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Topamax (Topiramate)

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Generic Topamax is a medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms. Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Neurontin, Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol


Also known as:  Topiramate.


Generic Topamax target is the treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms.

Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation. It is anticonvulsant.

Topamax is also known as Topiramate, Topaz.

Generic name of Generic Topamax is Topiramate.

Brand name of Generic Topamax is Topamax.


Take it orally at the same time every day, with or without food.

Generic Topamax can be taken twice a day (in the morning and in the evening).

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Topamax suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Topamax and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Topamax overdosage: feeling drowsy, problems with a speech, blurred vision, double vision, fatigue, lack of coordination, lack of consciousness, lightheadedness, pain of stomach, dyspepsia, vomiting, extreme hunger, agitation, depression, dyspnoea, confusion, decreased appetite, weakness of muscle, pain of bone, convulsion, coma.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Topamax are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Topamax if you are allergic to Generic Topamax components.

Do not take Generic Topamax if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful if you are taking ipratropium (such as Atrovent); motion sickness, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, urinary problems, Parkinson's disease, ulcers medicines; oral contraceptives; methazolamide; seizures medicines (carbamazepine (such as Tegretol), phenytoin (such as Phenytek, Dilantin); metformin (such as Glucophage); iron; salicylate pain relievers (such as choline salicylate (such as Arthropan), aspirin, choline magnesium trisalicylate (such as Trisalate), diflunisal (such as Dolobid), magnesium salicylate (such as Doan's); dichlorphenamide (such as Daranide); digoxin (such as Digitek, Lanoxin); zonisamide (such as Zonegran); tranquilizers; acetazolamide (such as Diamox); valproic acid (such as Depakote, Depakene); cholestyramine (such as Questran); sedatives; antidepressants; isoniazid (such as Nydrazid, INH); antihistamines, salsalate (such as Salgesic, Argesic, Disalcid), sleeping pills.

Be careful if you have lung, kidney or liver disease, diabetes, glaucoma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nearsightedness, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, kidney stones.

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Avoid being dehydrated.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

Be careful with Generic Topamax if you are going to have a surgery (dental or other).

If you experience drowsiness and dizziness while taking Generic Topamax you should avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery.

To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Generic Topamax.

Avoid alcohol while taking Generic Topamax.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Topamax taking suddenly.

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Upon meta-analysis, we found that patients receiving topiramate lost weight or had attenuated weight gain compared to control patients (weighted mean difference, -2.83 kg; 95% confidence interval, -4.62 to -1.03).

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The goal of the proposed research was to determine the effect of topiramate on basal and stimulated release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal ganglia neurons.

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These findings have extended our knowledge about essential tremor. It appears that a new, more distinct classification system is required. Recent treatments have remained unchanged.

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In a quasi-experimental study, monthly frequency, severity and duration of headache, migraine disability, and side-effects were evaluated in 100 children who were referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran from April 2011 to March 2012, and were treated with 3 mg/kg/day of TPM for three months.

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Early brain injury (EBI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) insults contributes to the poor prognosis and high mortality observed in SAH patients. Topiramate (TPM) is a novel, broad-spectrum, antiepileptic drug with a reported protective effect against several brain injuries. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of TPM for neuroprotection against EBI after SAH and the possible dose-dependency of this effect. An endovascular perforation SAH model was established in rats, and TPM was administered by intraperitoneal injection after surgery at three different doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg, and 80mg/kg). The animals' neurological scores and brain water content were evaluated, and ELISA, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were conducted to assess the effect of TPM. The results revealed that TPM lowers the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory mediators observed after SAH in a dose-related fashion, and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway is the target of neuroinflammation regulation. In addition, TPM ameliorated SAH-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis by influencing Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, and the effect of TPM was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Various dosages of TPM also upregulated the protein expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signalling molecules, GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1, GABAAR γ2, and K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) together and downregulated Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) expression. Thus, TPM may be an effective neuroprotectant in EBI after SAH by regulating neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death.

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In this paper we review the current information regarding the use of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used as monotherapy in children. We specifically include the following AEDs: lamotrigine (Lamictal), topiramate (Topamax), zonisamide (Zonegran), levetiracetam (Keppra), and oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). All of these AEDs have a broad spectrum of action in the treatment of partial and generalized seizures, except Oxcarbazepine, which is effective only in partial seizures. It is unclear whether or not monotherapy with the new AEDs offers higher efficacy and/or lower side effects compared to classic AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or valproate) thereby significantly improving the quality of life in children with epilepsy. More studies are needed to answer these questions.

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A total of 588 patients were included: LEV (n = 345), TPM (n = 190), and OXC (n = 53). Among them, 82% had focal epilepsy, whereas 14.8% had generalized epilepsy. The 3-year retention rates for LEV, TPM, and OXC, were 81.2%, 78.3%, and 54.7%, respectively. Levetiracetam and TPM had equivalent retention rates, whereas patients remained on OXC for a significantly shorter amount of time (P < 0.001). A lower retention rate for OXC was also evident in the subgroup analysis of focal epilepsy (P < 0.001). In generalized epilepsy, LEV and TPM revealed comparable retention rates (P = 0.255). The seizure-freedom rate did not differ among groups, whereas the rate of adverse effects leading to drug withdrawal of OXC (87.5%) was higher than that of LEV (34.4%, P < 0.001) and TPM (52.5%, P = 0.012).

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No association was found between DRD2, DRD3, SLC6A3 or HTR2A gene variants and treatment outcome. However, SLC6A4 STin2 12/12 carriers showed poor 6-month time point treatment outcome [32.8% in the good outcome group versus 64.0% in the poor outcome group, chi(2) (df) = 7.20 (1), corrected P = 0.042, OR (95% CI) = 0.27 (0.10-0.72)]. Nevertheless, independent analysis of each treatment group reveals that the excess of 12/12 carriers in the poor outcome group was only found in the naltrexone-treated group [24.1% versus 64.7% chi(2) (df) = 7.41 (1), corrected P = 0.042, OR (95% CI) = 0.17 (0.05-0.64)]. In the whole sample, the L-10 repeats haplotype (5-HTTLPR-STin2 VNTR) is associated with good outcome (LRT = 3.88, df = 1, P = 0.049).

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The correlation between unbound TPM concentrations in subdural CSF and abdominal subcutaneous ECF was good. The mean ratio of ECF/CSF TPM concentration was 0.93 (SD+/-0.03) and the correlation coefficient was 0.98. The mean ratio of ECF/total plasma TPM was 0.75 (SD+/-0.06), and the correlation coefficient was 0.99. The mean ratio of CSF/total plasma TPM was 0.81 (SD+/-0.06), and the correlation coefficient was 0.97.

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Up to 300 mg/d of topiramate (n = 183) or placebo (n = 188), along with a weekly compliance enhancement intervention.

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Concerning the antiepileptic drugs which alter thyroid hormone homeostasis, it is highly probable that the mechanism of induction of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) is involved, at least partially, in such an alteration. However, it is not possible to estimate the relative contribution of the UGT induction by these drugs on the total alteration observed in thyroid hormone levels, as other mechanisms not investigated, or not examined in the present article, could contribute.

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This retrospective chart review was done from hospital records in weekly Epilepsy outdoor clinic of Department of Neurology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) from October 1998 to February 2013. A total of 854 epilepsy patients met the eligibility criteria (had a complete record of two years of follow up data) from hospital database. A checklist was used to take demographics (age and gender), epilepsy treatment and adverse event related data. At least two years of follow up data were considered for analysis.

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Basal flow rates and VMR values recorded from the right and left MCA in group 1 were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Flow velocities obtained from the right and left MCA, and the VMR values in group 1 after topiramate treatment did not differ significantly from those in the control group (P > 0.05). In addition, the number of attacks, duration of pain, and VAS scores in group 1 were significantly lower after the treatment than before the treatment (P < 0.05).

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A 40-year-old man with diabetes and seizure disorder was found at home unresponsive and "very hot to touch" by his father 40 minutes before emergency medical services arrival. His usual medications included topiramate, divalproex sodium, and rosiglitazone/metformin. Paramedics administered oxygen, intravenous fluids, and naloxone. They did not witness or report seizure activity. Upon emergency department arrival, the patient was unresponsive (Glasgow Coma Scale 3), hypotensive (94/50 mm Hg), and tachypneic (32 breaths per minute), with a heart rate of 60 beats per minute and elevated rectal temperature peaking at 43.2°C. His skin was hot and dry, without rash; physical examination was otherwise normal. Laboratory studies revealed severe metabolic acidosis with acute renal failure and rhabdomyolysis. In spite of sedation, intubation, and aggressive cooling measures, the patient had cardiac arrest and died approximately 2 hours after arrival. Serum topiramate and valproate concentrations were within therapeutic ranges at 8.8 μg/mL (therapeutic 2-12) and 97 μg/mL (therapeutic 50-100), respectively.

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Of all the psychotropic medications currently available, the mood-stabilizing agents have the highest incidence of severe and life-threatening adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDRs). An exanthematous eruption in a patient treated with a mood-stabilizing agent should be viewed as possibly being the initial symptom of a severe and life-threatening ACDR, such as a hypersensitivity reaction, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis. The combination of mood-stabilizing agents may increase the risk of such reactions. The mood-stabilizing agents addressed in this article are carbamazepine, lithium carbonate, valproic acid, topiramate, lamotrigine, gabapentin, and oxcarbazepine. Prior to the initiation of a mood stabilizer, the potential benefits, risks, and adverse effects should be communicated to the patient. If possible, slow dose escalation should be attempted by the physician. Patients should also be advised to seek medical attention if they suspect a drug-induced skin reaction. If the physician suspects a severe ACDR, the offending agent should be removed immediately.

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Children taking TPM ≥1 month underwent an interview, renal ultrasound, and spot urine testing in this prospective study. Normal spot urine values were defined as: calcium/creatinine ratio ≤0.20 mg/mg (>12 months) or ≤0.60 mg/mg (≤12 months), citrate/creatinine ratio >0.50 mg/mg, and pH ≤ 6.7.

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The present results provide sound evidence for the ability of TPM to reduce fat and energy gains through reducing energetic efficiency in both lean and obese Zucker rats.

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We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial in 190 patients to evaluate the safety and efficacy of three dosages of topiramate (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/day) as adjunctive therapy for patients with refractory partial epilepsy. During an 18-week double-blind treatment period, median percent reductions from baseline in average monthly seizure rates were 1% for placebo, 41% for topiramate 600 mg/day and topiramate 800 mg/day, and 38% for topiramate 1,000 mg/day. There was a 50% or greater reduction from baseline in seizure frequency in 9% of patients in the placebo group and in 44% for topiramate 600 mg/day, 40% for topiramate 800 mg/day, and 38% for topiramate 1,000 mg/day. No placebo patients were improved by 75 to 100% in seizure frequency, whereas 20% of the topiramate patients were improved to this degree. All intent-to-treat drug-placebo comparisons including seizure reduction, percent responders, and investigator and patient global evaluations significantly (p < or = 0.02) favored topiramate. Treatment-emergent adverse events consisted mainly of neurologic symptoms commonly observed during antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy. Sixteen percent of patients on topiramate discontinued therapy due to adverse events. Results of this study indicate that topiramate is a highly efficacious and generally well tolerated new AED. When large groups of patients are compared, incremental efficacy in the add-on setting is not observed at topiramate dosages above 600 mg/day; however, higher doses may prove beneficial to individual patients who tolerate them.

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Treatment of manifestations: In infancy, special nipples or enteral tube feeding to assure adequate nutrition; physical therapy may improve muscle strength; hormonal and surgical treatments can be considered for cryptorchidism. In childhood, strict supervision of daily food intake based on height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to provide energy requirements while limiting excessive weight gain (keeping BMI Z score <2 or better) and encouraging physical activity. Growth hormone replacement therapy to normalize height, increase lean body mass and mobility, and decrease fat mass. Evaluation and treatment of sleep disturbance per the general population. Educational planning should be instigated and speech therapy provided if needed. Firm limit-setting to manage behavioral problems; serotonin reuptake inhibitors are helpful for most teenagers and adults. Replacement of sex hormones at puberty produces adequate secondary sexual characteristics. N-acetylcysteine or topiramate may help reduce skin picking. Modafinil has been successful in treating daytime sleepiness in many children. In adulthood, a group home for individuals with PWS that regulates behavior and weight management may prevent morbid obesity, and growth hormone may help to maintain muscle bulk. Prevention of secondary complications: Weight control to avoid development of type 2 diabetes mellitus; calcium and vitamin D supplementation to avoid osteoporosis; if osteoporosis develops, consider treatment with a bisphosphonate. Surveillance: Infants should be screened for strabismus; routine monitoring of height, weight, and BMI to assure appropriateness of exercise program and diet; annual testing for hypothyroidism. Other: No medications are currently known to aid in controlling hyperphagia, although several are under investigation.

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In all 12 patients after 6 months of treatment, topiramate did not statistically influence aura frequency (P=.317) or duration (P=.480) compared with baseline. Mild to moderate side effects were observed, but they did not interfere with treatment. Consistent with previous observations, migraine frequency as well as headache intensity and duration improved statistically significantly.

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PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature searches from January 1, 1980, to October 15, 2010, were performed using the search terms anticonvulsant, antiepileptic drug, carbamazepine, divalproex, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pheno-barbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, valproate, valproic acid, and zonisamide; bioavailability, bioequivalence, bioequivalency, bioequivalent, and substitution; and generic.

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A total of 38 patients who were treated prophylactically with either topiramate (16 patients) or propranolol (22 patients) were identified. Fifty-nine percent of the patients in the propranolol group and 81% of the patients in the topiramate group reported freedom from attacks. A decrease of more than 50% in attacks per year occurred in 23% of patients in the propranolol group and 13% of patients in the topiramate group. The responder rates were 81% for propranolol group and 94% for topiramate group (P = 0.001). Despite minor adverse effects (drowsiness, nervousness, and dizziness) observed in a few patients, the adverse event rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.240).

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Topiramate (TPM) decreases tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress. We investigated protective effects of TPM on cell damage in kidney tissue during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage.

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Coadministration of TPM at daily doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg (nonobese) and 200 mg (obese) nonsignificantly (p > 0.05) changed the mean area under the curve (AUC) of ethinyl estradiol by -12%, +5%, -11%, and -9%, respectively, compared with OC monotherapy. A similar nonsignificant difference was observed with the plasma levels and AUC values of norethindrone (p > 0.05). CBZ (600 mg/day) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the AUC values of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol by 58% and 42%, respectively, and increased their respective oral clearance by 69% and 127% (p < 0.05). Because CBZ induces CYP 3A-mediated and glucuronide conjugation metabolic pathways, the significant increase in the oral clearance of ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone was anticipated.

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topamax topiramate medication 2016-08-15

Of 38 patients who fulfilled the study entry criteria, 25 agreed to participate and completed all surveys. On the YSR, our sample exhibited twice the amount of psychiatric symptoms than age-matched norms. Furthermore, psychopathological symptoms increased with duration buy topamax of JME. According to WAI results, JME significantly affected self-restraint: patients with longer disease duration showed less self-control.

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Search terms included felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate buy topamax , tiagabine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and zonisamide. Studies were selected if efficacy and tolerability were reported as major outcome measures. Included studies (n = 55) enrolled a minimum of 20 adult subjects and had a treatment period of at least 6 weeks.

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TPM promptly elevates brain GABA and presumably offers partial protection against further seizures within hours of the first oral buy topamax dose. Patients may expect to experience the effects of increased homocarnosine and pyrrolidinone within 24 h.

4 mg topamax 2017-01-29

Evidence is emerging on the physiological processes underlying episodic migraine and the rationale for preventive treatment. Objectives for preventive treatment include limiting future pain and disability and potentially modulating the course of disease progression. Many factors influence medication choice for patients such as migraine type, patient preference, co-existing conditions, and medication side effects. In this paper, frequently prescribed treatment options for migraine prevention are reviewed. Most headache preventive medications treat other medical disorders and are found serendipitously to be beneficial in migraine or other headache disorders. A new treatment option is topiramate, with proven safety and buy topamax efficacy across the largest controlled migraine prevention trials conducted to date. New clinical information is enhancing patient care and enabling clinicians to ease the burden of migraine worldwide.

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Relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by a structured PubMed search, supplemented buy topamax by an additional hand search of reference lists and authors' files.

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Topiramate-antipsychotic cotreatment significantly reduced total, positive, negative, and general psychopathology and weight/BMI in buy topamax patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder while being well tolerated. However, larger studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings.

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When prescribing an oral contraceptive for patients receiving topiramate, clinicians should consider initial therapy with an agent containing > or = 35 microg of ethinyl buy topamax estradiol.

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Several drugs good evidence supporting efficacy. There is weak evidence supporting amitriptyline's superiority over some drugs. Selection of prophylactic medication should be tailored according to patient preferences, characteristics and side buy topamax effect profiles.

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Prevalence odds ratios (PORs) of any major birth defect diagnosed buy topamax within the first year of life by fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs.

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The frequency of convulsion seizures in the 20, 40 and 80 mg TPM treatment and TPM+FA groups was 44.7 +/- 2.9, 44.3 +/- 3.1, 42.7 +/- 3.2, and 40.8 +/- 3.7 respectively, which were significantly lower than that in the positive control group (48.4 +/- 3.7) (P <0.01). Twenty, forty and eighty mg TPM treatment and TPM+FA treatment significantly reduced NSE levels from 35.71 +/- 5.97 microg/L of the control buy topamax group to 27.40+/- 6.40, 24.79 +/- 6.22, 21.47 +/- 6.87 and 22.55 +/- 7.02 microg/L respectively (P <0.05). Neuronal apoptosis in the CA3 and CA1 regions were alleviated in the four TPM treatment groups compared with positive control. The number of necrotic neurons was progressively reduced with the increased dose of TPM. The 40 mg TPM+FA treatment group showed less necrotic neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions than the 40 mg TPM alone treatment group.

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Twelve participants were randomized to topiramate or buy topamax placebo for 12 weeks.

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Review of medical records of 17 type-2 diabetic patients, aged 63+/-11 years and a duration of diabetes of 15+/-8 years. All patients received intensified insulin therapy with 0.35 units/kg of NPH buy topamax insulin (2/3 before breakfast and 1/3 evening meal), plus capillary glucose measurements and regular insulin (with sliding-scale centered in approximately 0.1 units/kg) before the 3 main meals. All patients were also treated with gabapentin, nortriptyline or clomipramine. Pain was assessed using a visual analog score of 10 points.

topamax user reviews 2016-03-26

Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide used in the treatment of seizures, and prophylaxis of migraine. A number buy topamax of ocular side-effects have been described with use of topiramate, like bilateral angle closure, acute myopia and macular striae. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) clinches the diagnosis after ruling out other causes of shallow anterior chamber. Previous studies have not demonstrated internal limiting membrane folds presenting as macular striae. We report a case of topiramate-induced acute myopia with angle closure and macular striae in a young adult. This is the first report wherein striae formation after low doses of topiramate and their resolution have been documented by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).

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Scientific evidence regarding exercise in migraine prophylaxis is required. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise buy topamax in migraine prevention.

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Many patients with Lewy body dementia develop visual hallucinations and other psychiatric symptoms. These patients are hypersensitive to antipsychotic drugs. Although patients tolerate atypical better than typical antipsychotics, both types can cause major extrapyramidal side effects. The anticonvulsant mood stabilizer topiramate, which does not cause parkinsonism, has been used as adjuvant therapy for both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia; these symptoms can resemble those of Lewy body dementia. This report documents a 65-year-old woman with a 3-year history of progressive dementia that over the past 2 years had become complicated by severe extrapyramidal symptoms and agitated hallucinations. Her hallucinations became daily and were disrupting to her family. She was given a clinical diagnosis of Lewy body dementia after imaging and laboratory studies ruled out other etiologies. Treatment with olanzapine relieved her psychotic symptoms but caused severe dystonias, daily myoclonic jerks, and tremors. Stopping the olanzapine and starting topiramate 25 mg daily eliminated the hallucinations and agitation without worsening Tegretol 200 Mg her extrapyramidal side effects. However, the topiramate was stopped because the patient reportedly developed anorexia and significant weight loss. Her hallucinations returned. When topiramate was reinstated at 12.5 mg a day, her agitation resolved, although her hallucinations continued. After 6 months on this dose, her agitation was still fairly well controlled without serious side effects or worsening of her parkinsonian symptoms.

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This study investigated the effectiveness of Trileptal 6 Suspension topiramate (TPM) as an inhibitor of six isozymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA).

topamax medication uses 2016-03-24

Topiramate (TPM) has an evident efficacy in the treatment of childhood epilepsy for Effexor Generic Venlafaxine multiple pharmacologic properties. However it was reported that it may cause adverse effects such as liver failure and hepatitis, which arouses the attention of the medical field. This study aimed to investigate the hepatotoxicity of low-dosage, high-dosage TPM or TPM along with valproate sodium (VPA) in aspects of biochemistry indexes, oxidative stress indexes and liver pathomorphology in young rats.

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Gabapentin (GBP), lamotrigine (LTG), tiagabine (TGB), topiramate (TPM), vigabatrin (VGB), and zonisamide (ZNS) are all in use as "add-on" treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy. There have been no comparative randomized controlled trials allowing an evidence-based choice between these drugs. We report a series of meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled add-on trials in which these drugs have been tested in patients with partial epilepsy. This work provides an estimate of Glucotrol Xl Reviews each drug's efficacy and tolerability compared with placebo. These estimates are compared across drugs to give broad estimates of comparative efficacy and tolerability.

topamax maximum dosage 2016-08-16

The thermal behavior of some sulfone-containing drugs, namely, dapsone (DDS), dimethylsulfone (MSM), and topiramate (TOP) in drug substances, and products were investigated using different thermal techniques. These include thermogravimetry (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermogravimetric data allowed the determination of the kinetic parameters: activation energy (E(a)), frequency factor (A), and reaction order (n). The thermal degradation of dapsone and topiramate was followed a first-order kinetic behavior. The calculated data evidenced a Abilify Starting Dose zero-order kinetic for dimethylsulfone. The relative thermal stabilities of the studied drugs have been evaluated and follow the order DDS > TOP > MSM. The purity was determined using DSC for the studied compounds, in drug substances and products. The results were in agreement with the recommended pharmacopoeia and manufacturer methods. DSC curves obtained from the tablets suggest compatibility between the drugs, excipients and/or coformulated drugs. The fragmentation pathway of dapsone with mass spectrometry was taken as example, to correlate the thermal decomposition with the resulted MS-EI. The decomposition modes were investigated, and the possible fragmentation pathways were suggested by mass spectrometry.

topamax 50 mg 2015-04-02

Topiramate 100 and 200 mg/d significantly reduced mean monthly migraine frequency during 2 large, 26-week, Sporanox Liquid Cost randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Only a small number of clinical trials have examined the long-term (> or =1 year) effectiveness and safety of migraine preventive therapies.