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Rulide (Roxythromycin)

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Generic Rulide is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria (acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dificid, Zmax, Biaxin XL, Zithromax


Also known as:  Roxythromycin.


Generic Rulide belongs to macrolides group of antibiotics which are prescribed for treating serious bacterial infections such as acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin). It acts on the bacteria which causes the above mention bacterial infections caused by the bacteria. It kills completely or slows the growth of these sensitive bacteria in our body.

Generic name of Generic Rulide is Roxithromycin.

Rulide is also known as Roxithromycin, Roximycin, Biaxsig, Roxar, Surlid.

Brand name of Generic Rulide is Rulide.


Take Generic Rulide by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

Swallow Generic Rulide tablets whole with a glass of water.

Generic Rulide should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than 3 hours after a meal).

Generic Rulide works best if you take it on an empty stomach.

For treating bacterial infections, Generic Rulide is usually taken for 5 to 10 days.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Rulide suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Rulide and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep in a tight, light-resistant container. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Rulide if you are allergic to Generic Rulide components.

Try to be careful with Generic Rulide if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Rulide taking suddenly.

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A rapid, selective and sensitive HPLC assay has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of clarithromycin, its 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin metabolite, and its decladinose acid degradation product, in small volumes of rat gastric juice aspirate, plasma and gastric tissue. Sample were extracted with n-hexane/2-butanol (4:1) and the internal standard was roxithromycin. A Kromasil ODS 5 micrometer(75x4.6 mm I.D.) column was used with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/aqueous phosphate buffer (pH 7, 0.086 M) (45:55 v/v). The column temperature was 30 degrees C and coulometric detection was used at 850 mV using a screen voltage of 600 mV. The analysis time was less than 8 min. The limits of quantitation for clarithromycin, 14-OH clarithromycin and decladinose clarithromycin were 0.15 microgram ml(-1) or lower in plasma (0.05 ml); 0.16 microgram ml(-1) or lower in gastric juice (0.2 ml); and 0.51 microgram g(-1) or lower for gastric tissue (0.25 g). The method was linear up to at least 20.3, 15.4 and 12.5 microgram ml(-1) for clarithromycin, 14-OH-clarithromycin and decladinose, respectively, in gastric juice aspirate and plasma and up to 40.6, 30.9 and 25.0 microgram g(-1) in gastric tissue. The assay was applied to the measurement of clarithromycin, 14-OH-clarithromycin and, for the first time, decladinose clarithromycin in pharmacokinetic studies of gastric transfer of clarithromycin in individual rats.

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Recently we found that certain antibiotics which are markedly concentrated by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) failed to kill susceptible, intraphagocytic Staphylococcus aureus, even though cellular drug levels were quite high. The possibility that specific antibiotics might adversely affect phagocyte antibacterial function was considered. Thus, we studied the effects of multiple antibiotics and adenosine, a known modulator of the PMN respiratory burst response, on neutrophil antibacterial function. At nontoxic concentrations, these drugs had no effect on degranulation in stimulated PMN. Adenosine was a potent inhibitor of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMPL)-stimulated superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation in PMN but produced less inhibition of microbial particle-induced respiratory burst activity. Three of the tested antibiotics, all of which reach high concentrations in phagocytic cells, had a marked modulatory effect on the PMN respiratory burst. Clindamycin, which enters phagocytes by the cell membrane adenosine (nucleoside) transport system, had only a modest effect on FMLP-mediated superoxide production but inhibited the microbial particle-induced response by approximately 50%. Roxithromycin and trimethoprim were efficient inhibitors of PMN superoxide generation stimulated by FMLP and concanavalin A (also inhibited by erythromycin) but had less effect on zymosan-mediated respiratory burst activity. Antibiotics which entered phagocytes less readily had no effect on the respiratory burst response in PMN. These results, as well as those of experiments with inhibitors of cell membrane nucleoside receptors, indicated that the antibiotic effect is mediated through intraphagocytic pathways. The possibility that antibiotic-associated inhibition of the PMN respiratory burst response might alter leukocyte antimicrobial and inflammatory function deserves further evaluation.

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We studied the clinical efficacy of roxithromycin (RXM) administered at the daily dosage of one tablet (150 mg) for 3 months in 30 patients with chronic sinusitis. The effectiveness of this drug was evaluated on a four-point scale. Subjective and objective symptoms disappeared or decreased markedly, especially postnasal drip and nature of discharge in 80 percent or more of the patients. All symptoms significantly decreased (P < 0.001; headache P < 0.05), except for the sensation of foul odor. Symptoms improved even in those cases in which Haemophilus influenzae was detected. It is suggested that RXM produce some clinically beneficial effect through an immunological and or anti-inflammatory mechanisms in addition to its antibiotic effect.

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Macrolide antibiotics are known for their efficacy in treating acute airway infections, but just as importantly, they are also effective anti-inflammatory agents. Their anti-inflammatory properties have been studied most thoroughly in chronic inflammatory airway diseases, particularly diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin inhibit chemotaxis and infiltration of neutrophils into the airway and, subsequently, decrease mucus secretion. Mucus formation, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic airway inflammation, is directly inhibited by macrolides and suppressed by decreased inflammation in the airway. The mechanisms of action for the anti-inflammatory properties of the macrolides are still being investigated, but they are clearly multifactorial. Macrolides inhibit the production of many proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, perhaps by suppressing the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB or activator protein-1. Inhibition of cytokine production has been seen in vitro and also in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which contains less IL-8 and fewer neutrophils after treatment with macrolides. Macrolides also inhibit formation of leukotriene B4, which attracts neutrophils, and inhibit the release of superoxide anion by neutrophils that may be present in the airway. An important aspect of inflammation is extravasation of neutrophils into the tissues. Macrolides block formation of adhesion molecules necessary for neutrophil migration. Together, these anti-inflammatory effects result in improved pulmonary functions and fewer airway infections. In patients with DPB, the anti-inflammatory effects lead to a significant increase in survival. Further work is needed to characterize the clinical benefits of macrolides in patients with other chronic inflammatory airway diseases.

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A fully automated high-throughput liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of roxithromycin in human plasma. The plasma samples were treated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) in 2.2 mL 96-deep-well plates. Roxithromycin and the internal standard clarithromycin were extracted from 100 microL of human plasma by LLE, using methyl t-butyl ether as the organic solvent. All liquid transfer steps were performed automatically using robotic liquid handling workstations. After vortexing, centrifugation and freezing, the supernatant organic solvent was evaporated and reconstituted. Sample analysis was performed by reversed-phase LC-MS/MS, with positive ion electrospray ionization, using multiple-reaction monitoring. The method had a very short chromatographic run time of 1.6 min. The calibration curve was linear for the range of concentrations 50.0-20.0x10(3) ng mL(-1). The proposed method was fully validated and it was proven to be selective, accurate, precise, reproducible and suitable for the determination of roxithromycin in human plasma. Therefore, it was applied to the rapid and reliable determination of roxithromycin in a bioequivalence study after per os administration of 300 mg tablet formulations of roxithromycin.

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Forty C pneumoniae seropositive men suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease were randomly assigned to receive either roxithromycin (300 mg daily) or placebo for 28 days. During the 2.7-year follow-up, the number of invasive revascularizations per patient, the walking distance before intervention (in patients without intervention at study end), and the change of carotid plaque size were assessed. Five interventions were performed on 4 patients (20%) in the roxithromycin group, and 29 interventions were performed on 9 patients (45%) in the placebo group. Limitation of walking distance to 200 m or less was observed in 4 patients (20%) in the roxithromycin group and in 13 patients (65%) in the placebo group. The effect of macrolide treatment on the number of interventions per patient and on preinterventional walking distance was significant. Possible confounding variables such as classical vascular risk factors were excluded by multiple regression analyses. Carotid plaque areas monitored over 6 months decreased in the roxithromycin group (mean relative value, 94.4%) but remained constant in the placebo group (100.2%). Regression of carotid plaque size observed in roxithromycin-treated patients was significant for soft plaques.

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The mean (+/- SD) pharmacokinetic parameters of lovastatin lactone with and without roxithromycin were maximum concentration (Cmax) 8.49+/-6.80/16.3+/-9.4 ng ml(-1), time to Cmax (tmax) 1.8+/-0.4/1.7+/-0.6 h, terminal plasma half-life (t1/2) 4.3+/-2.0/3.7+/-2.5 h, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) 53+/-60/85+/-67 ng ml(-1) h. The respective parameters of lovastatin acid were Cmax 24.6+/-13.4/17.8+/-11.0 ng ml(-1), tmax 3.7+/-1.1/4.1+/-0.7 h, t1/2 3.2+/-2.5/4.3+/-2.8 h, AUC0-infinity 149+/-123/105+/-58 ng ml(-1) h. Mean bioavailability of lovastatin lactone was lower and that of lovastatin acid was higher with concomitant treatment. However, the differences were significant only with respect to lovastatin lactone (AUC and Cmax) and Cmax of lovastatin acid.

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Cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK)/CCL27 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α/CCL20 are the major inflammatory chemokines involved in skin inflammation. The present study showed that roxithromycin (RXM) suppressed the TNFα-induced production of CCL27 and CCL20 in HaCaT keratinocytes and normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in a dose-dependent manner. The production of CCL20 induced by TNFα was suppressed by the addition of inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). RXM suppressed NFκB activity induced by TNFα. RXM, by regulating CCL27 and CCL20, may contribute to the modulation of inflammation.

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During the first year the mean annual expansion rate of AAA was reduced by 44% in the macrolid group (1.56 mm/year) compared to 2.80 mm/year after placebo (p = 0.02). During the second year the difference was only 5%. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that roxithromycin treatment and initial AAA size were significantly related to AAA expansion when adjusted for smoking, diastolic blood pressure, and IgA level > or = 20. The logistic regression analysis confirmed a significant difference in expansion rates above 2 mm annually between the intervention and placebo groups, OR = 0.09 (95% CI: 0.01-0.83).

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To determine the effectiveness of implementing clinical practice guidelines (CPG) on antibiotic prescribing for adults with upper respiratory infection (URI) in terms of the changes in diagnosis and prevalence and patterns of antibiotic prescribing.

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Comparison of efficacy and safety of sparfloxacin (Spfx) vs roxithromycin (ROXI) for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

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The macrolides are still widely used in general practice and the new 14- or 15 membered-ring compounds-roxithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, azithromycin -may offer a new development. Their antibacterial activity is similar to erythromycin but azithromycin is more active against Gram negative strams. Roxythromycin exhibits high serum concentrations; azithromycin and dirithromycin present low serum concentrations but prolonged half-lives allowing a reduction of the duration of treatment particularly for pharyngitis (azithromycin). Macrolides are less useful for otitis and sinusitis treatment since their activity against H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae are weak. The activity against atypical bacteria justify their choice as first line treatment for benign atypical pneumonia of healthy young adults and for sexually transmitted diseases. In AIDS, these compounds are indicated in mycobacteriosis (clarithromycin), bacillary angiomatosis and excavated pneumonia due to Rhodococcus equi. Clinical tolerance is very good, particularly the gastro-intestinal one. The reported drug interactions are those of this class of antibiotics.

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To make better the RP-HPLC method for the determination of roxithromycin(RM) in human serum.

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We evaluated the effects of a new semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, on the bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine in children with asthma. Twelve hospitalized asthmatic children, aged 11 to 15 years (mean age, 12.9 years), were enrolled in this study. They were treated with 150 mg of roxithromycin once a day orally for 8 weeks without any side effects. The PC20 value 4 or 8 weeks after the administration of roxithromycin increased significantly over the initial values (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). No significant change was observed in serum theophylline concentrations during this study. Serum cortisol level in the morning did not change after the administration of roxithromycin for 4 weeks. These results suggest that administration of roxithromycin may act favorably in the treatment of childhood asthma.

rulide child dose

Macrolides are well known for their high lipid solubility and good tissue penetration. The pharmacokinetic properties of roxithromycin, a new semisynthetic macrolide, appear to be very interesting in healthy adult patients. Five paediatric pharmacokinetic studies are summarized and show that the pharmacokinetic properties of roxithromycin in paediatrics are very similar to those previously reported in adults and suggest that the same dose every 12 h is appropriate in paediatrics, 2.5 mg/kg. The diffusion of roxithromycin into upper respiratory tract tissues appears to be good in children.

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This study was conducted to determine the rate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux of digoxin analogues and metabolites and to assess the effects of macrolide antibiotics on this efflux. Bidirectional transport studies were conducted using our Caco-2 sub clone with high P-gp expression (CLEFF9). HPLC methods were employed to measure drug transport. All digoxin metabolites were P-gp substrates, although digoxin had the greatest efflux ratio. Erythromycin had no effect on the transport of digoxin, maintaining a basolateral to apical efflux ratio of 14.8, although it did reduce the efflux ratio of dihydrodigoxin and digoxigenin by 34% and 43%, respectively. Azithromycin also had little effect on the transport of digoxin or any of its metabolites. In contrast, clarithromycin and roxithromycin almost eliminated basolateral targeted efflux. Using paclitaxel as a known P-gp substrate, erythromycin demonstrated only partial P-gp inhibitory capacity, maintaining an efflux ratio over 100. In contrast, clarithromycin and roxithromycin were 10-fold greater P-gp inhibitors. Clarithromycin and roxithromycin are likely to exhibit drug interactions with digoxin via inhibition of efflux mechanisms. Azithromycin appears to have little influence on P-gp-mediated digoxin absorption or excretion and would be the safest macrolide to use concurrently with oral digoxin.

rulide dosage

The in vitro activity of ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, doxycyclin, erythromycin and roxithromycin was determined against 73 recent clinical strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from genital infections. The MICs 90% were: 0.4; 0.1; 1.6; 0.2; 1.6 and 0.1 mg/l respectively. 100% of strains were susceptible to ofloxacin, roxithromycin and doxycyclin. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin had a lower in vitro activity against C. trachomatis.

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Macrolide treatment has been reported to lower the risk of recurrent ischaemic heart disease. The influence of macrolides on the expansion rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown. The aim was to investigate the effect of roxithromycin on the expansion rate of small AAAs.

rulide roxithromycin dosage

Roxithromycin is a new macrolide with an antibacterial spectrum similar to that of erythromycin. Absorption is rapid and complete, resulting in high serum levels and a long half-life. Tissue distribution is extensive and sustained, as shown by the high concentrations measured in the lung, prostate, ovaries, liver, kidney, and skin. In this study, we measured the penetration of roxithromycin into gingival tissue at steady state in 30 patients treated orally with 150 mg every 12 hr for 5 days. Tissue specimens were sampled at 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12 hr (n = 6 each time) after dose 10, and blood samples were taken simultaneously. Serum and tissue concentrations of roxithromycin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The peak serum level, reached 4 hr after dosing, was 6.60 +/- 1.15 micrograms/ml. The peak tissue level was 4.63 +/- 1.84 micrograms/g and was reached after 8 hr. From 4 to 10 hr after dosing, tissue concentrations were greater than 2 micrograms/g, that is, higher than the MIC90 of roxithromycin against most oral pathogens. These data support the use of roxithromycin in the treatment of oral infections.

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The susceptibility of 40 erythromycin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and 40 multiply-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to six macrolide antibiotics, representing 14-, 15- and 16-membered lactone ring structures, was tested. The genetic basis for macrolide resistance in the strains was also determined. Both erm and mef determinants were encountered in the 36 S. pneumoniae isolates tested, but only mef in the five S. pyogenes isolates tested. All isolates showed cross-resistance among the 14-membered macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin and the 15-membered macrolide, azithromycin. However, the erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes isolates retained full susceptibility to spiramycin and josamycin (16-membered agents). These latter two antibiotics were also more active than the other macrolides against erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates, especially josamycin which was 8-64 times more active than erythromycin; spiramycin was only two to eight times more active than erythromycin.

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This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of once-daily dosing with either roxithromycin or cefixime in previously healthy adult patients aged between 18 and 60 with markers of uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in three outpatient clinics in an open, randomized study. Sixty patients were enrolled: 17 males and 13 females received roxithromycin 300 mg once daily for 8-10 days and 22 males and eight females received 400 mg cefixime once daily for the same period. All patients were assessed clinically, radiologically and bacteriologically before inclusion, immediately after the study and approximately 1 month later. The most common pathogen isolated from sputum was Streptococcus pneumoniae (in 26 (43%) of 60 patients), with mixed organisms isolated from the sputum of 18 (30%) of 60 patients. Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis occurred in 11/60 patients, and atypical pathogens were detected by serology in 7/26 cases in the roxithromycin group and 3/23 in the cefixime group. The severity of infection was rated as mild to moderate at the beginning of the trial. At the end of the study treatment period, clinical cure rates were 30/30 (100%) for roxithromycin and 28/30 (94%) for cefixime, with one patient on cefixime being classed as a partial responder and one patient being classed as a failure and withdrawn. However, radiological abnormalities persisted in three patients on roxithromycin and one on cefixime. Of the 59 patients who completed the study, none required further antibiotic therapy. No abnormal laboratory parameters or adverse events were reported in either group. Roxithromycin at a daily dose of 300 mg was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for the empirical treatment of mild to moderate CAP in this group of patients.

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Agar dilution methodology (with added Oxyrase in the case of the macrolide group to allow incubation without added CO2) was used to compare the activity of RU 64004, a new ketolide, with the activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, amoxicillin with and without clavulanate, piperacillin with and without tazobactam, metronidazole, and imipenem against 379 anaerobes. Overall, RU 64004 yielded an MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 microg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 microg/ml. In comparison, MIC50s and MIC90s of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin were 2.0 to 8.0 and >64.0 microg/ml, respectively. MICs of macrolides, including RU 64004, were higher for Bacteroides ovatus, Fusobacterium varium, Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Clostridium difficile than for the other species. RU 64004 was more active against gram-positive rods and cocci, Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp., and fusobacteria other than F. mortiferum and F. varium than against the Bacteroides fragilis group. Overall MIC50s and MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter), respectively, of other compounds were as follows: clindamycin, 1.0 and 16.0; amoxicillin, 4.0 and 64.0; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 0.5 and 4.0; piperacillin, 8.0 and >64.0; piperacillin-tazobactam, 1.0 and 16.0; metronidazole, 1.0 and 4.0; and imipenem, 0.25 and 1.0.

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These antibiotics were examined in Caco-2 cell monolayers in order to demonstrate the potential involvement of P-GP in the absorption process, using verapamil as a P-GP competitor. A model using concentration equilibrium conditions was developed to delineate passive and active permeability components of telithromycin and roxithromycin transport in order to predict absorption in humans.

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to determine the effect of specific antibiotic treatment with roxithromycin in the eradication of Chlamydia pneumoniae from carotid artery plaques.

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Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes followed by 24 or 72 hours of reperfusion. An oral suspension of roxithromycin (RXM), clarithromycin (CAM), erythromycin (EM), azithromycin (AZM), or kitasamycin (INN) was given at 10 or 100 mg/kg for 7 days before ischemia. The infarct volume, edema volume, and neurological performance were evaluated after 24 and 72 hours of reperfusion. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system after 90 minutes of ischemia. Another experiment was conducted to investigate how the ischemic injury was affected by the interval from the antibiotic pretreatment to the ischemia in rats pretreated with CAM.

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The intracellular activity of flurithromycin, erythromycin, roxithromycin and miocamycin against susceptible clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, phagocytosed by human monocytes, was investigated. Intracellular bioactivity was studied in a 24-hour assay, using experimental conditions which allowed the intracellular growth of bacteria. A colony counting method was used to differentiate between intracellular bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of antibiotics. Moreover, the effect of macrolides against extracellular staphylococci was assessed. All agents showed higher intracellular than extracellular activity against staphylococci. At low concentration (0.1 mg/l) they had intracellular bacteriostatic activity. At concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory ones (1 and 5 mg/l), miocamycin only still produced a bacteriostatic effect while flurithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin also showed intracellular bactericidal activity.

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syrup rulide az 2017-03-21

To study the mechanisms of acquired resistance buy rulide of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) to Macrolide antibiotics.

buy rulide online 2017-02-07

Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused buy rulide by orientia tsutsugamushi, transmitted to humans by the bite of the larva of trombiculid mites. It causes a disseminated vasculitic and perivascular inflammatory lesions resulting in significant vascular leakage and end-organ injury. It affects people of all ages and even though scrub typhus in pregnancy is uncommon, it is associated with increased foetal loss, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age infants. After an incubation period of 6-21 days, onset is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. A primary papular lesion which later crusts to form a flat black eschar, may be present. If untreated, serious complications may occur involving various organs. Laboratory studies usually reveal leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, deranged hepatic and renal function, proteinuria and reticulonodular infiltrate. Owing to the potential for severe complications, diagnosis, and decision to initiate treatment should be based on clinical suspicion and confirmed by serologic tests. A therapeutic trial of tetracycline or chloramphenicol is indicated in patients in whom the diagnosis of scrub typhus is suspected. The recommended treatment regimen for scrub typhus is doxycycline. Alternative regimens include tetracycline, chloramphenicol, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and roxithromycin. Treatment of pregnant women with azithromycin was successfully done without relapse and with favorable pregnancy outcomes. Hence, early diagnosis and treatment are essential in order to reduce the mortality and the complications associated with the disease. We searched the English-language literature for reports of scrub typhus in children, pregnant women, and non-pregnant patients with scrub typhus, using the MEDLINE/PubMed database, which includes citations from 1945 to the present time. We used the search terms 'scrub typhus', 'scrub typhus' and 'pregnancy', 'scrub typhus' and 'children', 'scrub typhus' and 'complications', 'scrub typhus' and 'treatment'.

rulide pediatric dose 2015-04-29

In a prospective randomized placebo-controlled study 1010 patients with successful coronary stent placement received roxithromycin or placebo for 4 weeks after coronary stent placement, which showed no effect of roxithromycin on early thrombotic events, as expected. Venous blood samples were collected from patients immediately before treatment. Plasma was analyzed for C. pneumoniae-specific IgG antibody levels by microimmuno-fluorescence. Thrombotic events were defined as death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or urgent target vessel reintervention within 30 days after stent placement. We found buy rulide no significant difference concerning the frequency of early thrombotic events in patients positive or negative for C. pneumoniae-specific antibodies. If patients were stratified according to their antibody levels, again no significant difference in the frequency of thrombotic events was observed.

rulide medicine 2016-12-21

In comparison to placebo, roxithromycin 300 mg daily for four weeks reduced buy rulide the expansion rate of AAA.

rulide roxithromycin dosage 2016-08-15

There are few clinical studies which compare the efficacy buy rulide and patient satisfaction for oral antibiotics to treat inflammatory acne. To clarify the difference between oral antibiotics, acne patients with moderate to severe inflammatory eruptions were randomized into three groups, and each patient was given minocycline (MINO), roxithromycin (RXM) or faropenem (FRPM) for 4 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of observation without any oral antibiotics. We estimated the reduction rate of inflammatory lesion counts, the scale of Skindex-16 which represents patient quality of life (QOL), and minimum inhibitory concentrations required to inhibit the growth of 90% of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from acne patients (MIC(90) ). In all three groups, inflammatory lesion counts, and emotional and total score of Skindex-16 were significantly improved (P<0.05) after 4 weeks treatment, and these effects were maintained for the following 4 weeks. Dizziness/nausea in two patients (4.1%) of the MINO group and diarrhea in three patients (5.9%) of the FRPM group were observed. There was no significant difference of percentage reduction in inflammatory lesion counts and incident rates of side-effects between these three oral antibiotics. MIC(90) of MINO was 0.25 μg/mL before and after treatment, but MIC(90) of RXM had increased from 0.25 μg/mL to more than 32 μg/mL after treatment. MIC(90) of FRPM was 0.06 μg/mL or less for all strains before and after treatment. Our randomized controlled clinical trial suggested that MINO, RXM and FRPM were efficient to improve inflammatory acne and patient QOL, and there was no significant difference between them.

rulide and alcohol 2015-03-20

We have compared the in-vitro interaction of five macrolides (roxithromycin, erythromycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin and josamycin) with human neutrophils (PMN). Only roxithromycin strongly impaired the oxidative burst of PMN assessed by luminol amplified chemiluminescence, superoxide anion generation, and myeloperoxidase-mediated iodination of proteins. This effect was observed only for high concentrations of this drug (100 and 50 mg/l). Furthermore, the sensitivity of PMN to the depressive effect of roxithromycin permitted the definition of two kinds of PMN: in Highly Sensitive (HS)-PMN, the oxidative response was completely abolished while in Moderately Sensitive (MS)-PMN, a decreased, but yet measurable (20-50% of the control), response was obtained. The roxithromycin-induced depression of PMN was time-dependent and partly reversed buy rulide by washing. Chemotaxis was also impaired by roxithromycin (100 mg/l) but phagocytosis of Klebsiella pneumoniae was unaltered even at high concentrations of the drug. Since roxithromycin displays the highest intracellular uptake, compared with the other macrolides assessed in this study, this could explain the results observed here. The relevance to the clinical situation needs further study. This effect of roxithromycin could be useful to control the inflammatory process associated in certain infectious diseases, in particular if high concentrations of the drug are obtained in tissues.

rulide medication dosage 2016-03-10

Our findings strongly suggest that 5- buy rulide I may be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for human rheumatoid arthritis.

rulide tablets 150mg 2017-12-01

This study set out to improve the physical and pharmaceutical characteristics of the present formulation using an appropriate experimental design. The work described here concerns the formulation of the dispersible tablet applying direct compression method containing roxithromycin in the form of coated granules. In this study 2(3) factorial design was used as screening test model and Central Composite Design (CCC) associated with response surface methodology was used as optimization study model to develop and to optimize the proper formulation of roxithromycin dispersible tablet. The three independent variables investigated were functional excipients like binder (X1), disintegrant (X2) and lubricant (X3). The effects of these variables were investigated on the following responses: hardness (Y1), friability (Y2) and disintegration time (Y3) of tablet. Three replicates at the center levels of the each design were used to independently calculate the experimental error and to detect any curvature in the response surface. This buy rulide enabled the best formulations to be selected objectively. The effect order of each term to all response variable was X3> X2> X1> X1*X2> X2*X2> X2*X3> X3*X3> X1*X3> X1*X1 and model equations on each response variables were generated. Optimized compositions of formula were accordingly computed using those model equations and confirmed by following demonstration study. As a result, this study has demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of using a systematic formulation optimization process to develop the tablet formulation of roxithromycin dispersible tablet with limited experiment.

rulide child dose 2015-01-20

A mixture of human blood phagocytes from healthy donors and opsonized staphylococci was incubated in vitro for 30 min. After that time all the bacteria were phagocytosed. The test tubes were further incubated for 2, 4 and 24 h with or without addition of a macrolide (erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin) and the effect of these drugs on the survival of intracellular staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) was measured. The minimal effective concentration of the antibiotic which killed 80-90% of the bacteria buy rulide after a 4-hour incubation was 0.1 mg/l for erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin and 1.2 mg/l for roxithromycin. The percentage of surviving bacteria after 2 and 4 h incubation was not significantly different between these macrolides at the minimal effective concentration. Increasing the concentration of each antibiotic above the minimal effective concentration did not alter the killing rate of intracellular staphylococci. The bacterial activity of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) from a patient with Chédiak-Higashi syndrome was less in comparison to PMNL from healthy donors, but was improved in vitro by the addition of erythromycin or azithromycin.

rulide 500 mg 2015-04-24

Data were collected on 2807 prescriptions presented to 51 pharmacies (50 in buy rulide NSW, one in Queensland), of which 2354 were computer-generated. Repeats were ordered on 1633 computer-generated prescriptions (69%) compared with 183 handwritten prescriptions (40%). These proportions were identical to those found in 2000, although the rates of computer prescribing were much higher in this study (84% v 54%). This difference in repeat prescribing was statistically significant (odds ratio adjusted for clustering at pharmacy level, 2.87; 95% CI, 2.32-3.55). Twenty-three (1%) of the computer-generated prescriptions had the "no brand substitution" box checked compared with 3 (0.7%) of the handwritten prescriptions (27% and 1%, respectively, in our previous survey).

rulide drug 2017-05-03

A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, single-dummy placebo-controlled study is being undertaken by the Research Unit of the Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners to compare the efficacy and tolerance of 150 mg twice daily roxithromycin with 250 mg three times daily cefaclor in the treatment of 250 general practice patients with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Interim analysis of 200 patients reveals no statistically significant differences in the study parameters. Of the patients on roxithromycin and cefaclor, 83% and 67%, respectively, had a moderate or severe illness. Based on efficacy criteria, 96% of roxithromycin recipients and 99% of cefaclor recipients had a satisfactory buy rulide or improved response. On an intention-to-treat basis, this was reduced to 95% for both treatment groups. Sputum grading and semiquantitative culturing was performed according to NCCLS standards. The most common isolates in order were Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Efficacy for bacteriologically evaluable cases was 87.5% for roxithromycin and 57% for cefaclor. Four patients on roxithromycin (3.9%) and 11 patients on cefaclor (11.3%) withdrew because of side effects probably or possibly related to the study treatment. The study is ongoing.

rulide drug information 2015-08-02

Ten Chlamydia trachomatis isolates were tested for their sensitivity to roxithromycin, in comparison with erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory buy rulide and minimum bactericidal concentrations of roxithromycin ranged from 0.03-0.12 and 0.25-1 microg/ml, respectively.

rulide drug class 2015-10-11

OBJECTIVES: The pharmacokinetics of macrolide antibiotics --- erythromycin (ER), clarithromycin (CL), roxithromycin (RO), azithromycin (AZ), dirithromycin (DI) and the concentrations achieved in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and saliva were investigated. METHODS: In a four-way crossover trial, 10 healthy volunteers received 1000 mg ER twice a day, 500 mg CL twice a day, 150 mg RO twice a day and 500 mg AZ every day over a period of 3 days. In a second trial, 10 healthy volunteers received 500 mg DI every day over a period of 5 days. Concentrations of these antibiotics were measured in serum, urine, saliva and PMNs by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on days 1 and 3 in the first trial and on days 1 and 5 in the second trial. RESULTS: We found considerable differences in the pharmacokinetics, not only in serum, but also in PMNs and buy rulide saliva. All substances except RO exhibited higher concentrations in PMNs than in serum, indicating excellent intraphagocytic distribution. In contrast, concentrations in saliva were lower than those measured in serum, with the exception of AZ. ER is characterized by low serum concentrations and moderate concentrations in saliva and PMNs. CL reached considerable concentrations in serum, saliva and PMNs. RO achieved the highest serum levels, but concentrations in saliva and in PMNs were below the detection limit. In contrast, AZ and DI yielded the lowest serum concentrations and the highest saliva and PMN concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data emphasize the importance of tissue distribution, in addition to serum kinetics, in evaluating the pharmacokinetic profiles of antibiotics.

rulide 150 mg 2016-03-18

The most commonly used Legionella therapy buy rulide in Australia remains erythromycin. This continues to be an effective agent, however, side-effects are common.

rulide tablet price 2016-01-31

A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic micro-method for the determination of roxithromycin in human plasma and urine is described. A dichloromethane extract of the sample was chromatographed on a C18 reversed-phase column with acetonitrile-83 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (55:23:22, v/v) adjusted to pH 7.5 with acetic acid as the mobile phase. Roxithromycin and the internal standard, erythromycin, were detected by dual coulometric electrodes operated in the oxidative screen mode. The applied cell potential of the screen electrode was set at +0.7 V and the sample electrode at +0.9 V. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than or equal to 7.0%. The detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was 0.1 microgram/ml Diflucan Dosage for both plasma and urine. A study of drug stability during sample storage at 4, 20 and 37 degrees C showed no degradation of roxithromycin. The method is convenient for clinical monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies.

rulide tablet uses 2015-03-03

Macrolide antibiotics are known to exert anti-inflammatory actions in vivo, including certain effects in COPD patients. In order to investigate the immunomodulatory profile of activity of macrolide antibiotics, we have studied the effects of azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin on the in vitro production of a panel of inflammatory mediators from cells isolated from human, steroid-naïve, COPD sputum samples. Macrolide effects were compared to three other commonly used anti-inflammatory compounds, the corticosteroid dexamethasone, the PDE4 inhibitor, roflumilast and the p38 kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Three of the four tested macrolides, azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin, exhibited pronounced, concentration-related reduction of IL-1β, IL-6, Diamox And Alcohol IL-10, TNF-α, CCL3, CCL5, CCL20, CCL22, CXCL1, CXCL5, and G-CSF release. Further slight inhibitory effects on IL-1α, CXCL8, GM-CSF, and PAI-1 production were also observed. Erythromycin was very weakly active. Qualitatively and quantitatively, macrolides exerted distinctive and, compared to other tested classes of compounds, more pronounced immunomodulatory effects, particularly in terms of chemokine (CCL3, CCL5, CCL20, CCL22, and CXCL5), IL-1β, G-CSF and PAI-1 release. The described modulation of inflammatory mediators could potentially contribute to further definition of biomarkers of macrolide anti-inflammatory activity in COPD.

rulide renal dose 2016-03-19

HPDL cells were plated at 5 x 10(5) cells/ml in 150 cm2 cell culture dishes. The confluent-stage cells were pretreated with or without 10 microg/ml of RXM or other antibiotics in 1% FBS-containing alpha-MEM for 24 hours, followed by simultaneous treatment with 10 ng/ml of TNF-alpha and 10 microg/ml of these antibiotics. After incubation for various periods, the culture supernatants and sediments were collected and analyzed Protonix Storage by ELISA, Northern blot, and gel shift assays.

rulide az syrup 2017-06-28

RM and clarithromycin (internal standard) were extracted from alkalinized serum sample (500 microliters) with methylene chloride. After evaporation of the organic layer, the residue was dissolved in 100 microliters of acetonitrile-ammonium phosphate (1:1, pH 6.0) and washed with n-hexane, then 20 microliters was injected onto a column (5 microns, 15 cm Cymbalta Capsules Information x 4.6 mm) of Penomenex luna C18. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.05 mol/L phosphoric acid (39:19:42, adjusted to pH 7.2 with ammonia water) pumped at 1.2 ml/min through the column. The variable wavelength UV detector operated at 0.01 aufs and the wavelength was set at 210 nm.

rulide medication ingredients 2015-12-20

The infection rate was 5.74%. There were no significant correlations between low birth weight, premature rupture of the membranes, dysmaturity and C. tr Oxytrol Buy . infection. In cases of threatening premature labor, the infection rate was significantly higher in C. tr.-positive patients. In the event of combined low birth weight and perinatal death, the maternal C. tr. infection rate was significantly higher than in normal pregnancies. C. tr.-positive patients treated with roxithromycin had term deliveries. A correlation between poor social circumstances and a high C. tr. infection rate could be proved.

rulide dose 2017-02-17

Ofloxacin is highly active against Gram-negative aerobic bacilli, but moderately active against Gram-positive cocci. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Streptococcus Buspar Starting Dose pneumoniae range between 1 and 2 mg/L. MICs of roxithromycin (RU 28965) against S. pneumoniae range between 0.004 and 0.03 mg/L, but Gram-negative bacilli are resistant. The bactericidal activities of ofloxacin and roxithromycin were evaluated against 15 strains of S. pneumoniae, which were isolated recently from clinical specimens. Killing activity was evaluated under conditions simulating serum pharmacokinetic parameters. Initial concentrations were 10 mg/L for roxithromycin and 2 mg/L for ofloxacin, and the half-life was 6 hours for both compounds. Under these conditions, roxithromycin was rapidly bactericidal. The speed at which pneumococci were killed was faster with roxithromycin than with ofloxacin. No regrowth was seen with roxithromycin, but regrowth occurred in 8 of 15 strains with ofloxacin.

rulide antibiotic dosage 2015-12-11

The interaction of azithromycin with normal human serum was examined in relation to serum protein binding, MIC, and kinetics of killing of bacteria. While the binding of azithromycin to serum proteins is low (8.5% at a concentration of 0.01 mM in 95% serum), the presence of 40% serum Cipro 5 Mg during the MIC test decreased MICs by 26-fold for serum-resistant Escherichia coli and 15-fold for Staphylococcus aureus. Erythromycin had a similar but lesser effect, while roxithromycin was less active against S. aureus in the presence of serum. The rate of killing of E. coli and S. aureus by azithromycin was increased in the presence of serum. The enhancement of antibiotic activity by serum was pH independent, and heat inactivation and preabsorption with homologous bacteria failed to inhibit enhancement by serum. The macromolecular incorporation of [3H]thymidine by E. coli continuously exposed to 2 micrograms of azithromycin per ml (0.25x the MIC) and 40% serum was decreased by 80% at pH 7.8 and by 48% at pH 7.2, while azithromycin alone failed to inhibit incorporation. Inhibition of nucleic acid biosynthesis at pH 7.2 in the presence of serum was also detected with sub-MICs of erythromycin, norfloxacin, and gentamicin but not roxithromycin. A diffusible serum factor was shown to interact with azithromycin to inhibit the growth of E. coli in an agar diffusion assay to detect antibiotic-serum synergy.

rulide dosage 2015-07-27

The search for erythromycin derivatives with improved antibacterial and/or pharmacokinetic properties, has led to the synthesis of several new agents. Roxithromycin, an ether oxime derivative of erythromycin, is one of the more promising. The main differences between erythromycin and roxithromycin are their kinetics, roxithromycin giving higher serum concentrations than erythromycin at equimolar oral doses. Its elimination half-life is also longer, about 12 h compared to 2-3 h for erythromycin. As their tissue distributions and antibiotic profiles are similar, roxithromycin can be administered in lower daily doses and at less frequent intervals. A suitable dosage regimen for roxithromycin Paxil 25 Mg seems to be 150 mg every 12 h. From a pharmacokinetic point of view, daily dosing with roxithromycin would be equivalent to the administration of erythromycin every 6 h.

rulide tablets 300mg 2016-09-22

A severe episode of Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis in a patient with HIV infection was treated with ciprofloxacin and, because of therapeutic failure, subsequently with roxithromycin. After treatment, C. jejuni was again isolated from feces and shown to be resistant to both drugs. We present molecular evidence of the sequential development of both Lamictal Drug Class types of resistance in the patient isolate. To our knowledge, this is the first case with documented evidence showing sequential emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and erythromycin in a strain of C. jejuni during treatment.

rulide y alcohol 2017-03-11

Roxithromycin is a derivative of the macrolide antibacterial erythromycin with in vitro antibacterial activity resembling that of the parent compound. The drug has activity against some Staphylococcus spp., many Streptococcus spp., Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila and Chlamydia trachomatis as well as many less common organisms. Measured using recently proposed guidelines, roxithromycin has in vitro activity against Haemophilus influenzae. In comparison with that of its parent compound, the pharmacokinetic profile of roxithromycin is characterised by high plasma, tissue and body fluid concentrations and a long half-life permitting an extended dosage interval. Roxithromycin has proven clinical efficacy in upper and lower respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urogenital infections and orodental infections, and appears to be as effective as more established treatments including erythromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefaclor. The drug has also shown promise in a variety of more specialised indications including opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and as part of a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen. Roxithromycin is very well tolerated with an overall incidence of adverse events of approximately 4%. Thus, roxithromycin is an attractive therapeutic alternative in its established indications, especially when the option of once-daily administration is considered.

rulide alcohol 2016-04-19

Among the atypical pneumonias observed between March 1990 and March 1991, 6 were diagnosed as being caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae of the TWAR strain. The serological diagnosis was obtained by a microimmunofluorescence test. All 6 patients had anti-TWAR antibody levels higher than 512; they were treated with a macrolide administered by the oral route and were cured without sequelae or recurrences. Four cases received a ten day course of roxithromycin 300 mg/day and one case received erythromycin 2 g/day also for 10 days. The sixth case received a short course of azithromycin 500 mg once daily for three days. In 2 other patients presenting with clinical and radiological signs of pneumonia the diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection could not be made despite an antibody level equal or higher than 512, since the serological results showed cross-reactions between C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis and C. psittaci antibody responses.

cost of rulide 2017-02-01

Erythromycin (ERY), clarithromycin (CLA), roxithromycin (ROX), and azithromycin (AZI) are macrolide antibiotics widely used in livestock and human medicine. Therefore, they are frequently found as pollutants in environmental water. A method based on indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for group determination of these macrolides in foodstuffs, human biofluids, and water was developed. Carboxymethyloxime of clarithromycin (CMO-CLA) was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gelatin to prepare immunogen and coating antigen with advantageous presentation of target epitopes, l-cladinose and d-desosamine, common for these analytes. Antibodies generated in rabbits were capable of recognizing ERY, CLA, and ROX as a group (100-150%), and AZI (12%) and did not cross-react with ERY degradants, which lack antibiotic activity. Assay displayed sensitivity of determination of 14-membered macrolides (IC50=0.13-0.2ng/ml) and low limit of detection (LOD) that was achieved at 0.02 to 0.03ng/ml. It allowed performing analysis of milk, muscle, eggs, bovine serum, water, human serum and urine, and avoiding matrix effect without special pretreatment using simple dilution with assay buffer. For 15-membered macrolide AZI, the corresponding characteristics were IC50=1.6ng/ml and LOD=0.14ng/ml. The recoveries of veterinary and human medicine macrolides from corresponding matrices were validated and found to be satisfactory.

rulide cost 2016-03-19

1H nuclear Overhauser enhancement studies and 1H NMR 3J analysis establish the similarity between the major solution-state conformation of roxithromycin (1) and the erythromycin (2). A major difference between the structure of antibiotics 1 and 2 is the replacement of the 9-keto group in 2 by a 9-[O-(2,5-dioxahexyl)oxime] group. The NOE studies show that this oxime chain is oriented above the macrocyclic lactone ring and that the oxygen atoms of this chain are engaged in tight hydrogen bonding with a water molecule and with the 6- and 11-hydroxyl groups of the macrocycle. It results in a globular form of the whole roxithromycin molecule. These data explain also a relative hydrophobicity of this antibiotic. Erythromycin A (2), which presents a less rigid macrocycle with two free hydroxyl groups (6-OH and 11-OH), forms a dimer detected by FAB mass spectroscopy. 1H and 13C NMR relaxation measurements (T1) for both antibiotics show that interresidue hydrogen bonds in roxithromycin reduce the rotational freedom of the macrocyclic lactone ring and consequently the motions of desosamine and cladinose sugars. In another way, an ionization of the amino function occurs in the various media according to the nature of the antibiotic. This would allow the reactivity modification of the desosamine unit. In the biological study, the modifications of the 455-nm metabolite-cytochrome P-450 complex formation are observed.