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Ponstel (Mefenamic Acid)
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Ponstel

Ponstel is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short-term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain. Ponstel blocks the effect of certain substances in the body that are associated with pain and inflammation.

Other names for this medication:

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Celebrex, Voltaren, Dolobid, Lodine, Motrin, Indocin, Orudis, Toradol, Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Voltaren, Aleve, Advil, Celecoxib, Naprosyn, Motrin, Ketoprofen

 

Also known as:  Mefenamic Acid.

Description

Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain.

Ponstel blocks certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation.

Ponstel is also known as Mefenamic acid, Ponstan.

Generic name of Ponstel is Mefenamic Acid.

Brand name of Ponstel is Ponstel.

Dosage

Take Ponstel orally.

Take Ponstel with or without food.

Take Ponstel with a full glass of water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ponstel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Ponstel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ponstel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Ponstel if you are allergic to Ponstel components or to aspirin.

Do not take Ponstel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Ponstel if you have had a severe allergic reaction (e.g., severe rash, hives, trouble breathing, growths in the nose, dizziness) to aspirin or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (e.g., ibuprofen, celecoxib).

Do not take Ponstel if you have had recent or will be having bypass heart surgery.

Do not take Ponstel if you have kidney problems.

Do not take Ponstel if you have ulcers or inflammation of the stomach or bowel.

Do not use Ponstel with aspirin.

Be careful with Ponstel when it is used by children younger than 14 years old and by elderly people.

Avoid machine driving.

Avoid drinking alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Ponstel taking suddenly.

ponstel medication information

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used to reduce the inflammation and pain in patients suffering from arthritis. There is a possible use for these drugs in the treatment of inflammation associated with periodontitis. However, the propensity of NSAIDs to cause serious side effects, including gastrointestinal bleeding, has reduced their usefulness. The local application of NSAIDs can avoid these side effects by delivering low doses of drug directly to the affected site. Three NSAIDs (indomethacin, tolmetin and mefenamic acid) were incorporated into polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (PM MA) strips in a range of concentrations and their cytotoxicity, pattern of drug release and ability to suppress elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) assessed. The strips released between 10 and 30% of the total incorporated drug over 7 days, with the highest levels released by strips containing 20% w/w of drug. Strips containing 20% indomethacin and mefenamic acid released in excess of toxic levels in the first 24 h. Strips containing 20, 10 and 5% w/w NSAID significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the level of PGE2 expression by E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged cells, with only the 20% mefenamic acid strip performing significantly better than the other drugs. We conclude that local delivery of NSAIDs using PMMA as a sustained release vehicle is a possible additional tool in the treatment of periodontitis.

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In this randomized clinical trial, 122 female students with moderate to severe dysmenorrhea were assessed and were placed in either the exercise or mefenamic acid group. The exercise program was performed for 15 minutes, three times a week and included a five-minute warm up and six belly and pelvic stretching exercises for 10 minutes. The mefenamic acid group received 250 mg capsules every eight hours from the onset of menstruation until pain relief. Both interventions were performed during two consecutive menstrual cycles. Pain intensity was measured using a 10 cm visual analog scale.

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A new analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of 12 pharmaceuticals using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Six nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, naproxen, sulindac, and piroxicam) and six antibiotics (tinidazole, cefuroxime axetil, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, and chloramphenicol) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted DLLME using dichloromethane (800 μL) and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v, 1200 μL) as the extraction and dispersive solvents, respectively. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvent, vortex and ultrasonic time, sample pH, and ionic strength, were optimized. The ultrasound-assisted process was applied to accelerate the formation of the fine cloudy solution by using a small volume of dispersive solvent, which increased the extraction efficiency and reduced the equilibrium time. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.04-20 ng mL(-1) (ciprofloxacin and sulfadiazine), 0.2-100 ng mL(-1) (ketoprofen, tinidazole, cefuroxime axetil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulindac), and 1-200 ng mL(-1) (mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, piroxicam, and chloramphenicol). The LODs and LOQs of the method were in the range of 0.006-0.091 and 0.018-0.281 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative recoveries of the target analytes were in the range from 76.77 to 99.97 % with RSDs between 1.6 and 8.8 %. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and analysis of 12 pharmaceuticals in five kinds of water samples (drinking water, running water, river water, influent and effluent wastewater) with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Twelve pharmaceuticals in water samples analyted by UHPLC-MS/MS using ultrasound-assisted DLLME.

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A novel magneto multiwalled carbon nanotube/carbon paste electrode (MMW/CPE) for the determination of mefenamic acid (MFA) was introduced. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MMIPNPs) were synthesized and then added to the solution of MFA. After stirring for 20 min, the MMW/CPE was immersed in the solution of MFA (contain MMIPNPs) and the MMIPNPs were captured by it. Then oxidation of MFA was analyzed by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and DPV were employed to characterize the MMW/CPE. The MMIPNPs exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity toward MFA. The effect of various experimental parameters including pH, MMIPNPs dosage, stirring time, accumulation potential and time on the voltammetric response of MFA were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, selective detection of MFA in a linear concentration range of 2.0-1000.0 nmol L(-1) was performed with the detection limit of 1.2 nmol L(-1) (3S/N). To further study the practical applicability of this method, it was applied to the analysis of some real samples and the obtained results were satisfactory.

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A 52 year old man developed bullous pemphigoid, Coombs' positive haemolytic anaemia and diarrhoea related to the use of mefenamic acid. Clinical manifestation of the bullous pemphigoid, haemolytic anaemia and diarrhoea resolved following discontinuation of the mefenamic acid. Mefenamic acid should be added to the list of agents that are known to induce bullous pemphigoid.

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A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of mefenamic acid (MFA), flufenamic acid (FFA) and tolfenamic acid (TFA) is presented for application to pharmaceuticals and human urine. Isocratic reversed-phase HPLC was employed for quantitative analysis using tetra-pentylammonium bromide (TPAB) as an ion-pair reagent. Urine samples were purified by solid-phase extraction using a silica-based strong anion-exchanger, Bond-Elut SAX cartridge. The HPLC assay was carried out using a Wakosil ODS 5C18 column (5 microm, 150x4.6 mm I.D.). The mobile phase consisted of 1.9 g of TPAB dissolved in 1:1 of a mixture of acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution, pH 5.0, and acetonitrile (11:9, v/v). The calibration curves of MFA, FFA and TFA showed good linearity in the concentration range of 33-167 microg/ml with a wavelength of 280 nm for pharmaceuticals, and in the low concentration range (1.7-30.1 microg/ml) with a wavelength of 230 nm for biological fluids. The correlation coefficients were better than 0.9999 in all cases. The lower limits of detection (defined as a signal-to-noise ratio of about 3) were approximately 2 ng for MFA, 3.5 ng for FFA and 2.5 ng for TFA. The procedure described here is rapid, simple, selective and is suitable for routine analysis of pharmaceuticals and pharmacokinetic studies in human urine samples.

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A rapid screening method for detecting the inhibitory potential of various drugs against UGT2B7 was established using a LC-MS/MS system. The effects of nine NSAIDs (acetaminophen, diclofenac, diflunisal, indomethacin, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, niflumic acid, and salicylic acid) against UGT2B7-catalyzed 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine glucuronidation (AZTG) were investigated in human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant human UGT2B7.

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Electronic searches for relevant randomised controlled trials of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Register of Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychLIT, Current Contents, Biological Abstracts, Social Sciences Index and CINAHL were performed. Attempts were also made to identify trials from citation lists of review articles and drug companies were approached for unpublished data. In most cases, the first author of each included trial was contacted for additional information.

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Randomised controlled trial.

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The treatment of primary spasmodic dysmenorrhea with prostaglandin synthetase/receptor site inhibitors such as mefenamic acid (Ponstel) is becoming accepted. Recent improvements in intrauterine pressure recording have made the acquisition of reliable, physiologic data possible. These data have been used to provide objective evaluation of the effectiveness of drug therapy as part of a larger subjective investigation. Analysis of these data shows that mefenamic aid causes rapid, dramatic reductions in parameters of uterine pressure and work. Complete loss of uterine contractile activity was found in 46.2% of patients. Subjective relief was obtained in all patients receiving mefenamic acid in this sample.

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The inhibitory effects of selected drugs on the Arthus reaction, a model of immune-complex-induced tissue injury, were studied. The reverse passive Arthus reaction (RPAR) was elicited in the dorsal skin of rats, using bovine serum albumin and the gamma-globulin fraction of rabbit anti-BSA. The optimal amounts of antigen and antibody required to elicit the reaction, as well as the reaction kinetics, were examined. Chlorpheniramine, cyproheptadine, d-penicillamine, chloroquine, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, naproxen, and mefenamic acid were found to be inactive despite high doses; aspirin and ibuprofen were only weakly active. Hydrocortisone and colchicine were strong inhibitors of the RPAR: the calculated ED50 values were 13 mg/kg p.o. and 0.3 mg/kg i.v., respectively. The RPAR exhibits a different sensitivity to drug inhibition than conventional models of inflammation (e.g., carrageenin paw edema) end may be useful to detect new types of anti-inflammatory agents.

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Antifibrinolytic therapy compared to placebo showed a significant reduction in mean blood loss (WMD -94.0 [-151.4, -36.5]) and significant change in mean reduction of blood loss (WMD -110.2 [-146. 5, -73.8]). This objective improvement was not mirrored by a patient perceived improvement in monthly menstrual blood loss (RR 2.5 [0.9, 7.3]) in the one study which recorded this outcome ( approximately approximately Edlund 1995 approximately approximately ). Antifibrinolytic agents were compared to only three other medical (non-surgical) therapies: mefenamic acid, norethisterone administered in the luteal phase and ethamsylate. In all instances, there was a significant reduction in mean blood loss (WMD -73.0 [-123.4, -22.6], WMD -111.0 [-178.5, -43.5] and (WMD -100 [-143.9, -56.1] respectively) and a strong, although non-significant trend in favour of tranexamic acid in the participants' perception of an improvement in menstrual blood loss. There were no significant differences in the frequency of reported gastrointestinal side effects with tranexamic acid when compared to either NSAIDs (RR 0.9 [0.4, 2.1], oral luteal phase progestagens (RR 0.4 [0.1, 1.2]) or ethamsylate (RR 0.88 [0.3, 2.9]) when these treatments were used for heavy menstrual bleeding. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

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To determine the effectiveness of oral contraceptive pills compared with other medical therapies, placebo or no therapy in the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

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Desmopressin may be a useful therapeutic tool for many women with IUD-related menorrhagia. Its mechanism of action lies in an ability to enhance local haemostasis, without affecting uterine blood flow.

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Prospective observational study.

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There were no differences between two groups for demographic or descriptive variables. Comprising the VAS showed that the participants in T. polium and mefenamic acid groups had lower significant pain in the 1st and the 2nd months after the treatment (P < 0.05). No side effects were reported in the T. polium and Mefenamic Acid groups.

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Ninety OSA patients were enrolled for surgical treatments in this study. Forty-five patients (group 1) were randomized to receive intravenous ketorolac and another 45 patients (group 2) were given the conventional regimen of oral mefenamic acid and intramuscular meperidine after OSA surgeries for 3 days at hospital. Postoperative discomfort was measured by a self-assessment questionnaire on the 1st and 3rd days after surgery. Any adverse effect of pain treatment was carefully monitored. Patients' satisfaction with postoperative pain treatment was evaluated 1 month postoperatively.

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Over an 18-month period at a single clinic, 43 new cases of colonic inflammation have been diagnosed (19 proctitis only). Crohn's colitis has been excluded from this analysis. In all these subjects a careful drug history has been taken in a prospective manner and in 4 of these 43 patients colonic inflammation appeared to be directly related to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration (mefenamic acid, 2; piroxicam, 2). In all 4 patients there was a time interval (mean 3 months) between initiation of treatment with NSAID and presentation with diarrhoea and weight loss. Pathological findings were minor and biochemical changes insignificant, in contrast to the protracted troublesome symptoms. Resolution of symptoms was very rapid on discontinuation of NSAID medication but 2 patients experienced immediate return of symptoms following inadvertent rechallenge. Approximately 10% of newly diagnosed colitis may be related to NSAID administration. Subjects taking NSAID medications appear to be five times more likely to develop colonic inflammation than the general population.

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In humans, orally administered 4-(5-pyridin-4-yl-1H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-yl) pyridine-2-carbonitrile (FYX-051) is excreted mainly as triazole N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronides in urine. It is important to determine the enzyme(s) that catalyze the metabolism of a new drug to estimate individual differences and/or drug-drug interactions. Therefore, the characterization and mechanism of these glucuronidations were investigated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), human intestinal microsomes (HIMs), and recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms to determine the UGT isoform(s) responsible for FYX-051 N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronidation. FYX-051 was metabolized to its N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronide forms by HLMs, and their K(m) values were 64.1 and 72.7 microM, respectively; however, FYX-051 was scarcely metabolized to its glucuronides by HIMs. Furthermore, among the recombinant human UGT isoforms, UGT1A1, UGT1A7, and UGT1A9 catalyzed the N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronidation of FYX-051. To estimate their contribution to FYX-051 glucuronidation, inhibition analysis with pooled HLMs was performed. Mefenamic acid, a UGT1A9 inhibitor, decreased FYX-051 N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronosyltransferase activities, whereas bilirubin, a UGT1A1 inhibitor, did not affect these activities. Furthermore, in the experiment using microsomes from eight human livers, the N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronidation activity of FYX-051 was found to significantly correlate with the glucuronidation activity of propofol, a specific substrate of UGT1A9 (N(1): r(2) = 0.868, p < 0.01; N(2): r(2) = 0.775, p < 0.01). These results strongly suggested that the N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronidation of FYX-051 is catalyzed mainly by UGT1A9 in human livers.

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We report a case of steatorrhoea and sub-total villous atrophy, occurring during therapy with mefenamic acid. The patient recovered on cessation of the drug while continuing a normal diet.

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The inhibition of endometrial phospholipase A2 activity by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents mefenamic acid and indomethacin was studied over the concentration range 1 mmol/1-0.1 mumol/l. Both phospholipase A2 type 1 (a calcium-dependent enzyme) and phospholipase A2 type 2 (a calcium-independent enzyme) were inhibited by mefenamic acid, but the magnitude of the inhibition was dependent on calcium concentration. Phospholipase A2 type 1 was inhibited 50% by 10 mumol mefenamic acid/l in the presence of 1.25-5 mmol calcium/l, but a concentration of 2.2 mmol mefenamic acid/l was required for 50% inhibition in the absence of calcium. On the other hand, phospholipase A2 type 2 was inhibited 50% by 22 mumol mefenamic acid/l in the absence of calcium and by 100 mumol mefenamic acid/l in the presence of calcium (2.5 mmol/l). Although indomethacin was a less effective inhibitor of phospholipase A2 activity, a similar relationship with calcium was demonstrated. However, indomethacin also had a stimulatory effect on phospholipase A2 type 1 activity in the absence of calcium. Our findings suggest that the two endometrial enzymes may be inhibited by different mechanisms and that the dependence of the enzyme on calcium for activation may be a contributing factor.

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AUTOANTIBODY PRODUCTION: The production of autoantibodies can only occur if immune tolerance is circumvented. Thus drug-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia requires that the drug have an effect on both autoantigens and on the immune system. AN EXAMPLE, METHYLDOPA: Methyldopa is a hypotensive agent which induces major production of anti-Rh IgG anti-erythrocyte autoantibodies, anti-nuclear antibodies and anti-actin antibodies. These autoantibodies generally appear 6 months after treatment onset and are observed in 20% of treated patients. Hemolysis is however exceptional and is only clinically or biologically perceptible in 1 to 2% of the patients who become immunized. Induced lupus has been reported as have been several dozen cases of drug-induced hepatitis with anti-actin autoantibodies. DRUGS INDUCING HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA: Besides methyldopa, other drugs known to induce hemolytic anemia include levodopa used for Parkinson's disease, mefenamic acid, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, interferon-alpha, used in chronic viral hepatitis, cyclosporin used for the prevention of graft rejection and the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases, and fludarabin, used in chronic lymphoid leukemia.

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The effect of various antacids on the absorption of tolfenamic and mefenamic acids has been investigated in three separate crossover studies, each consisting of four phases. Single doses of magnesium hydroxide (85 mg, 425 mg and 1700 mg) or of water (150 ml) were given by mouth to 6 healthy volunteers immediately after tolfenamic acid 400 mg (Study 1), and, using an identical study design, after mefenamic acid 500 mg (Study 3). In Study 2 sodium bicarbonate 1 g, aluminium hydroxide 1 g, an antacid preparation containing both aluminium and magnesium hydroxides, or water alone were ingested with tolfenamic acid 400 mg. Plasma concentrations of tolfenamic and mefenamic acids and their cumulative excretion in urine were determined up to 24 h. Magnesium hydroxide greatly accelerated, in a dose-dependent manner the absorption of both tolfenamic and mefenamic acids. The peak times in plasma were shortened by about 1 h by 425 mg and 1700 mg magnesium hydroxide, and the peak plasma concentrations of both fenamates were elevated up to 3-fold. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve between 0 and 1 h of tolfenamic acid was increased up to 7-fold and that of mefenamic acid up to 3-fold. The total bioavailability of tolfenamic and mefenamic acids was only slightly increased. Aluminium hydroxide alone and in combination with magnesium hydroxide significantly retarded the absorption and lowered the peak plasma concentration of tolfenamic acid. Sodium bicarbonate had no significant effect on its absorption. The interaction with magnesium hydroxide leads to higher and earlier peak plasma concentrations of the fenamates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Regulation of avidin accumulation by prostaglandins (PGs) and their inhibitors was studied in chick oviduct organ culture. Avidin was induced neither by progesterone nor PGF2 alpha in the oviduct of immature chicks. By progesterone and PGs, a high avidin synthesis was induced when the chicks received diethylstilbestrol (DES) for 7 days. Enhanced avidin production was observed by PGF2 alpha, PGE1 and PGE2, whereas PGA2 and PGB2 had a slight inhibitory effect and PGA1 and PGB1 had no effect on avidin production. PGF2 alpha was most effective at a concentration of 10-20 micrograms/ml. The effects of progesterone and PGF2 alpha were not additive. Mefenamic acid, at concentrations of 40 and 60 micrograms/ml, inhibited 50 and 85%, respectively, of the avidin synthesis induced by progesterone, whereas the inhibition of the total protein synthesis was only 20%, and this only by the higher concentration of the drug. Tolfenamic and meclofenamic acid were also inhibitory in the case of progestin-induced avidin synthesis. These studies indicate that the PGs (F2 alpha, E1 and E2) might be involved in the avidin induction in the chick differentiated oviduct. The specific inhibition of the progesterone-dependent avidin synthesis by the PG inhibitors suggests that PGs may be connected with the progesterone action in the oviduct. We propose that the avidin synthesis by the chick oviduct might be considered as a model system for studying PG effects on the synthesis of a specific protein.

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Ileal blood flow was significantly reduced in NEC animals as compared with CONTROLs. The addition of DPR to the peritoneum increased ileal blood flow significantly in all groups in spite of blockade of these known vasoactive mechanisms. Direct peritoneal resuscitation may be a novel strategy to improve intestinal blood flow in NEC.

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The methods for quantitative determination of meloxicam and mefenamic acid in pharmaceuticals by classic spectrophotometry - zero order derivative, first and second order derivatives spectrophotometry is described, using "peak - peak" (P-P) and "peak - zero" (P-O) measurements. The calibration curves are linear within the concentration range of 4.0 - 14.0 microg/mL for meloxicam and 14.0 - 24.0 microg/mL for mefenamic acid. The procedure is simple, rapid and the results are reliable.

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The effects of aspirin, salicylate formulations and substitutes, smoking (nicotine), indomethacin, corticosteroids, phenylbutazone, ethanol, caffeine and reserpine on the gastric mucosa are discussed. The damaging effects of the drugs are considered in terms of the gastric mucosal barrier, gastric erosions, microbleeding and haematemesis and melaena and finally whether they cause peptic ulcer. There is suggestive evidence that unbuffered aspirin is a cause of haematemesis and melaena and of gastric ulcer but the incidence rates for hospital admission are low, being 10 to 15 per 100,000 heavy users per year. Aspirin in solution as acetylsalicylate buffered to maintain a neutral pH protects against gastric damage. Newer aspirin substitutes (mefenamic acid, fenoprofen, naproxen, tolmetin and ibuprofen) appear to cause less faecal blood loss than aspirin but their long-term effects have not been fully evaluated. Smoking is definitely associated with peptic ucler but the mechanism is unknown. Corticosteroids are probably not ulcerogenic despite clinical bias that they are. Indomethacin and phenylbutazone may be ulcerogenic but there is insufficient evidence to make firm judgements. Ethanol, caffeine and reserpine, on available evidence, are probably not ulcerogenic.

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Selected patients suffering from menorrhagia may be treated with the HTA device using local anesthesia in an outpatient setting.

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Rat pups were assigned by litter to experimental NEC or CONTROL groups. Laser Doppler flowmetry evaluation of intestinal microvascular blood flow was studied at baseline, with mediator blockade (endothelin-A receptor, endothelin-B receptor, PG synthesis, or NO synthase) and with DPR. Repeated-measures analysis of variance test was applied with Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test (P < .05).

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ponstel pills 2017-06-18

The capacity of N-(2,3-xylyl)anthranilic acid (mefenamic acid) to reduce fever in children was compared with that of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and amino-phenazone. The series of cases consisted of 71 patients in the age range buy ponstel from 3 months to 15 years and with rectal temperatures above 38.5 degrees C. Temperatures were recorded at 15 and 30 min, and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after challenge with the drug. The antipyretic effect of mefenamic acid in a dose of 4 mg/kg was optimal: it was 2.5 times that of acetyl-salicylic acid or paracetamol and nearly similar to that of aminophenazone. It seems possible that the antipyretic effect of mefenamic acid is stronger than its anti-inflammatory and analgetic properties.

ponstel generic 2017-12-26

Thirty-four of 785 drug provocations were clinically judged as being positive. Despite objective symptoms, median serum tryptase values in the afternoon were even lower than baseline levels. However, this decrease was not statistically significant. In the 751 patients suffering no objective reactions, the median values buy ponstel of post-testing tryptase values were statistically significantly decreased as compared with pretesting values.

ponstel and alcohol 2016-06-29

Hepatocytes and liver microsomes are considered to be useful for investigating drug metabolism catalyzed mainly via glucuronidation. However, there have been few reports comparing the glucuronidation inhibition potentials of drug in hepatocytes to those in liver microsomes. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) glucuronidation (AZTG) is the major metabolic pathway for AZT. In this study, the inhibition potentials of drugs against UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-catalyzed AZTG in the hepatocytes and liver microsomes of rats are compared. The AZTG inhibition potentials of diclofenac, diflunisal, fluconazole, indomethacin, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, niflumic acid, and valproic acid in liver microsomes and hepatocytes were investigated using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Diflunisal (inhibition type: noncompetitive) inhibited AZTG most potently in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) with an IC(50) value of 34 microM. The IC(50) values of diclofenac, fluconazole, indomethacin, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, buy ponstel naproxen, niflumic acid, and valproic acid against AZTG in RLMs ranged from 34 to 1791 microM. Diclofenac, diflunisal, indomethacin, ketoprofen, naproxen, and valproic acid inhibited AZTG in hepatocytes with IC(50) values of 58, 37, 88, 361, 486, and 281 microM, respectively. These values were similar to those obtained in RLMs. In conclusion, the AZT glucuronidation inhibition potentials of drugs in the hepatocytes and liver microsomes of rats were found to be similar, and liver microsomes can be useful for evaluating UGT isozyme inhibition potentials.

ponstel 250 mg 2017-03-24

To determine the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic ibuprofen compared to placebo/no intervention or other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor drugs buy ponstel (indomethacin, mefenamic acid, etc) in the prevention of PDA in preterm infants.

ponstel 250 reviews 2017-08-07

Antiprostaglandin drugs have been found buy ponstel to provide significant relief from dysmenorrhea. Twelve patients taking ibuprofen or mefenamic acid experienced menstrual delay of several days to two weeks and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Menstruation returned to normal with the next cycle after the cessation of drug use.

ponstel dosage dysmenorrhea 2015-12-14

Male and female mice buy ponstel were administered 6 sunitinib doses (60 mg/kg) PO every 12 h and 30 min before the last dose were administered vehicle (control groups), 250 mg/kg paracetamol, 30 mg/kg diclofenac, 50 mg/kg mefenamic acid or 30 mg/kg ibuprofen (study groups), euthanized 6 h post last administration and sunitinib plasma, liver, kidney, brain concentrations analyzed.

ponstel dosing 2015-06-27

The effect of mechanical impact on the polymorphic transformation of mefenamic acid (MFA) and the formation of a solid dispersion of mefenamic acid, a poor glass forming/poorly-water soluble compound, with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K12 was investigated. The implication of solid dispersion formation on solubility enhancement of MFA, prepared by cryomilling, was investigated. Solid state characterization was conducted using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with crystal structure analysis. Apparent solubility of the mixtures in pH 7.4 buffer was measured. A calculation to compare the powder patterns and FTIR spectra of solid dispersions with the corresponding physical mixtures was conducted. Solid state characterization showed that (1) MFA I transformed to MFA II when pure MFA I was cryogenically milled (CM); and (2) MFA forms a solid dispersion when MFA was cryogenically milled with PVP K12. FTIR spectral analysis showed that hydrogen bonding facilitated by mechanical impact played a major role in forming solid dispersions. The apparent solubility of MFA was significantly improved by making a solid dispersion with PVP K12 via cryomilling. This study highlights the importance of buy ponstel cryomilling with a good hydrogen bond forming excipient as a technique to prepare solid dispersion, especially when a compound shows a poor glass forming ability and therefore, is not easy to form amorphous forms by conventional method.

ponstel user reviews 2016-03-30

Since the first observation in 1978, it has been clearly established that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) interfere with the pharmacokinetics of lithium: by reducing urinary buy ponstel clearance of the metal, they can raise the plasma lithium level and thus lead to intoxication. Among the NSAIDs available in France, this interaction has been reported with phenylbutazone (Butazolidine, Carudol), diclofenac (Voltarène), indomethacin (Indocid) and its antalgic derivative clomethacin (Dupéran), ketoprofen (Profenid), mefenamic acid (Ponstyl), niflumic acid (Nifluril) and piroxicam (Feldène). This interaction does not occur with aspirin; this exception suggests that the inhibition of prostaglandins synthesis is not the mechanism responsible for the decrease in the urinary elimination of lithium linked with an increase in its tubular reabsorption. In practice, in view of the growing diffusion of NSAIDs, it is necessary to inform all patients under lithium treatment of the risk of interaction resulting from their use.

ponstel medication information 2017-06-04

A simple, rapid and specific method for analysis of mefenamic acid (I) in serum by a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography is described. Only 70 microl of serum and a little sample work-up is required. A simple procedure of extraction by dichloromethane followed by evaporation to dryness under gentle stream of nitrogen and dissolving the dried residue in mobile phase was used. The mefenamic acid peak was separated from endogenous peaks on a C(8) column by buy ponstel a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v, pH 3). Mefenamic acid and internal standard (IS) (diclofenac) were eluted at 7.4 and 5.4 min, respectively. The limit of quantitation of mefenamic acid in serum was 25 ng/ml at 280 nm. The method was linear over the range of 25-2000 ng/ml with r(2) of 0.998. Mean recovery for mefenamic acid was 110%.

ponstel dosage instructions 2017-10-15

This study, conducted at the Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Department of Geriatric Medicine, was carried out using 2987 sets of admission data. The number of patients taking non-steroidal buy ponstel anti-inflammatory drugs was identified together with a suite of clinical factors used to indicate the presence of gastrointestinal pathology. From this a gastropathy index was developed to establish a rank order for the individual drugs. Ketoprofen, piroxicam and fenbufen were all significantly associated with factors suggestive of gastropathy, whereas indomethacin, diclofenac and ibuprofen appeared relatively free of such association. Naproxen, azapropazone and mefenamic acid ranked in an intermediate category. This noninvasive analysis of routinely acquired data provides a potentially useful discriminator between individual non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for this age group.

ponstel tablets 2017-09-13

To evaluate the efficacy and level of satisfaction from mefenamic acid and hyoscine when used for pain relief during saline infusion sonohysterography buy ponstel .

ponstel drug 2017-08-26

Morpholinoethyl ester (3) and pyrrolidinoethyl ester (4) of mefenamic acid showed evidence of efflux mechanism. Inhibition by verapamil had a pronounced effect on the transport of 3 and 4. Indomethacin, however buy ponstel , completely inhibited the apical efflux of 3 but enhanced the efflux ratio of 4. Both compounds increased the ratio of cellular calcein accumulation by 3- to 5-fold over control. Consistent with the experimental data, the computational results suggest the involvement of P-gp or its interaction in 3 and 4 transport.

ponstel generic name 2017-12-09

Women in lidocaine group perceived a significant reduction in postoperative pain in the first hours after surgery. There was also significantly less opioid analgesic requirement in the lidocaine than control group 4 h after CS (19 vs 44 women, p = 0.001). No side effects were reported in either buy ponstel group.

ponstel 250 capsule 2015-07-29

The possibility of removing representative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) from water was tested using Octolig®, a commercially available material with polyethylenediimine moieties covalently attached to high-surface area silica gel. The effectiveness of removal should depend on selected NSAIDs having appropriate anionic functional groups. NSAIDs selected had buy ponstel aromatic carboxylic groups: diclofenac, fenoprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, and sulindac. These substances in deionized (DI) water were removed by passage over Octolig columns with removal values approaching 90% at environmental pH values, e.g., ca pH 6. Fenoprofen, however, was only removed to an extent of 80% in DI water and 62% in well water, presumably a result of competition with bicarbonate ions.

ponstel medication dosage 2016-02-29

The efficiency and side-effects of tiaprofenic acid, mefenamic acid and placebo were compared in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The trial was a double-blind prospective randomized 3-way crossover study during 6 successive menstrual cycles following a 2-cycle run-in period and involved 50 women with primary dysmenorrhoea selected from 96 volunteers between 16 and 35 years of age. Overall pain was significantly less (p less than Inderal 120 Mg 0.05) on treatment with tiaprofenic acid than on treatment with mefanemic acid, placebo, or the women's usual treatments. Both active treatments were well tolerated but more side-effects were reported during treatment with mefenamic acid.

ponstel pill 2017-01-30

A survey of earlier published studies on treatment of dysmenorrhea with prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors is given and personal clinical experiences are Paracetamol 375 Mg presented. The time when treatment should start in relation to the onset of bleeding is also discussed. A survey of studies published in English and Scandinavian literature yielded 532 patients. Pain relief was experienced in 64 to 100 per cent of the patients in these studies. The incidence of side-effects has generally been low but in a few studies a high incidence was reported. In the current study 34 patients with prinary dysmenorrhea completed the douule-blind, placebo controlled study on naproxen. The patients were treated for two cycles, 16 with naproxen and 18 with placebo. The mean relief score indicated a "slight to good" pain relief in the naproxen group and "no alleviation" in the placebo group. The difference is statistically significant (p = 0.003). Supplementary medication was much more used in the placebo group compared to the naproxen group (p = 0.01). In the placebo group no change whatsoever was demonstrated in alleviation of interference with every-day life, whereas there was a statistically significant improvement in the naproxen group. No major side-effect was registered. Thus none of the subjects withdrew from the study.

ponstel s medicine 2015-11-10

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) has become a popular self-diagnosis. Faulty research has led to confusion about the diagnosis, epidemiologic features, causes and treatment of this disorder. There is no proof that the premenstrual period is a time of increased violence. An association between menstrually related mood disorders and other psychiatric illness is also unproven. Despite many theories no definitive cause of PMS has been established, and controlled studies of various treatments have failed to Prevacid 80 Mg find a universally effective approach. Conservative measures involving support, diet and exercise seem to help in most cases. The use of alprazolam and mefenamic acid may help some women. Rectal or vaginal progesterone therapy has been proven ineffective and should not be used.

ponstel medicine 2016-10-03

Dysmenorrhea in Starlix Diabetes Medication medical students has high prevalence and it has negative effects on daily activities, academic activities, and quality of life. Most of the subjects know that mefenamic acid and/or paracetamol can relief dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea is a significant public health problem.

ponstel capsules 2015-06-25

Drug-induced oedema of the ciliary body is rare, and occurs predominantly following exposure to sulphonamides. In a 31-year-old patient in her 37th week of pregnancy, we observed reversible myopia of -4.75 dioptres following the ingestion of chlorthalidone. In a second case report we describe, in a 61-year-old patient suffering from aspirin-sensitive asthma, recurrent ciliary body oedema with a marked spastic component which was triggered by the medications acetazolamide, dipivefrine and pilocarpine. We explain oedema of the ciliary body on the Lamictal 600 Mg basis of the eicosanoids. We believe that the oedema is caused mainly by prostaglandins and that leucotrienes are predominantly responsible for the spastic component. We postulate a drug-induced elevation in eicosanoid concentrations, as well as certain interrelationships between ciliary body oedema and aspirin-sensitive asthma.

ponstel medication 2016-10-16

Acute allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is a well known but rare adverse drug event. Here, we describe the case of a 70 year old woman with recurrent episodes of acute renal failure. A first episode of (AIN) occurred after the intake of mefenaminic acid tablets. A second episode of AIN occurred two years later, this time after transdermal application of diclofenac. Our case illustrates cross-reactivity between NSAIDs and shows that transdermally applied medication can cause systemic adverse events as well. Patients do not mention ointments because they often do not realize that ointments contain active substances, and physicians forget to ask. Trandate Generic Name

ponstel reviews 2017-08-31

We developed a color difference signal method to evaluate the degree of blending powdered medicines in pharmacies. In the method, the degree of blending is Risperdal Reviews Ocd expressed as the relative standard deviation of the color difference signal value (Cb or Cr) of the YCbCr color space after digital photos of the blended medicines are analyzed by image processing. While the method is effective to determine the degree of blending colored medicines, it remains unknown whether it can be applied to uncolored or white-colored medicines. To investigate this, we examined colored diluents to identify an indicator of the degree mixtures are blended. In this study, we applied this method to Pontal® and Prednisolone® powders, which were used as uncolored and white-colored medicines, respectively. Each of these medicines was blended with the colored lactose using a pestle and mortar, and then the uniformity of blending was evaluated. The degree of blending was well-monitored in both mixtures with various blending ratios (1 : 9-9 : 1), showing a sufficient uniformity at 60 rotations of the pestle. Moreover, the Cr values of the mixtures with various blending ratios were correlated with the concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients in these medicines, which was determined using HPLC. This indicated the usefulness of the color difference signal method for the quantitative determination of medicines. Thus, we demonstrated the applicability and effectiveness of this method to check dispensing powders.

ponstel dosage 2017-04-24

The antipyretic activity of AD-1590 (2-[8-methyl-10,11-0xodibenz[b,f]oxepin-2-yl]propionic acid), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a novel chemical structure, was investigated in rabbits with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever and monkeys with leucocytic pyrogen-induced fever. AD-1590 produced a dose-related inhibition of the LPS-fever at oral doses of 0.1 mg kg-1 or more (ED50 = 0.089 mgg kg-1). Its potency was 10-12, 20-35, 100-170, 400-540, greater than 1500 and greater than 2000 times that of ketoprofen, diclofenac sodium, indomethacin, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid and aspirin, respectively. The fever caused by leucocytic pyrogen was significantly inhibited by intravenous administration of 0.1-0.2 mg kg-1 of AD-1590 (10 mg kg-1 oral or i.v.) did not affect body temperature in afebrile rabbits or monkeys. These results suggest that AD-1590 shows a potent antipyretic activity in the rabbit and monkey and is a potent antagonist of LPS-fever.

ponstel cost 2017-11-17

Citric acid-polyethylene glycol-citric acid (CPEGC) triblock dendrimers as biocompatible compounds containing G(1), G(2) and G(3) were applied as the drug-delivery systems. Some of the small size molecules and drugs are trapped with the above-synthesized dendrimers. The guest molecules, which are hydrophobic when trapped into the suitable sites of dendrimers, are becoming soluble in aqueous solution. The quantity of trapped molecules and drugs such as 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA), pyridine, mefenamic acid, and diclofenac was measured. The drug/dendrimer complexes remained in room temperature for about 10 months and after this long time they were stable and the drugs were not released. Also, the controlled release of the above-mentioned molecules and drugs in vitro conditions was investigated. The structure definition and controlled release of the molecules and drugs were carried out using different spectroscopy methods.

ponstel s dosage 2016-12-25

Double-blind, prospectively randomised, three-way crossover study of mebeverine, mefenamic acid and placebo during three consecutive menstrual cycles.

ponstel buy 2017-11-15

The apparent permeability (P(app)) and percentage of metabolism of B, W and OA at 10 μΜ were measured at the absence/presence of MEF (100 μΜ) in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model. A modified whole blood assay was employed to quantify prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) 4, 6 and 8 h post-oral administration with water suspension of MEF at 40 mg/kg and RS at 200 mg/kg.