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Upon meta-analysis, we found that patients receiving topiramate lost weight or had attenuated weight gain compared to control patients (weighted mean difference, -2.83 kg; 95% confidence interval, -4.62 to -1.03).
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The goal of the proposed research was to determine the effect of topiramate on basal and stimulated release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal ganglia neurons.
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These findings have extended our knowledge about essential tremor. It appears that a new, more distinct classification system is required. Recent treatments have remained unchanged.
In a quasi-experimental study, monthly frequency, severity and duration of headache, migraine disability, and side-effects were evaluated in 100 children who were referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran from April 2011 to March 2012, and were treated with 3 mg/kg/day of TPM for three months.
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Early brain injury (EBI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) insults contributes to the poor prognosis and high mortality observed in SAH patients. Topiramate (TPM) is a novel, broad-spectrum, antiepileptic drug with a reported protective effect against several brain injuries. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of TPM for neuroprotection against EBI after SAH and the possible dose-dependency of this effect. An endovascular perforation SAH model was established in rats, and TPM was administered by intraperitoneal injection after surgery at three different doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg, and 80mg/kg). The animals' neurological scores and brain water content were evaluated, and ELISA, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were conducted to assess the effect of TPM. The results revealed that TPM lowers the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory mediators observed after SAH in a dose-related fashion, and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway is the target of neuroinflammation regulation. In addition, TPM ameliorated SAH-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis by influencing Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, and the effect of TPM was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Various dosages of TPM also upregulated the protein expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signalling molecules, GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1, GABAAR γ2, and K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) together and downregulated Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) expression. Thus, TPM may be an effective neuroprotectant in EBI after SAH by regulating neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death.
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In this paper we review the current information regarding the use of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used as monotherapy in children. We specifically include the following AEDs: lamotrigine (Lamictal), topiramate (Topamax), zonisamide (Zonegran), levetiracetam (Keppra), and oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). All of these AEDs have a broad spectrum of action in the treatment of partial and generalized seizures, except Oxcarbazepine, which is effective only in partial seizures. It is unclear whether or not monotherapy with the new AEDs offers higher efficacy and/or lower side effects compared to classic AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or valproate) thereby significantly improving the quality of life in children with epilepsy. More studies are needed to answer these questions.
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A total of 588 patients were included: LEV (n = 345), TPM (n = 190), and OXC (n = 53). Among them, 82% had focal epilepsy, whereas 14.8% had generalized epilepsy. The 3-year retention rates for LEV, TPM, and OXC, were 81.2%, 78.3%, and 54.7%, respectively. Levetiracetam and TPM had equivalent retention rates, whereas patients remained on OXC for a significantly shorter amount of time (P < 0.001). A lower retention rate for OXC was also evident in the subgroup analysis of focal epilepsy (P < 0.001). In generalized epilepsy, LEV and TPM revealed comparable retention rates (P = 0.255). The seizure-freedom rate did not differ among groups, whereas the rate of adverse effects leading to drug withdrawal of OXC (87.5%) was higher than that of LEV (34.4%, P < 0.001) and TPM (52.5%, P = 0.012).
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No association was found between DRD2, DRD3, SLC6A3 or HTR2A gene variants and treatment outcome. However, SLC6A4 STin2 12/12 carriers showed poor 6-month time point treatment outcome [32.8% in the good outcome group versus 64.0% in the poor outcome group, chi(2) (df) = 7.20 (1), corrected P = 0.042, OR (95% CI) = 0.27 (0.10-0.72)]. Nevertheless, independent analysis of each treatment group reveals that the excess of 12/12 carriers in the poor outcome group was only found in the naltrexone-treated group [24.1% versus 64.7% chi(2) (df) = 7.41 (1), corrected P = 0.042, OR (95% CI) = 0.17 (0.05-0.64)]. In the whole sample, the L-10 repeats haplotype (5-HTTLPR-STin2 VNTR) is associated with good outcome (LRT = 3.88, df = 1, P = 0.049).
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The correlation between unbound TPM concentrations in subdural CSF and abdominal subcutaneous ECF was good. The mean ratio of ECF/CSF TPM concentration was 0.93 (SD+/-0.03) and the correlation coefficient was 0.98. The mean ratio of ECF/total plasma TPM was 0.75 (SD+/-0.06), and the correlation coefficient was 0.99. The mean ratio of CSF/total plasma TPM was 0.81 (SD+/-0.06), and the correlation coefficient was 0.97.
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Up to 300 mg/d of topiramate (n = 183) or placebo (n = 188), along with a weekly compliance enhancement intervention.
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Concerning the antiepileptic drugs which alter thyroid hormone homeostasis, it is highly probable that the mechanism of induction of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) is involved, at least partially, in such an alteration. However, it is not possible to estimate the relative contribution of the UGT induction by these drugs on the total alteration observed in thyroid hormone levels, as other mechanisms not investigated, or not examined in the present article, could contribute.
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This retrospective chart review was done from hospital records in weekly Epilepsy outdoor clinic of Department of Neurology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) from October 1998 to February 2013. A total of 854 epilepsy patients met the eligibility criteria (had a complete record of two years of follow up data) from hospital database. A checklist was used to take demographics (age and gender), epilepsy treatment and adverse event related data. At least two years of follow up data were considered for analysis.
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Basal flow rates and VMR values recorded from the right and left MCA in group 1 were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Flow velocities obtained from the right and left MCA, and the VMR values in group 1 after topiramate treatment did not differ significantly from those in the control group (P > 0.05). In addition, the number of attacks, duration of pain, and VAS scores in group 1 were significantly lower after the treatment than before the treatment (P < 0.05).
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A 40-year-old man with diabetes and seizure disorder was found at home unresponsive and "very hot to touch" by his father 40 minutes before emergency medical services arrival. His usual medications included topiramate, divalproex sodium, and rosiglitazone/metformin. Paramedics administered oxygen, intravenous fluids, and naloxone. They did not witness or report seizure activity. Upon emergency department arrival, the patient was unresponsive (Glasgow Coma Scale 3), hypotensive (94/50 mm Hg), and tachypneic (32 breaths per minute), with a heart rate of 60 beats per minute and elevated rectal temperature peaking at 43.2°C. His skin was hot and dry, without rash; physical examination was otherwise normal. Laboratory studies revealed severe metabolic acidosis with acute renal failure and rhabdomyolysis. In spite of sedation, intubation, and aggressive cooling measures, the patient had cardiac arrest and died approximately 2 hours after arrival. Serum topiramate and valproate concentrations were within therapeutic ranges at 8.8 μg/mL (therapeutic 2-12) and 97 μg/mL (therapeutic 50-100), respectively.
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Of all the psychotropic medications currently available, the mood-stabilizing agents have the highest incidence of severe and life-threatening adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDRs). An exanthematous eruption in a patient treated with a mood-stabilizing agent should be viewed as possibly being the initial symptom of a severe and life-threatening ACDR, such as a hypersensitivity reaction, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis. The combination of mood-stabilizing agents may increase the risk of such reactions. The mood-stabilizing agents addressed in this article are carbamazepine, lithium carbonate, valproic acid, topiramate, lamotrigine, gabapentin, and oxcarbazepine. Prior to the initiation of a mood stabilizer, the potential benefits, risks, and adverse effects should be communicated to the patient. If possible, slow dose escalation should be attempted by the physician. Patients should also be advised to seek medical attention if they suspect a drug-induced skin reaction. If the physician suspects a severe ACDR, the offending agent should be removed immediately.
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Children taking TPM ≥1 month underwent an interview, renal ultrasound, and spot urine testing in this prospective study. Normal spot urine values were defined as: calcium/creatinine ratio ≤0.20 mg/mg (>12 months) or ≤0.60 mg/mg (≤12 months), citrate/creatinine ratio >0.50 mg/mg, and pH ≤ 6.7.
The present results provide sound evidence for the ability of TPM to reduce fat and energy gains through reducing energetic efficiency in both lean and obese Zucker rats.
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We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial in 190 patients to evaluate the safety and efficacy of three dosages of topiramate (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/day) as adjunctive therapy for patients with refractory partial epilepsy. During an 18-week double-blind treatment period, median percent reductions from baseline in average monthly seizure rates were 1% for placebo, 41% for topiramate 600 mg/day and topiramate 800 mg/day, and 38% for topiramate 1,000 mg/day. There was a 50% or greater reduction from baseline in seizure frequency in 9% of patients in the placebo group and in 44% for topiramate 600 mg/day, 40% for topiramate 800 mg/day, and 38% for topiramate 1,000 mg/day. No placebo patients were improved by 75 to 100% in seizure frequency, whereas 20% of the topiramate patients were improved to this degree. All intent-to-treat drug-placebo comparisons including seizure reduction, percent responders, and investigator and patient global evaluations significantly (p < or = 0.02) favored topiramate. Treatment-emergent adverse events consisted mainly of neurologic symptoms commonly observed during antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy. Sixteen percent of patients on topiramate discontinued therapy due to adverse events. Results of this study indicate that topiramate is a highly efficacious and generally well tolerated new AED. When large groups of patients are compared, incremental efficacy in the add-on setting is not observed at topiramate dosages above 600 mg/day; however, higher doses may prove beneficial to individual patients who tolerate them.
Treatment of manifestations: In infancy, special nipples or enteral tube feeding to assure adequate nutrition; physical therapy may improve muscle strength; hormonal and surgical treatments can be considered for cryptorchidism. In childhood, strict supervision of daily food intake based on height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to provide energy requirements while limiting excessive weight gain (keeping BMI Z score <2 or better) and encouraging physical activity. Growth hormone replacement therapy to normalize height, increase lean body mass and mobility, and decrease fat mass. Evaluation and treatment of sleep disturbance per the general population. Educational planning should be instigated and speech therapy provided if needed. Firm limit-setting to manage behavioral problems; serotonin reuptake inhibitors are helpful for most teenagers and adults. Replacement of sex hormones at puberty produces adequate secondary sexual characteristics. N-acetylcysteine or topiramate may help reduce skin picking. Modafinil has been successful in treating daytime sleepiness in many children. In adulthood, a group home for individuals with PWS that regulates behavior and weight management may prevent morbid obesity, and growth hormone may help to maintain muscle bulk. Prevention of secondary complications: Weight control to avoid development of type 2 diabetes mellitus; calcium and vitamin D supplementation to avoid osteoporosis; if osteoporosis develops, consider treatment with a bisphosphonate. Surveillance: Infants should be screened for strabismus; routine monitoring of height, weight, and BMI to assure appropriateness of exercise program and diet; annual testing for hypothyroidism. Other: No medications are currently known to aid in controlling hyperphagia, although several are under investigation.
In all 12 patients after 6 months of treatment, topiramate did not statistically influence aura frequency (P=.317) or duration (P=.480) compared with baseline. Mild to moderate side effects were observed, but they did not interfere with treatment. Consistent with previous observations, migraine frequency as well as headache intensity and duration improved statistically significantly.
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PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature searches from January 1, 1980, to October 15, 2010, were performed using the search terms anticonvulsant, antiepileptic drug, carbamazepine, divalproex, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pheno-barbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, valproate, valproic acid, and zonisamide; bioavailability, bioequivalence, bioequivalency, bioequivalent, and substitution; and generic.
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A total of 38 patients who were treated prophylactically with either topiramate (16 patients) or propranolol (22 patients) were identified. Fifty-nine percent of the patients in the propranolol group and 81% of the patients in the topiramate group reported freedom from attacks. A decrease of more than 50% in attacks per year occurred in 23% of patients in the propranolol group and 13% of patients in the topiramate group. The responder rates were 81% for propranolol group and 94% for topiramate group (P = 0.001). Despite minor adverse effects (drowsiness, nervousness, and dizziness) observed in a few patients, the adverse event rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.240).
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Topiramate (TPM) decreases tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress. We investigated protective effects of TPM on cell damage in kidney tissue during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage.
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Coadministration of TPM at daily doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg (nonobese) and 200 mg (obese) nonsignificantly (p > 0.05) changed the mean area under the curve (AUC) of ethinyl estradiol by -12%, +5%, -11%, and -9%, respectively, compared with OC monotherapy. A similar nonsignificant difference was observed with the plasma levels and AUC values of norethindrone (p > 0.05). CBZ (600 mg/day) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the AUC values of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol by 58% and 42%, respectively, and increased their respective oral clearance by 69% and 127% (p < 0.05). Because CBZ induces CYP 3A-mediated and glucuronide conjugation metabolic pathways, the significant increase in the oral clearance of ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone was anticipated.