanofi-aventis.
plavix cost australia
The medical treatment of patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is directed toward reducing the risk of new ischemic events. The overall strategy is divided into: (1) prevention of occurrence of intraluminal thrombus, with or without embolism; (2) plaque stabilization and regression; and (3) management of atherogenic risk factors. In patients with ICAD, short-term and long-term anticoagulation (compared with aspirin) has not shown to be beneficial. The current guidelines recommend that aspirin monotherapy, the combination of aspirin and extended release dipyridamole, and clopidogrel monotherapy (rather than oral anticoagulants) are all acceptable options in patients with noncardioembolic ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. The findings of another pilot trial suggest that symptomatic ICAD is a dynamic lesion and cilostazol may prevent its progression. Overall, the subgroup analysis from randomized trials, provide evidence about benefit of aggressive atherogenic risk factor management among patients with ICAD. Current guidelines recommend statin therapy with intensive lipid-lowering effects for patients with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack with or without known coronary artery disease to reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular events.
Patients experiencing acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with high-risk features frequently undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent placement, prompting the requisite administration of aspirin and clopidogrel. The current management of ACS patients with a concomitant indication for warfarin anticoagulant therapy is a question of growing interest and clinical relevance.
plavix type drugs
Cangrelor is a rapid-acting, direct-binding, and reversible P2Y12 antagonist which has been studied for use during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with or without pretreatment with an oral P2Y12 antagonist. As cangrelor is administered intravenously, it is necessary to switch to an oral P2Y12 antagonist following PCI, such as the thienopyridines clopidogrel, and prasugrel or the non-pyridine ticagrelor. Previous studies have suggested a negative pharmacodynamic interaction between cangrelor and thienopyridines. This in vitro study evaluated the receptor-level interaction between cangrelor and the active metabolite (AM) of clopidogrel or prasugrel by assessing functional P2Y12 receptor number using a (33)P-2MeSADP binding assay. All P2Y12 antagonists studied resulted in strong P2Y12 receptor blockade (cangrelor: 93.6%; clopidogrel AM: 93.0%; prasugrel AM: 97.9%). Adding a thienopyridine AM in the presence of cangrelor strongly reduces P2Y12 receptor blockade by the AM (clopidogrel AM: 7%, prasugrel AM: 3.2%). The thienopyridine AMs had limited ability to compete with cangrelor for binding to P2Y12 (% P2Y12 receptor blockade after co-incubation with cangrelor 1000 nmol/L: 11.7% for clopidogrel AM 3 µmol/L; 34.1% for prasugrel AM 3 µmol/L). In conclusion, in vitro cangrelor strongly inhibits the binding of clopidogrel and prasugrel AMs to the P2Y12 receptor, consistent with the previous observation of a negative pharmacodynamic interaction. Care may need to be taken to not overlap exposure to thienopyridine AMs and cangrelor in order to reduce the risk of thrombotic complications following PCI.
plavix 75mg tab
The CASCADE (Clopidogrel after Surgery for Coronary Artery Disease) trial was a randomized study that evaluated the addition of clopidogrel to aspirin on the development of saphenous vein graft disease after CABG. Patients received the standard of care regarding postoperative statin therapy with targeted LDL levels less than 100 mg/dL. Twelve months postoperatively, patients returned for a coronary angiogram and saphenous vein graft (SVG) intravascular ultrasonogram. In this post hoc analysis, the impact of statin therapy on graft patency and vein graft intimal hyperplasia was assessed.
plavix 4 tab
ADP 9.37 microM, AA 1.2mM and TRAP 25 mM stimulated light transmissions aggregometry (LTA) were performed twice before (Exams 1 and 2; 3 weeks apart)-and within one year after-initiation of clopidogrel therapy (Exam 3) in 79 patients treated with PCI. Repeated ADP aggregometry was also performed in 16 healthy volunteers in order to estimate LTA measurement error.
plavix generic picture
An extensive search in the English medical literature has yielded a number of publications on a number of novel antiplatelet agents; atopaxar, vorapaxar, cangrelor, ticagrelor, elinogrel, and prasugrel.
plavix generic cost
Bleeding episodes (28 nuisance, 2 hematuria [1 severe], 1 severe proctorrhagia, 1 severe epistaxis) were significantly more frequent in patients with longer BT. Template BT ≥ 24 min was associated with bleeding episodes (28 of 32). Risk of bleeding increased 17.4% for each 1 min increase in BT. Correlation was found between BT and IPAmax in response to ADP 2 μmol/L but not to ADP 4 or 8 μmol/L.