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VF rates were observed in one-third of long-term treated Thai children on first-line HAART. Age 3-9 years at HAART initiation was associated with less VF compared with those younger or older, whereas children who used nevirapine had higher VF.
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Selectively randomized assignment (per prior PI exposure) to saquinavir (n = 116); indinavir (n = 69); nelfinavir (n = 139); or placebo twice per day (n = 157); in combination with amprenavir, abacavir, efavirenz, and adefovir dipivoxil.
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ART improves survival in co-infected TB patients, but is complicated by several management challenges that compromise programmatic implementation in resource-limited settings. Recent findings and the findings of ongoing studies will assist clinicians in dealing with these challenges.
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Our analysis demonstrates that XMRV exhibits a distinct pattern of nucleoside analog susceptibility that correlates with the structure of the pseudosugar moiety and that XMRV is sensitive to a broader range of antiretroviral drugs than has previously been reported. We suggest that the divergent drug sensitivity profiles of XMRV and HIV-1 are partially explained by specific amino acid differences in their respective protease, RT and integrase sequences. Our data provide a basis for choosing specific antiretroviral drugs for clinical studies in XMRV-infected patients.
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A total of 693 patients (561 male, 132 female) at 24 sites were enrolled. The median age at first presentation for HIV care was 36. The proportion of patients presenting with advanced HIV disease (CD4 count<200/mm(3) or presenting with an AIDS-defining event) was 30.6%; and 52.4% of patients were late presenters (CD4 count<350/mm(3) or presenting with an AIDS-defining event). Median CD4 counts at presentation and before treatment were 344 (IQR: 175-540) and 295 (IQR: 150-430), respectively. Pretreatment CD4 count was >500 copies/mL in 18.5% of patients. Of 531 patients receiving ART, initial combinations consist of tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) plus efavirenz (EFV) in 48.2% and TDF/FTC plus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in 37.5% and other combinations in 14.3% of the patients. Pre-treatment HIV-RNA was over 100.000 copies/mL in 52.3% of patients. At Weeks 24 and 48, HIV-RNA were<50 copies/mL in 63,4% of 385 patients and 82% of 311 patients reported to be still on ART and had a viral load measurement, respectively. Median pretreatment CD4 count was lower for TDF/FTC+LPV/r recipients than TDF/FTC+EFV recipients (250 vs 316) (p<0.05). The median increase from baseline CD4 cell count was 230 in TDF/FTC+LPV/r group, 193 in TDF/FTC+EFV group and 216 among all treated patients. Of 531 patients receiving ART, 11 had died and 19 were lost to follow-up.
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The total number of prescriptions for antiretrovirals increased from 168,914 in 1991 to 2.0 million in 1998, and 3.0 million in 2005, a 16.7-fold increase over 15 years. The number of prescriptions for NRTIs reached 1.6 million in 2005. Prescriptions for PIs increased from 114 in 1995 to 932,176 in 2005, while the number of prescriptions for NNRTIs increased from 1,339 in 1996 to 401,272 in 2005. The total payment for antiretroviral drugs in the U.S. Medicaid Program increased from US$ 30.6 million in 1991 to US$ 1.6 billion in 2005, a 49.8-fold increase. In 2005, NRTIs as a class had the highest payment market share. These drugs alone accounted for US$ 787.9 million in Medicaid spending (50.8 percent of spending on antiretrovirals). Payment per prescription for each drug, with the exception of Agenerase, increased, at least somewhat, over time. The relatively expensive drugs in 2005 included Trizivir ($1040) and Combivir ($640), as well as Reyataz ($750), Lexiva ($700), Sustiva ($420), Viramune ($370), and Fuzeon ($1914).
The hypothesis needs urgent confirmation in a randomized, prospective trial comparing levels of quinolinic acid etc., in patients on quinoline treatment versus a quinoline-naïve patients for several body fluids and ideally in the brain post-mortem.
This review discusses the available safety data for three integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs)--raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir--derived from studies in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected cohorts.
Retrospective observational study.
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We report the results of a pilot open-label trial of a tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)/efavirenz (EFV) combination conducted in Dakar, Senegal. Forty HIV-1-infected patients, naive of antiretroviral treatment and without active opportunistic disease, were included and followed through 96 weeks. At weeks 48 and 96, respectively, 82.5% and 85% of patients had HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL (72.5% and 77.5% with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL). Between baseline and week 96, the mean (SD) CD4 count increased from 126 (102) to 338 (155) cells/mm(3). The mean (SD) creatinine clearance decreased from 92 (36) to 73 (19) mL/min (P = .001). Treatment adherence was at least 94% at all scheduled visits. The efficacy and tolerability of a TDF/FTC/EFV combination were high and similar to those observed in Northern countries. This drug combination can be recommended in limited-resource countries, as did the World Health Organization (WHO) and should be made readily available as a fixed-dose combination.
The efficacy of dolutegravir (DTG) in treatment-naïve patients has been analyzed in the SPRING 1 and 2, SINGLE and FLAMINGO trials, which compared dolutegravir with the agents currently recommended as the drugs of choice in clinical practice guidelines in treatment-naïve patients: efavirenz, raltegravir and darunavir/ritonavir. These trials confirmed the superiority (SINGLE and FLAMINGO) or the non-inferiority (SPRING-2) of dolutegravir. More than 2,000 patients were included in these 4 studies, lending value to their results and reinforcing the view of dolutegravir as the drug of choice in treatment-naïve patients, accompanied either by abacavir/lamivudine (Kivexa(®)) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada®).
A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among HIV infected adults at Burayu Health Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from September, 2011 to May, 2012. Equal number of HAART naïve and HAART initiated patients (n = 126 each) were included in the study. Demographic data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose were determined. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software.
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CYP3A4 inducers and inhibitors altered the exposure of erlotinib. Until a definitive clinical trial is performed, erlotinib should be used with caution in patients on a ritonavir-containing antiretroviral regimen, while standard doses may be appropriate for patients on an efavirenz-containing antiretroviral regimen.
A selective and a highly sensitive method for the determination of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), efavirenz, in human plasma has been developed and fully validated based on high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involved protein precipitation followed by one to one dilution with water. The analyte, efavirenz was separated by high performance liquid chromatography and detected with tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Efavirenz and ¹³C₆-efavirenz (Internal Standard), respectively, were detected via the following MRM transitions: m/z 314.20243.90 and m/z 320.20249.90. A gradient program was used to elute the analytes using 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile as mobile phase solvents, at a flow-rate of 0.3 mL/min. The total run time was 5 min and the retention times for the internal standard (¹³C₆-efavirenz) and efavirenz was approximately 2.6 min. The calibration curves showed linearity (coefficient of regression, r>0.99) over the concentration range of 1.0-2,500 ng/mL. The intraday precision based on the standard deviation of replicates of lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 9.24% and for quality control (QC) samples ranged from 2.41% to 6.42% and with accuracy from 112% and 100-111% for LLOQ and QC samples. The inter day precision was 12.3% and 3.03-9.18% for LLOQ and quality controls samples, and the accuracy was 108% and 95.2-108% for LLOQ and QC samples. Stability studies showed that efavirenz was stable during the expected conditions for sample preparation and storage. The lower limit of quantification for efavirenz was 1 ng/mL. The analytical method showed excellent sensitivity, precision, and accuracy. This method is robust and is being successfully applied for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies in HIV-infected patients.
Comprehensive information on the effects of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) polymorphisms, clinical factors, and drug-drug interactions on efavirenz concentrations in HIV/tuberculosis-coinfected (HIV/TB) patients is unavailable. A total of 139 HIV/TB adults, 101 of whom received a rifampin-containing anti-TB regimen, were prospectively enrolled to receive efavirenz (600 mg)/tenofovir/lamivudine. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP2B6 were genotyped. Plasma efavirenz concentrations were measured at 12 weeks. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) efavirenz concentration was 2.3 (1.4 to 3.9) mg/liter. The SNPs (frequencies of heterozygous and homozygous mutants) were 64C>T (10% and 1%), 499C>G (0% and 0%), 516G>T (47% and 8%), 785A>G (54% and 10%), 1375A>G (0% and 0%), 1459C>T (3% and 0%), 3003C>T (44% and 27%), 18492T>C (39% and 6%), and 21563C>T (57% and 5%). The four most frequent CYP2B6 haplotypes identified were *1/*6 (41%), *1/*1 (35%), *1/*2 (7%), and *6/*6 (7%). The heterozygous/homozygous mutation associated with low efavirenz concentrations was 18492T>C (P < 0.001), and those associated with high efavirenz concentrations were 516G>T, 785A>G, and 21563C>T (all P < 0.05). Haplotype *1/*1 was associated with low efavirenz concentrations, and *6/*6, *1/*6, and *5/6 were associated with high efavirenz concentrations. As shown by multivariate analysis, low efavirenz concentrations were significantly associated with the *1/*1 haplotype (beta = -1.084, P = 0.027) and high body weight (beta = -0.076, P = 0.002). In conclusion, pharmacogenetic markers of CYP2B6 have the greatest impact with respect to inducing low plasma efavirenz concentrations in HIV/TB Thai patients.
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There is no published data looking at tolerance of efavirenz (EFV) in patients who abuse cocaine or alcohol (EtOH). The objective of this study was to determine whether individuals with a current or past history of cocaine or EtOH abuse are more likely to experience EFV-induced central nervous system (CNS) side effects that warrant discontinuation of EFV compared with those who do not abuse substances.
EFV NS was prepared using the media milling technique. The Box-Behnken design was used for optimization of the factors affecting EFV NS. Sodium lauryl sulfate and PVP K30 were used to stabilize the NS. Freeze-dried NS was completely re-dispersed with double-distilled filtered water.
As a relationship between nelfinavir antiretroviral efficacy and plasma concentrations has been previously established, nelfinavir pharmacokinetics was investigated in order to optimize the individual treatment schedule in a pediatric population. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the concentration-time course of nelfinavir and its active metabolite M8. Individual characteristics were used to explain the large interindividual variability in children. Data from therapeutic drug monitoring in 182 children treated with nelfinavir were analyzed with NONMEM. Then Food and Drug Administration (FDA) current recommendations were evaluated estimating the percentage of children who reached the target minimum plasma concentration (0.8 mg/liter) by using Bayesian estimates. Nelfinavir pharmacokinetics was described by a one- compartment model with linear absorption and elimination. Pharmacokinetic estimates and the corresponding intersubject variabilities for the model were as follows: nelfinavir total clearance, 0.93 liters/h/kg (39%); volume of distribution, 6.9 liters/kg (109%); absorption rate, 0.5 h(-1); formation clearance fraction to hydroxy-tert-butylamide (M8), 0.025; M8 elimination rate, 1.88 h(-1) (49%). Apparent nelfinavir total clearance and volume of distribution decreased as a function of age. M8 elimination rate was increased by concomitant administration of nevirapine or efavirenz. Our data confirm that the FDA recommendations for children from 2 to 13 years are optimal and that the dose recommended for children younger than 2 years is adequate for the children from 2 months to 2 years old. However, in children younger than 2 months, the proposed nelfinavir newborn dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight twice daily is inadequate and we suggest increasing the dose to 50 to 60 mg/kg administered thrice daily. This assumption should be further evaluated.
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Both ART regimens present pronounced effect on inflammatory mediators, resulting in decreased PAF levels and Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity for tenofovir-containing regimen and same as baseline PAF levels with a peak though at the 3rd month as well as elevated Lp-PLA2 activity for abacavir-containing regimen.
Compared with EFV/TDF/FTC, DTG+ABC/3TC resulted in substantially higher cost, slightly better QALY over lifetime, and ICERs far exceeding standard cost-effectiveness thresholds, indicating that the incremental benefit in efficacy associated with DTG+ABC/3TC may not be worth the incremental increase in costs.
Cross-sectional comparative group study.
In patients who have never experienced virological failure, the rate of treatment change due to toxicities is low, and certain regimens are associated with an even lower rate of change. If virological failure is avoided, some regimens are so far proving to be sufficiently stable to suggest that very long-term use is potentially feasible.
We systematically reviewed adverse events among treatment-naive HIV-positive adults and children receiving either NVP or EFV as part of first-line antiretroviral therapy. The primary outcome was drug discontinuation as a result of any adverse event; specific toxicities were evaluated as secondary outcomes. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated and proportions and odds ratios (ORs) pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis.
As efavirenz is widely used in current antiretroviral therapy, these findings may concern many HIV-infected men wishing to have children. This justifies further assessment of the consequences on fertility of the exposure to efavirenz. Moreover, the possibility of common cellular impacts underlying adverse effects of efavirenz in sperm cells and neurons deserved investigation.
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Efavirenz is a lipophilic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the first-line pediatric therapeutic cocktail. Due to its high lipophilicity (logP = 5.4) and poor aqueous solubility (intrinsic water solubility = 8.3 μg/mL) efavirenz has low bioavailability. A 30 mg/mL solution in a medium-chain triglyceride vehicle is the only pediatric formulation available with an oral bioavailability 20% lower than the solid form. The current work was aimed at formulating and characterizing liquid crystal nanoparticles for oral delivery of efavirenz to improve oral bioavailability, provide sustained release, minimize side effects and drug resistance. Formulation of cubosomes was done by two methods; sonication and spray drying. Sonication gave highest entrapment efficiency and least particle size. Further, monoolein was substituted with phytantriol as monoolein gets degraded in the presence of lipase when administered orally with consequent loss of liquid crystalline structure. It was confirmed that there was no difference in particle size, entrapment efficiency and nature of product formed by using monoolein or phytantriol. The best formulation was found to be F9, having particle size 104.19 ± 0.21 nm and entrapment efficiency 91.40 ± 0.10%. In vitro release at the end of 12h was found to be 56.45% and zeta potential to be -23.14 mV which stabilized the cubic phase dispersions. It was further characterized for TEM, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), DSC and stability studies. SAXS revealed Pn3m space group, indicating a diamond cubic phase which was further confirmed by TEM. Pharmacokinetics of EFV was studied in male Wistar rats. EFV-loaded cubosome dispersions exhibited 1.93 and 1.62-fold increase in peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and 1.48 and 1.42-fold increase in AUC in comparison to that of a suspension prepared with the contents of EFV capsules suspended in 1.5% carboxymethylcellulose PBS solution (pH 5.0), and an EFV solution in medium-chain triglyceride respectively. Thus, stable cubosomes of efavirenz with increased bioavailability providing sustained release effect could be prepared successfully using phytantriol and poloxamer 407.
Subjects with new DRM during LLV had greater HIV-1 evolution across pol from the pre-ART to end of LLV compared with subjects without DRM. Evolution over non-DRM sites was similar between groups. Higher degree of genetic evolution was positively associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels during LLV, both at DRM and non-DRM sites.
To evaluate the difference in trough and midpoint efavirenz plasma concentrations between HIV-positive Latino and white patients. In addition, this study evaluated the association between efavirenz concentrations and CYP2B6 polymorphisms in Latino and white HIV-positive subjects.
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A new study shows that Sustiva (efavirenz) taken in combination with Stavudine (d4T) and Lamivudine (3TC) was effective in reducing viral load to below 400 copies/mL in all patients observed. Sustiva, manufactured by DuPont, was studied in a 48-week trial, and results were reported at the 9th European Conference of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in Berlin. In a second study, Sustiva in combination with AZT/3TC or Indinavir showed a reduction in viral load in both vaginal and cerebrospinal fluids in two groups of patients.