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Retrovir (Zidovudine)

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Generic Retrovir is used for treating HIV infection when used along with other medicines. It is also used with other medicines to help prevent women from passing the HIV virus to the fetus during pregnancy.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Sustiva, Combivir, Epivir, Zerit


Also known as:  Zidovudine.


Generic Retrovir is an antiviral. It works by blocking the reproduction of the HIV virus.

Generic name of Generic Retrovir is Zidovudine.

Retrovir is also known as Zidovudine, Azidothymidine, Zidovir, Retrovis.

Brand name of Generic Retrovir is Retrovir.


Do not stop taking it suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Retrovir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Be careful with Generic Retrovir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Retrovir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are allergic to Generic Retrovir components.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you have an enlarged liver, high lactic acid levels in the blood, or abnormal liver function tests.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are taking doxorubicin, ribavirin, stavudine, or any medicine that contains zidovudine.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems, bone marrow problems, low white blood cell levels, kidney problems, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or other liver problems.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you take zalcitabine because severe pancreas problems may occur, fluconazole, ganciclovir, interferon alfa, probenecid, valproic acid, or any medicine that contains zidovudine because they may increase the risk of Generic Retrovir 's side effects; doxorubicin, ribavirin, or stavudine because they may decrease Generic Retrovir 's effectiveness.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are very overweight.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

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We describe a human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative man who presented with a skin disorder that we diagnosed as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, which we believe was an adverse reaction to combination prophylactic therapy with zidovudine, lamivudine, and protease inhibitor for human immunodeficiency virus. Cutaneous adverse effects are rarely reported with the use of these antiviral drugs.

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In order to identify cellular genes differentially expressed during human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, we conducted a screen using differential display. The sequence of one of the clones, 0085, was identical to a sequence present in the RNA splicing factor SC35. Since splicing is an essential point of control during HIV gene expression, we carried out additional experiments to examine SC35 expression during HIV infection. RNA blots confirmed that SC35 RNA was induced following HIV infection; a 2-3-fold increase in expression of SC35 RNA was detected by day 2 of HIV infection. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting revealed concomitant increases in SC35 protein and double staining studies demonstrated that increases in SC35 protein occurred specifically in the HIV-infected cells. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed SC35 was associated with 2 microm 'nuclear speckles' in both infected and uninfected cells, suggesting that increases in SC35 accumulated in these nuclear structures and that HIV infection did not alter the intracellular distribution of SC35. These findings indicate that an essential splicing factor is induced after HIV infection, suggesting that the consequences of HIV infection include alterations in relative levels of a splicing factor.

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Health benefits and survival of an exclusively breast-fed infant is dependent on the mother's health; thus, the need for antiretroviral (ARV) intervention for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Achieving maternal health benefits from these regimens requires adherence to the treatments and close monitoring. We evaluated virologic, immunologic responses, and adherence among women receiving maternal triple ARV prophylaxis consisting of lamivudine/zidovudine and nevirapine or nelfinavir in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study.

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By intent-to-treat (non-completer = failure) analysis, 10/16 (63%) lopinavir/ritonavir + saquinavir-treated and 7/14 (50%) lopinavir/ritonavir + zidovudine/lamivudine-treated subjects achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (P=0.713) at week 48. Safety, tolerability, metabolic changes and truncal fat increases were similar between groups. Small decreases in the lower extremity fat in the zidovudine/lamivudine group (-6%) and a statistically significant increase in the lower extremity fat in the saquinavir group (+19%) were observed. Lopinavir/ritonavir co-administered with saquinavir 600 or 800 mg twice daily produced saquinavir concentrations similar to those previously reported for saquinavir/ritonavir 1000/100 mg twice daily.

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Mutant viruses were not detected before week 12 with the exception of one subject. At the latest time point on abacavir monotherapy (range, weeks 6-48), 21 out of 43 subjects harboured virus with resistance conferring mutations including single, double and triple combinations of K65R, L74V, Y115F and M184V. The most common mutational pattern was L74V + M184V (11/21 cases). Twenty of the 21 subjects with isolates containing abacavir-associated mutations reached week 48, and upon addition of lamivudine/zidovudiine, 16 out of 20 (80%) had week 48 plasma HIV-1 -RNA below 400 copies/ml. At week 48, 16 out of 46 genotypes were obtained; one of these was wild-type; 15 contained M184V either alone, in combination with K65R and/or L74V and/or Y115F or with thymidine analogue-associated mutations. Week 48 viral load levels for these 15 subjects was low (median 3.43 log10 copies/ml or -1.99 log10 copies reduction from baseline). Genotype correlated well with phenotypic resistance to ABC; four samples with three abacavir-associated mutations had high level abacavir resistance (> 8-fold) and six samples with two or three mutations showed intermediate (4-8-fold) resistance. All samples with single mutations retained full ABC susceptibility.

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Eight-three and 53 patients were randomly assigned and exposed in the monotherapy and triple-drug groups, respectively. At week 48, by an intent-to-treat analysis, 53 of 83 patients (64%) in the monotherapy group and 40 of 53 patients (75%) in the triple-drug group achieved the primary endpoint (P = 0.19). The on-treatment analysis indicates that 80 and 95% of patients reached the primary endpoint in the monotherapy and triple-drug groups, respectively (P = 0.02). In the monotherapy arm, protease inhibitor-associated resistance mutations were seen in three of the 21 patients qualifying for genotypic resistance testing, with a modest impact on lopinavir susceptibility. None of the serious reported adverse events were considered to be related to study treatment.

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1,6-Dihydro-3(2H)-thioxo-6-spiro-(9'-fluorene)-1,2,4-triazin -5(4H)-one (1) has been used to synthesize several analogous compounds via nucleophilic substitution reactions. Spectroscopic data are given in support of the proposed structures. Some of the new products possessed good anti HIV and anticancer activities.

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A controversial subject raised at the Third Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections was the relationship between a pregnant woman's viral load and transmission of the virus to her baby. Data presented from one study showed that no mother with a viral load under 25,000 copies/ml transmitted HIV to the infant. A viral load of over 50,000 during delivery was the best predictor of transmission. Other studies detected a weak correlation between viral load and transmission. In mothers receiving AZT during pregnancy, HIV transmission occurred at all detectable viral load levels. Intrapartum versus in utero transmission issues are also addressed.

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This study has determined the effect of liposomal encapsulation on the hematopoietic toxicity and antiviral activity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) in mice. Daily intravenous administration in the dose range 0.4 to 10 mg/kg body weight for 5 days significantly depressed bone marrow cellularity with a corresponding decrease in red blood cell, blood neutrophil, and monocyte numbers. Maximum toxicity was seen at 2 mg/kg or greater. Liposomal encapsulation of AZT and administration at 2 mg/kg abrogated the toxicity of AZT. The neutrophil inflammatory response to thioglycollate injected intraperitoneally was significantly inhibited by AZT at all doses, whereas liposomal AZT was without effect. The inhibitory activity of AZT against Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was reduced on liposomal encapsulation of AZT, while treatment of mice with liposomal AZT but not free AZT resulted in a significant reduction of Con A-stimulated proliferation. Liposomal AZT was more effective than AZT in preventing the development of plasma reverse transcriptase activity and the depletion of Thy 1.2(+)-L3T4+ T cells after infection of mice with LP-BM5 retrovirus. These results indicate that AZT-induced hematopoietic toxicity may not be a limiting factor for antiviral therapy, and that the use of liposomes to deliver AZT results in enhanced antiretroviral activity in mice.

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To describe the extent of adherence to the recommended neonatal zidovudine (ZDV) regimen administered to infants who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to determine which maternal factors are associated with compliance.

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Pectin and alginate nanoparticles were prepared by applying a salting out and controlled gelification approach, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized by attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and were further evaluated for zidovudine (AZT) entrapment efficiency. Multipolymeric scaffolds were prepared by crosslinking carboxymethyl cellulose, polyethylene oxide and epsilon caprolactone for entrapment of zidovudine-loaded alginate nanoparticles to impart enhanced controlled release of zidovudine over the time period. Swelling and textural analysis were conducted on the scaffolds. Prepared scaffolds were treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to reduce the swelling of matrix in the hydrated environment thereby further controlling the drug release. Drug release studies in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4, 37°C) were undertaken on both zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles and native scaffolds containing alginate nanoparticles.

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Multiple nucleoside resistance involves specific mutational patterns of the HIV-1 pol gene that are independent of the classic mutations conferring resistance to individual dideoxynucleosides. These include a cluster of five mutations in the reverse-transcriptase (RT) coding region (A62V, V75I, F77L, F116Y, and Q151M) generally referred to as multidrug resistance (MDR) mutations, and insertions of one or several amino acid residues between codons 67 and 70 of RT, a flexible region joining two antiparrallel beta sheets (beta3-beta4 insertions). The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of multidrug resistance genotypes (MDR mutations and beta3-beta4 insertions) in a cohort of 632 patients who were extensively pretreated with anti-HIV drugs and not responding to their current antiretroviral therapy, and (ii) to analyze the association of multidrug resistance genotypes with other resistance mutations in the RT and protease genes. Among viruses sequenced from these patients, 15 (2.4%) of them contained an insertion and 2 (0.3%) contained a deletion in the beta3-beta4 finger subdomain of RT. In 9 cases, the insertion was associated with a D67S, G, or E mutation. In addition, we identified 13 (2.1%) viruses harboring specific MDR mutations (mainly Q151M and/or A62V, V75I, F116Y). Interestingly, the A62V mutation was found in 6 of the 15 strains with an insertion, whereas the other MDR mutations were not observed in insertion mutant strains. Especially high levels of resistance to zidovudine were observed for viruses with a beta3-beta4 insertion in the background of A62V, L210W, and T215Y. Otherwise, MDR mutations and beta3-beta4 insertions were found in association with the classic mutations conferring resistance to zidovudine, lamivudine, nonnucleoside RT inhibitors, and protease inhibitors, according to treatment history. Finally, we observed a genome with a deletion of codon 70 associated with a Q151M MDR mutation. These data suggest that the emergence of HIV-1 multidrug resistance, which may occur in various genetic contexts, poses a challenging problem in formulating treatment strategies.

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In South Africa, a pregnant woman infected with HIV took zidovudine to protect her fetus, but the child later developed HIV because the woman was not told about breast milk transmission. Women in developing countries have been hit hard by the AIDS epidemic because social inequalities that make it impossible for them to negotiate for safer sex or even to choose their sexual partners. In most developing countries, the only treatment women have access to is the zidovudine that is available only during their participation in clinical trials on prenatal transmission. Activists have expressed concern over programs that attempt to save the lives of babies with no regard for their mothers or other women. Women with HIV need access to health care, to information, and to counselors who can help them make choices. Women must be able to assess whether to risk breast feeding or attempt costly bottle feeding, which may lead to higher levels of infant mortality from bacteria in contaminated water. Women must also be educated so that they can protect their sexual health. In some settings, the topics of sex and sexuality still must be introduced into public discourse. Strong prevention programs are reducing HIV-infection rates among young women in parts of Tanzania, among pregnant women and prostitutes in Dakar, among prostitutes in Thailand and Nepal, and among street children in Brazil. Effective programs must consider AIDS a social issue and address education, equality, and information access.

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In long-term follow-up studies, irregular longitudinal data are observed when individuals are assessed repeatedly over time but at uncommon and irregularly spaced time points. Modeling the covariance structure for this type of data is challenging, as it requires specification of a covariance function that is positive definite. Moreover, in certain settings, careful modeling of the covariance structure for irregular longitudinal data can be crucial in order to ensure no bias arises in the mean structure. Two common settings where this occurs are studies with 'outcome-dependent follow-up' and studies with 'ignorable missing data'. 'Outcome-dependent follow-up' occurs when individuals with a history of poor health outcomes had more follow-up measurements, and the intervals between the repeated measurements were shorter. When the follow-up time process only depends on previous outcomes, likelihood-based methods can still provide consistent estimates of the regression parameters, given that both the mean and covariance structures of the irregular longitudinal data are correctly specified and no model for the follow-up time process is required. For 'ignorable missing data', the missing data mechanism does not need to be specified, but valid likelihood-based inference requires correct specification of the covariance structure. In both cases, flexible modeling approaches for the covariance structure are essential. In this paper, we develop a flexible approach to modeling the covariance structure for irregular continuous longitudinal data using the partial autocorrelation function and the variance function. In particular, we propose semiparametric non-stationary partial autocorrelation function models, which do not suffer from complex positive definiteness restrictions like the autocorrelation function. We describe a Bayesian approach, discuss computational issues, and apply the proposed methods to CD4 count data from a pediatric AIDS clinical trial.

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Background.  Existing data on anthropomorphic changes in resource-limited settings primarily come from observational or cross-sectional studies. Data from randomized clinical trials are needed to inform treatment decisions in these areas of the world. Methods.  The AIDS Clinical Trials Group Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings (PEARLS) study was a prospective, randomized evaluation of the efficacy of emtricitabine/tenofovir + efavirenz (FTC/TDF + EFV) vs lamivudine/zidovudine + efavirenz (3TC/ZDV + EFV) for the initial treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected individuals from resource-diverse settings. Changes in anthropomorphic measures were analyzed using mixed-effect models for repeated measurements, using all available measurements at weeks 48, 96, and 144. Intent-to-treat results are presented; as-treated results were similar. Results.  Five hundred twenty-six participants were randomized to FTC/TDF + EFV, and 519 participants were randomized to 3TC/ZDV + EFV. Significantly greater increases from baseline to week 144 were seen among those randomized to FTC/TDF + EFV vs 3TC/ZDV + EFV in all measures except waist-to-hip ratio, with the following mean changes: weight, 4.8 vs 3.0 kg; body mass index, 1.8 vs 1.1 kg/m(2); mid-arm, 1.7 vs 0.7 cm; waist, 5.2 vs 4.3 cm; hip, 3.8 vs 1.4 cm; and mid-thigh circumference, 3.1 vs 0.9 cm. There were 7 clinical diagnoses of lipoatrophy in the 3TC/ZDV + EFV arm compared with none in the FTC/TDF + EFV arm. The proportion of overweight or obese participants increased from 25% (week 0) to 42% (week 144) for FTC/TDF + EFV and from 26% to 38% for 3TC/ZDV + EFV. Conclusions.  Our findings support first-line use of FTC/TDF + EFV in resource-limited settings and emphasize the need for interventions to limit weight gain among overweight or obese HIV-infected participants in all settings.

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We collected reports of BBF exposures among HCWs occurring from January 2001 to December 2003 at a 2000-bed tertiary care medical center in northern Taiwan. HCWs were requested to report BBF exposures immediately after each exposure, which required completing a report sheet of questions concerning the exposure. The HCW was also required to visit an infectious diseases specialist who would decide on the appropriate management in each case.

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A group of 116 antiretroviral naive patients, with CD4 cell counts 100-500 x 10(6) cells/l, were randomized to: AZT 200 mg three times daily plus ddC 0.75 mg three times daily versus AZT 100 mg three times daily plus ddC 0.375 mg three times daily and followed-up regularly for 48 weeks.

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To assess the durability of the antiretroviral effect in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of antiviral therapy intensification, produced by the addition of indinavir from week 12 onwards to the original regimen of zidovudine/lamivudine or stavudine/lamivudine, after 72 weeks of follow-up using an ultrasensitive HIV-1 RNA assay. To assess CSF concentrations of indinavir at week 48.

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Renal metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes is central to the clearance of many drugs. However, significant discrepancies about the relative abundance and activity of individual UGT enzymes in the normal kidney prevail among reports, whereas glucuronidation in tumoral kidney has not been examined. In this study, we performed an extensive profiling of glucuronidation metabolism in normal (n = 12) and tumor (n = 14) kidneys using targeted mass spectrometry quantification of human UGTs. We then correlated UGT protein concentrations with mRNA levels assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and with conjugation activity for the major renal UGTs. Beyond the wide interindividual variability in expression levels observed among kidney samples, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and UGT1A6 are the most abundant renal UGTs in both normal and tumoral tissues based on protein quantification. In normal kidney tissues, only UGT1A9 protein levels correlated with mRNA levels, whereas UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 quantification correlated significantly with their mRNA levels in tumor kidneys. Data support that posttranscriptional regulation of UGT2B7 and UGT1A6 expression is modulating glucuronidation in the kidney. Importantly, our study reveals a significant decreased glucuronidation capacity of neoplastic kidneys versus normal kidneys that is paralleled by drastically reduced UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 mRNA and protein expression. UGT2B7 activity is the most repressed in tumors relative to normal tissues, with a 96-fold decrease in zidovudine metabolism, whereas propofol and sorafenib glucuronidation is decreased by 7.6- and 5.2-fold, respectively. Findings demonstrate that renal drug metabolism is predominantly mediated by UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 and is greatly reduced in kidney tumors.

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Many children with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have chronic problems with growth and nutrition, yet limited information is available to identify infected children at high risk for growth abnormalities. Using data from the prospective, multicenter P2C2 HIV study, we evaluated the relationships between maternal and infant clinical and laboratory factors and impaired growth in this cohort.

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Four clinical research units.

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A trend toward oropharyngeal bacterial colonization was observed in formula-fed infants. Although viruses were most commonly detected during pneumonia, respiratory colonization by Gram-negative bacteria may have contributed to pneumonia in formula-fed infants.

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Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since the analogue 5-fluorouracil increases Candida albicans virulence in vitro, and zidovudine therapy is associated with enhanced C. albicans adherence and biofilm formation, we investigated the effects of commonly used NRTIs on the virulence of C. albicans isolated from 21 antiretroviral-naïve HIV/AIDS patients. The isolates were exposed to didanosine, lamivudine, stavudine and zidovudine at their expected patient serum peak levels and at one-half and two times these levels for 24h and 72 h. Assays assessing changes in adherence, proliferation, biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility were performed. No differences in these virulence characteristics of isolates exposed to NRTIs were noted in most cases. However, at 24h and 72 h a significant increase in the rate of proliferation was observed in response to two-fold the peak concentration of lamivudine. The results suggest a limited effect of NRTIs on C. albicans virulence.

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to study trends in mortality and survival in patients with AIDS attending an ID unit.

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We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r) have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase quantities of six specific drugs: patented lopinavir/r, efavirenz, tenofovir, atazanavir, enfuvirtide, and a locally produced generic, fixed-dose combination of zidovudine and lamivudine (AZT/3TC). Because prices declined for many of the patented drugs that constitute the largest share of drug costs, nearly the entire increase in overall drug expenditures between 2001 and 2005 is attributable to increases in drug quantities. Had all drug quantities been held constant from 2001 until 2005 (or for those drugs entering treatment guidelines after 2001, held constant between the year of introduction and 2005), total costs would have increased by only an estimated US$7 million. We estimate that in the absence of price declines for patented drugs, Brazil would have spent a cumulative total of US$2 billion on drugs for HAART between 2001 and 2005, implying a savings of US$1.2 billion from price declines. Finally, in comparing Brazilian prices for locally produced generic ARVs to the lowest international prices meeting global pharmaceutical quality standards, we find that current prices for Brazil's locally produced generics are generally much higher than corresponding global prices, and note that these prices have risen in Brazil while declining globally. We estimate the excess costs of Brazil's locally produced generics totaled US$110 million from 2001 to 2005.

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These models were used to derive clinical cutoffs (CCOs) for 6 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (zidovudine, lamivudine, stavudine, didanosine, abacavir, and tenofovir), 3 unboosted protease inhibitors (PIs; indinavir, amprenavir, and nelfinavir), and 4 ritonavir-boosted PIs (indinavir/ritonavir, amprenavir/ritonavir, saquinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir). The CCOs were defined as the phenotypic resistance levels (fold change [FC]) associated with a 20% and 80% loss of predicted wild-type drug effect and depended on the drug-specific dynamic range of the assay.

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The effects of vehicles and enhancers on the skin permeation of the dideoxynucleoside-type anti-HIV drugs Zalcitabine (DDC), Didanosine (DDI), and Zidovudine (AZT) were studied using hairless rat skin at 37 degrees C. After each drug was saturated in various volume fractions of ethanol (EtOH)/water or EtOH/tricaprylin (TCP) cosolvent system for 48 h at 37 degrees C, an in vitro skin permeation study was conducted using Valia-Chien permeation cells for 30 h. The skin permeation rates of DDC, DDI, and AZT from both EtOH/water and EtOH/TCP cosolvent systems increased as the volume fraction of ethanol was increased, reached maximum values at 50-60% (v/v) of ethanol, and then decreased with further increase of ethanol volume fraction. The EtOH/water cosolvent system seems to enhance the skin permeation of these drugs by increasing both the solubility of drug in the vehicles and partitioning of drug into the skin. The skin permeation enhancing effect of EtOH/TCP seems to be solely due to the increase in partitioning of drug into the skin. Addition of 1.0% (v/v) of permeation enhancers, such as oleic acid (OA) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), in the EtOH/TCP (50:50) cosolvent system could not significantly increase the permeation rate of these drugs. Incorporation of viscous TCP into ethanol probably reduced the thermodynamic activity of enhancers to distribute from the vehicle to the skin. However, incorporation of 1.0% (v/v) of OA in the EtOH/water (60:40) cosolvent system dramatically enhanced the skin permeation of these drugs while reducing the lag time. The permeation rates of these drugs increased as OA concentration was increased up to 0.3% (v/v) in the EtOH/water (60:40) cosolvent system and reached a plateau with further addition of OA. Using a saturated solution in the EtOH/water (60:40) cosolvent system containing 1.0% (v/v) OA, DDC, and AZT reached the target permeation rate required to maintain a therapeutic system level across hairless rat skin. Although only DDC reached the target permeation rate across human cadaver skin, these results suggest that the mutual enhancement effect of ethanol and OA may make transdermal delivery of dideoxynucleoside-type anti-HIV drugs feasible.

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A multicenter case-control study of children with HIV at 26 institutions participating in the Pediatric Oncology Group. Forty-three case patients with a new malignancy and 74 control patients without a malignancy were matched based on the duration of their infection. Patients were enrolled between January 1992 and July 1998.

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retrovir medication 2016-05-22

Healthcare resource use data were collected for 1 year as part of the CAESAR (Canada, Australia, Europe, South Africa) clinical trial, which evaluated the effect of adding lamivudine to treatment regimens containing zidovudine in patients with HIV infection. This study showed that lamivudine-containing regimens reduced HIV disease progression buy retrovir to AIDS or death, in addition to significantly reducing the number of hospital stays, unscheduled outpatient visits, and medications for HIV-related illness. Estimates of US unit costs for each healthcare service were derived from nationally representative data sources, and were used to determine the costs of treatment during the trial period for the treatment and control groups.

retrovir generic name 2016-03-09

We studied the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) and interleukin 3 (IL-3), either alone or in combination, on the hematopoietic toxicity associated with zidovudine in vivo, as determined by peripheral blood indices, and assay of hematopoietic progenitors, i.e. erythroid (CFU-E/BFU-E), myeloid (CFU-GM) and megakaryocyte (CFU-Meg) from bone marrow and spleen. Previous studies from this laboratory have established that dose escalation of zidovudine to normal mice induced a dose-dependent decrease in hematocrit, white blood cells and platelets with altered populations of marrow and splenic erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocyte progenitors. Daily administration of EPO (50 U/animal, i.p.) and/or IL-3 (5 U/animal, i.p.) was associated with altered peripheral blood indices and progenitor cells. In general, use of EPO and IL-3 alone reduced zidovudine-induced toxicity, notably in erythropoiesis; however, combination EPO/IL-3 was associated with enhanced toxicity with an observed rebound only with the use of < 2.5 mg/ml drug; 2.5 mg buy retrovir /ml drug in the presence of combination EPO/IL-3 accelerated zidovudine-erythroid toxicity. A similar response was noted with circulating platelets and megakaryocyte progenitors. Use of EPO or IL-3, either alone or in combination, failed to reverse zidovudine-induced neutropenia. These studies demonstrate that use of EPO or IL-3, either alone or in combination may serve as an effective adjuvant therapy to modulate the erythroid toxicity associated with lower doses of zidovudine; however, this cytokine therapy was ineffective modulating zidovudine-induced myelosuppression when used in vivo. A reversal in zidovudine-induced myeloid toxicity, therefore may require the use of a myelopoiesis inducing cytokine.

retrovir drug class 2016-04-25

Potent antiretroviral therapy can reduce plasma HIV RNA levels below the threshold of detection for periods of a year or more. The magnitude of HIV RNA reduction in the lymphoid tissue in patients with suppression of HIV RNA levels in plasma beyond 6 months has not been determined. We evaluated levels of HIV RNA and DNA and characterized resistance mutations in blood and inguinal lymph node biopsies obtained from 10 HIV-infected subjects who received 36-52 weeks of indinavir (IDV)/zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC), IDV, or ZDV/3TC. After 1 year of therapy, viral RNA levels in LN of individuals remained detectable but were log10 = 4 lower than in subjects on the triple drug regimen with interruption of therapy or in those treated with ZDV/3TC alone, who had viral loads in their lymph nodes indistinguishable from those expected for untreated patients. In all cases viral DNA remained detectable in lymph nodes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). When plasma virus suppression was incomplete, lymph node and PBMC cultures were positive and drug resistance developed. These studies indicate that pronounced and sustained suppression of plasma viremia by a potent antiretroviral combination is associated with low HIV RNA levels in the lymph nodes 1 year after treatment. Conversely, the persistence of even modest levels of plasma virus after 1 year buy retrovir of treatment reflects ongoing viral replication, the emergence of drug resistance, and the maintenance of high burdens of virus in the lymph nodes.

retrovir drug 2017-10-21

A stop codon defect in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (resulting in a truncated unstable protein) accounts for up to 14% of mutations identified as causes of Methylmalonic aciduria. There are buy retrovir currently limited treatment regimes for patients with this inherited condition. We aimed to investigate the use of stop codon read-through drugs in a genomic reporter assay cell line with a defect in the mutase gene. A single C-T base change was introduced into exon 6 of the human MUT sequence in the BAC clone RP11-463L20 resulting in an arginine residue being replaced with a TGA stop codon. An enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene was introduced in-frame with exon 13 of the MUT gene. The construct was transfected into HeLa cells to produce the genomic reporter assay cell line. To test the suppression of nonsense mutations, cells were incubated in the presence of different compounds for a period of 72 h then analysed by flow cytometry. Treatment of the cells with gentamicin resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in reporter protein, whilst G418 treatment resulted in no change, however the two drugs together acted synergistically to increase the production of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase 2.0-fold (confirmed by mRNA, flow cytometry and enzyme activity). Zidovudine, adefovir and cisplatin were also found to have some activity in the stop codon read-through genomic reporter assay. These results encourage further testing of compounds as well as follow up animal studies. This is the first study to demonstrate the use of stop codon read-through drugs for the potential treatment of Methylmalonic aciduria.

retrovir drug name 2017-03-16

The overall goal of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which nucleosides are transported in choroid plexus. Choroid plexus tissue slices obtained from rabbit brain were depleted of ATP with 2,4-dinitrophenol. Uridine and thymidine accumulated in the slices against a concentration gradient in the presence of an inwardly directed Na+ gradient. The Na(+)-driven uptake of uridine and thymidine was saturable with Km values of 18.1 +/- 2.0 and 13.0 +/- 2.3 microM and Vmax values of 5.5 +/- 0.3 and 1.0 +/- 0.2 nmol/g/s, respectively. Na(+)-driven uridine uptake was inhibited by naturally occurring ribo- and deoxyribonucleosides (adenosine, cytidine, and thymidine) but not by synthetic nucleoside analogs (dideoxyadenosine, dideoxycytidine, cytidine arabinoside, and 3'-azidothymidine). Both purine (guanosine, inosine, formycin B) and pyrimidine nucleosides (uridine and cytidine) were potent inhibitors of buy retrovir Na(+)-thymidine transport with IC50 values ranging between 5 and 23 microM. Formycin B competitively inhibited Na(+)-thymidine uptake and thymidine trans-stimulated formycin B uptake. These data suggest that both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides are substrates of the same system. The stoichiometric coupling ratios between Na+ and the nucleosides, guanosine, uridine, and thymidine, were 1.87 +/- 0.10, 1.99 +/- 0.35, and 2.07 +/- 0.09, respectively. The system differs from Na(+)-nucleoside co-transport systems in other tissues which are generally selective for either purine or pyrimidine nucleosides and which have stoichiometric ratios of 1. This study represents the first direct demonstration of a unique Na(+)-nucleoside co-transport system in choroid plexus.

retrovir dosage 2017-05-07

There were hearing alterations in children with HIV/AIDS analyzed in this study. Discreet hearing losses were the most occurring. We verified statistically significant associations with the use of antiretroviral therapy buy retrovir and otitis. Therefore, we point out the importance of auditory monitoring and intervention as soon as possible, thus favoring adequate development in language and decreasing possible difficulties in learning and social inclusion.

retrovir cost 2017-04-10

Descriptive case series. buy retrovir

buy retrovir 2017-09-21

An efficient synthetic method of nucleoside-5'-(1-hydroxymethylene-1,1-bisphosphonates) is reported here. The procedure was optimized with 3'-protected thymidine and then applied to buy retrovir synthesis of new AZT analogues.

retrovir dose 2015-11-05

Substudy within a randomized, multinational trial comparing continuing zidovudine/ lamivudine with switching to tenofovir/ emtricitabine in patients with suppressed HIV-1 infection. Accuracy (defined as the mean difference between eGFR and mGFR) and precision (defined as standard deviation (SD) of the mean difference between eGFR and mGFR) of the eGFRs were calculated using linear regression and Bland & Altman analysis. buy retrovir

retrovir capsules 2015-07-05

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are antiretrovirals for AIDS with limiting mitochondrial side effects. The mitochondrial deoxynucleotide carrier (DNC) transports phosphorylated nucleosides for mitochondrial DNA replication and can transport phosphorylated NRTIs into mitochondria. Transgenic mice (TG) that exclusively overexpress DNC in the heart tested DNC's role in mitochondrial dysfunction from NRTIs. Two TG lines were created that overexpressed the human DNC gene in murine myocardium. Cardiac and mitochondrial structure and function were examined by magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, electrocardiography, transmission electron microscopy, and plasma lactate. Antiretroviral combinations (HAART) that contained NRTIs (stavudine (2', 3'-didehydro-2', 3'-deoxythymidine or d4T)/lamivudine/indinavir; or zidovudine (3' azido-3'-deoxythymidine or AZT)/lamivudine/indinavir; 35 days) were administered to simulate AIDS therapy. In parallel, a HAART combination without NRTIs (nevirapine/efavirenz/indinavir; 35 days) served as an NRTI-sparing, control regimen. Untreated DNC TGs exhibited normal cardiac function but abnormal mitochondrial ultrastructure. HAART that contained NRTIs caused buy retrovir cardiomyopathy in TGs with increased left ventricle mass and volume, heart rate variability, and worse mitochondrial ultrastructural defects. In contrast, treatment with an NRTI-sparing HAART regimen caused no cardiac changes. Data suggest the DNC is integral to mitochondrial homeostasis in vivo and may relate mechanistically to mitochondrial dysfunction in patients treated with HAART regimens that contain NRTIs.

retrovir 200 mg 2015-01-18

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that uses its internal RNA moiety as a template for synthesis of telomere repeats. To clarify the susceptibility of telomerase to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RT), we investigated the inhibitory effects of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate (AZTTP), which is known to be a potent HIV-1 RT inhibitor, and acyclovir triphosphate (ACVTP). Lineweaver-Burk plot analyses showed that the inhibition mode of these compounds was competitive with the substrate dNTP counterpart. However, inhibition by AZTTP was weak (Ki = 15 microM, Km of dTTP = 7.1 microM). Interestingly, ACVTP showed considerable inhibition. buy retrovir The Ki value of ACVTP was 5.0 microM, being smaller than the Km of dGTP (12 microM).

retrovir syrup dosage 2017-02-20

the adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy was improved with the application of the proposed pharmacological strategy buy retrovir to avoid side effects and dangerous drug interactions.

retrovir drug interactions 2017-02-07

A high rate of premature discontinuations contributed Mobic Generic to the overall suboptimal virologic response to ABC/3TC/ZDV+TDF qd; however, the regimen was not associated with high rates of virologic failure previously observed with TDF+ABC/3TC.

retrovir oral suspension 2017-07-08

Recently, cases of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) have been reported associated with infection due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We Lioresal Alcohol Dependence presented the cases of three males, former ethanol users, and which have had previously a contact with the Hepatitis B virus. In one of the patients symptomatology appeared after treatment with zidovudine was begun. We suggest that HIV infection associated with other toxic or viral factors could contribute to the early development of a PCT latent until that moment.

retrovir tablets 2017-09-08

Male, neutered cats Hyzaar Pill Identifier approximately 7 months of age (n = 12).

retrovir dosing 2015-07-12

From baseline to 90 days after initiation of cART, the prevalence of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<1.04 mmol/L for men and <1.30 mmol/L for women) significantly decreased (78.8% vs. 34.8%, P<0.001) while elevated total cholesterol (TC ≥5.18 mmol/L, 5.1% vs. 11.9%, P=0.03) and the Nexium Tablet 40mg homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance ≥3.0 (1.7% vs. 17.0%, P<0.001) significantly increased. The prevalence of TC:HDL-c ratio ≥5.0 significantly decreased (44.9% vs. 6.8%, P<0.001). These changes in cardiometabolic risk markers were independent of the cART regimen.

retrovir syrup 2015-03-21

Zidovudine elimination kinetics undergo large increases during the first months of life, and the pattern of maturation is different in Amoxil 1g Dosage term and preterm infants. Higher bioavailability in younger infants is consistent with decreased first-pass metabolism associated with reduced clearance.

retrovir tablets spc 2016-01-16

We evaluated the changes in renal parameters in 1111 Voltaren Tablets Price patients (TDF, n = 556; control, n = 555) who were enrolled in two randomized, controlled trials (Studies 903 and 934) comparing TDF vs. either stavudine or zidovudine in combination with efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. The studies included patients with serum creatinine less than 1.5 mg/dl, serum phosphorus at least 2.2 mg/dl and estimated glomerular filtration rate by Cockcroft-Gault at least 60 and at least 50 ml/min at screening.

retrovir generic 2017-02-22

Despite a low rate of therapeutic failure (4%) among these patients, those who failed possessed high numbers of resistance mutations as well as novel resistance mutations and/or polymorphisms at sites within reverse transcriptase and protease. Diovan Dosing

retrovir syrup zidovudine 2016-11-01

Vertical transmission of HIV infection constitutes one of the most sensitive pillars of the current pandemic of this disease. This article carries out a report of the nine Cuban children who acquired this way the infection and Uroxatral And Alcohol died between 1986 and 2006. Prophylactic management of the cases and the clinical and anatomic pathological manifestations of those in whom autopsy was performed are described. The average gestational age was of 37.6 weeks, four of the pregnancies were captured late. Six children were born by caesarean section and in all transmission were presumably intrauterine. The average birth weight was 2786 grams. Four mother-sibling binomial received prophylaxis with AZT. The autopsy was carried out only in 4 children.

retrovir pediatric dosing 2016-03-06

Despite the well-established benefits of antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent vertical transmission of HIV, some physicians in Alabama have been slow to adopt universal testing Cordarone Oral Dose of their pregnant patients for HIV in the prenatal period. Practitioner education is as important as patient education in eliminating pediatric HIV in the Deep South.

retrovir medicine 2017-02-28

This strategy of evaluating patients on first-line ART before changing to TDF was feasible and identified a small proportion with ART failure, and could be considered by HIV/AIDS programs in Myanmar and other countries.

retrovir dosage forms 2017-10-01

Seven 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides synthesized by substitution of nucleosides using nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase from Lactobacillus leichmanii were tested for their anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity. Two of them, including 2,6-diaminopurine-2',3'-dideoxyriboside (DAPDDR) and 6-chlorpurine-2',3'-dideoxyriboside (CPDDR) demonstrated high antiviral activity against several strains of HIV-1 and one strain of HIV-2. The selectivity index of the drugs (SI; ratio of the drug concentration required for 50% of cell killing to drug concentration required to inhibit 50% of virus-induced cell killing) was established by application of tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. SI ranged for different HIV strains from 501 to 850 and from 60 to 118 for DAPDDR and CPDDR, respectively. Both DAPDDR and CPDDR retained their antiviral activity against HIV-1 strain D148/88 which was resistant to Zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, AZT). Assays for clonal growth of human bone marrow cells in semisolid fibrin clot culture medium demonstrated that DAPDDR possesses significantly lower inhibitory activity for erythroid (BFU-E), multipotent (GEMM-CFC) and granulocyte-monocyte (GM-CFC) bone marrow progenitor cells than CPDDR or AZT. These results suggest that DAPDDR is a nucleoside analog which should be further tested as an anti-HIV compound especially in combination with other anti-retroviral drugs.

retrovir brand name 2017-05-27

The mean time-weighted reductions in plasma HIV RNA in the AZT+3TC+NVP, d4T+3TC+NVP, and d4T+ddI+NVP groups were 1.29, 2.13, and 1.78 log(10) copies/mL, respectively (p =.389). The proportions of patients with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL in the AZT+3TC+NVP, d4T+3TC+NVP, and d4T+ddI+NVP groups were 73%, 68%, and 80%, respectively (p =.71). The mean time-weighted increases in CD4+ T-cell counts in the AZT+3TC+NVP, d4T+3TC+NVP, and d4T+ddI+NVP groups were 139, 113, and 174 cells/microL, respectively (p =.30). Three patients ceased assigned treatment due to rash (one from each treatment arm), and 5 of the 45 patients on d4T (3 from the d4T+3TC+NVP arm and 2 from the d4T+ddI+NVP arm) ceased assigned treatment due to neuropathy.

cost of retrovir 2016-11-26

The overall prevalence of anemia (defined as hemoglobin < 11 gm/dL) was 66%, and 8% had severe anemia (Hb < 7 gm/dL). The proportion of underweight and stunted children in the population was 55% and 46% respectively. Independent risk factors of anemia by multivariate analysis included the pre-school age group (age younger than 6 years) (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.70; p < 0.01), rural residence (OR: 12.04; 95% CI: 5.64, 26.00; p < 0.01), advanced HIV disease stage (OR: 6.95; 95% CI: 3.06, 15.79; p < 0.01) and presence of stunting (Height-for-age Z Score < -2) (OR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.65, 6.35; p < 0.01). Use of iron/multivitamin supplementation was protective against risk of anemia (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.90; p = 0.03). Pulmonary tuberculosis was an independent risk factor in multivariate analysis (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.43, 7.89; p < 0.01) when correlated variables such as HIV disease stage and severe immunodeficiency, and nutritional supplement use were not included. Use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was associated with a reduced risk of anemia (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.53; p < 0.01). No significant association was found between anemia and gender, cotrimoxazole, or ART type (zidovudine versus stavudine).

retrovir 300 mg 2015-11-22

In most HIV-infected patients with prior antiretroviral therapy, the combination of indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine reduces levels of HIV RNA to less than 500 copies per milliliter for as long as one year.

retrovir 250 mg 2016-04-05

HIV-infected pregnant women were randomized to receive sdNVP and either zidovudine/lamivudine (3TC), tenofovir/emtricitabine (FTC), or lopinavir/ritonavir for either 7 or 21 days. The primary endpoint was the emergence of new NVP resistance mutations as detected by standard population genotype at 2 and 6 weeks after treatment. Low-frequency NVP- or 3TC/FTC-resistant mutants at codons 103, 181, and 184 were sought using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASP).

retrovir overdose 2016-03-10

Zidovudine delays the progression of infection and prolongs the survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but these benefits are limited by dose-related toxicity and the cost of the drug. Dipyridamole, in micromolar concentrations, acts synergistically with zidovudine, reducing the anti-HIV 95% inhibitory concentration of zidovudine 5- to 10-fold in vitro. We sought to establish a well-tolerated dose of dipyridamole for use in combination with zidovudine and to detect clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions. Both objectives are essential for planning studies of the efficacy of the zidovudine-dipyridamole combination. Eleven asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects (median CD4+ cell count, 311 cells per mm3), 10 of whom had been on zidovudine at 500 mg/day for at least 6 months, were admitted to the study. Zidovudine pharmacokinetics were measured on day 1. Dipyridamole was then begun at 600 mg/day (subjects 1 to 3) or 450 mg/day (subjects 4 to 11), and zidovudine and dipyridamole pharmacokinetics were measured on day 5. All subjects given 600 mg of dipyridamole per day developed headache or nausea, or both. Six of eight subjects given dipyridamole at 450 mg/day developed headache or mild nausea that resolved after a median of 2 days. The area under the zidovudine concentration-time curve was not significantly different on day 1 in comparison with that on day 5 (P = 0.11). Symptoms were significantly correlated with the maximum zidovudine concentrations, which were achieved when dipyridamole was dosed concomitantly (p = 0.03). Total (free and protein-bound) dipyridamole trough concentrations were near those demonstrating synergy with zidovudine against HIV in vitro. Dipyridamole was highly protein bound, with a median free/total dipyridamole ratio of 0.7%; the percent free/total dipyridamole ratio was inversely correlated with alpha 1 acid glycoprotein concentrations (r2 =0.66). Results of the study indicate that adjustment of the zidovudine dose was not required to achieve equivalent zidovudine concentrations when zidovudine was administered in combination with dipyridamole at the doses studied. In the short study described here, the zidovudine-dipyridamole combinations was well tolerated in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects after the occurrence of mild transient symptoms.

retrovir medication 2017-05-12

The efficacy and tolerance of switching from zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) in clinically stable HIV-infected children with incomplete viral suppression to stavudine (d4T), nevirapine (NVP) and ritonavir (RTV) has not been determined. Aim. To evaluate the safety, tolerance, antiviral activity and immunologic changes after the change to a three drug combination.