High dose simvastatin therapy reduces proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB binding activity and hsCRP levels, while combination of low dose simvastatin with ezetimibe resulting in a similar LDL-reduction does not affect these inflammatory markers.
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Prescribed ezetimibe often stopped without either a recent lipid value or attainment of optimal, or sometimes minimum, lipid targets. Patients did not always receive parallel intensification of other LMT or a further ezetimibe prescription within 6 months.
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To evaluate the association between lowering LDL-C and relative cardiovascular risk reduction across different statin and nonstatin therapies.
Increased total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations are associated with atherosclerosis and risk for myocardial infarction and stroke. Those who have high cholesterol with other factors that predispose them to cardiovascular disease should be treated with cholesterol-lowering medications. The pathophysiology of hyperlipidemia is important in the proper selection of drug therapy. Patients who have increased cholesterol synthesis should be medicated with drugs that reduce in vivo cholesterol production, whereas those who have increased dietary absorption of cholesterol should be treated with drugs that inhibit dietary absorption. Sterol-based biomarkers are available to assess the cause of hypercholesterolemia and may have an impact on therapeutic selection.
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Several receptors have been identified as implicated on viral entry into the hepatocyte; and, this interaction between the virus and potential receptors could modulate infection, spontaneous viral clearance, persistence of the infection and the widespread of the virus as outbreak. Nevertheless, the playing role of each of them remains controversial. The Niemann-Pick type C1 like 1 gene (NPC1L1) receptor has been recently implicated on hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into the cell and ezetimibe, an anti-cholesterol drug seems to block that, emerging the idea to control hepatitis C outbreak modulating lipid-related receptors. Hepatitis C infection seems to modulate lipid metabolism according to host genetic background. Indeed, it circulates like a lipoviroparticle. The main aim of this field of vision would be to discuss the role of hepatocyte receptors implicated on virus entry, especially NPC1L1 and the therapeutic options derived from the better knowledge about HCV-lipids- receptors interaction.
During the therapy, the LDL-C and apoB levels decreased by 51.7% and 42.3% in group1 and by 51.8% and 44.9% in group 2, respectively. Reduction in the triglyceride levels was significantly more pronounced in group 2 than in group 1: 43.2% vs 17.4% (p<0.02), whereas we did not observed significant changes of HDL-C and apoA1 in either group. The increases in basal glycemia, basal insulinemia, HbA1c levels (from 6.47% [6.10-7.02%] to 6.98% [6.23-8.18%]), and HOMA-IR (from 2.14 [1.68-3.51] to 4.30 [2.31-5.77]) were found only in group 2 (p<0.05 for all). These changes were observed in 75% of patients of group 2 independently of the presence of diabetic state or IGT, but the changes were more pronounced in patients with disturbed carbohydrate metabolism. Changes of leptin levels during the therapy were diverse: 73% patients of group 1 demonstrated decrease in the leptin levels, whereas 67% of patients in group 2 experienced 57%-increase in the leptin concentrations. Degree of increased basal glycemia was associated with increase in the leptin levels (r=0.37, p=0.04) in the entire group of patients (n=31). Furthermore, changes in leptin levels were negatively associated with decreased adiponectin levels (r=-0.57, p=0.034).
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Statin therapy was discontinued at admission, and the patient was aggressively hydrated with 0.45% sodium chloride injection containing 50 mEq of sodium bicarbonate per liter at a rate of 250 mL/hour to alkalinize his urine. Hydration therapy alone decreased the patient's serum creatine kinase level to 910 units/L by day 7, but his serum creatinine remained elevated at 2.7 mg/dL. To manage rhabdomyolysis during hospitalization, the patient received a total of 6.7 liters of 0.45% sodium chloride injection with 50 mEq of sodium bicarbonate per liter. The patient was discharged 7 days after admission to a rehabilitation facility for continued strengthening of muscle tissue.
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A simple, rapid, and sensitive LC/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin (ROS) and ezetimibe (EZE) in human plasma. Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes and an internal standard, atorvastatin (ATO), were separated using an isocratic mobile phase comprising 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-methanol (20 + 80, v/v) on an RP-C18 column. Detection was performed on a mass spectrometer by selected ion monitoring using their respective [M-H]- ions, m/z 480 for ROS, m/z 408 for EZE, and m/z 557 for ATO. For both analytes, the method was linear in the range of 0.1 to 10 nglmL. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. A run time of 4 min made it possible to determine many plasma samples/day. The validated LC/ESI-MS method can be used to study pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and bioequivalence of combined dosage forms of ROS and EZE.
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Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. All patients were administered ezetimibe at the dose of 10 mg for once a day either alone or coadministered with statins. Patient's data were retrospectively obtained from their medical records. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples and analysed three NPC1L1 SNPs (rs2072183, rs217428 and rs217434) by the direct sequencing method.
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To provide preliminary descriptive data on the effects of apoE genotype on lipid and lipoprotein responses to the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe (Ezetrol/Zetia) in Hungarian subjects not at cholesterol goals at baseline.
In a cohort of patients receiving comprehensive CVD risk reduction therapy, delipidation of subclinical carotid plaque and reductions in CIMT predominantly occurred within 2 years, and correlated with changes in traditional biomarkers. These observations, generated from existing clinical data, provide unique insight into the longitudinal on-treatment changes in carotid plaque.
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We constructed NPC1L1 and HMGCR genetic LDL-C scores to naturally randomize participants into 4 groups: reference, lower LDL-C mediated by NPC1L1 polymorphisms, lower LDL-C mediated by HMGCR polymorphisms, or lower LDL-C mediated by polymorphisms in both NPC1L1 and HMGCR. We compared the risk of CHD (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction) among each group using a 2 × 2 factorial mendelian randomization study design.
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Enteric-coated fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe and lovastatin were prepared by fluid bed coating aiming to avoid the acidic conversion of lovastatin to its hydroxyacid derivative. In a two-step process, sucrose beads were layered with a glass solution of ezetimibe, lovastatin and Soluplus(®), top-coated with an enteric layer. The impact of different bead size, enteric polymers (Eudragit L100(®) and Eudragit L100-55(®)) and coating time was investigated. Samples were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction and in vitro studies in 0.1M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Results showed that smaller beads tend to agglomerate and release was jeopardized in acidic conditions, most likely due to irregular coating layer. Eudragit L100-55(®) required longer processing, but thinner coating layers provided lower drug release. Both polymers showed low drug release in acidic environment and fast release at pH 6.8. The off-line measurement of the coating thickness determined the ideal coating time as 15 and 30min for Eudragit L100-55(®) and Eudragit L100(®)-based samples, respectively. Both compounds were molecularly dispersed in Soluplus(®), and Eudragit L100(®) formulations showed concave pores on the surface, presenting higher drug release in acidic conditions. Stability studies after 6 months showed unaltered physical properties and drug release.
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Leishmaniasis affects mainly low-income populations in tropical regions. Radical innovation in drug discovery is time-consuming and expensive, imposing severe restrictions on the ability to launch new chemical entities for the treatment of neglected diseases. Drug repositioning is an attractive strategy for addressing a specific demand more easily. In this project, we have evaluated the antileishmanial activities of 30 drugs currently in clinical use for various morbidities. Ezetimibe, clinically used to reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption in dyslipidemic patients, killed Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 30 μM. Morphological analysis revealed that ezetimibe caused the parasites to become rounded, with multiple nuclei and flagella. Analysis by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) showed that promastigotes treated with ezetimibe had smaller amounts of C-14-demethylated sterols, and accumulated more cholesterol and lanosterol, than untreated promastigotes. We then evaluated the combination of ezetimibe with well-known antileishmanial azoles. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) indicated synergy when ezetimibe was combined with ketoconazole or miconazole. The activity of ezetimibe against intracellular amastigotes was confirmed, with an IC50 of 20 μM, and ezetimibe reduced the IC90s of ketoconazole and miconazole from 11.3 and 11.5 μM to 4.14 and 8.25 μM, respectively. Subsequently, we confirmed the activity of ezetimibe in vivo, showing that it decreased lesion development and parasite loads in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. We concluded that ezetimibe has promising antileishmanial activity and should be considered in combination with azoles in further preclinical and clinical studies.
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Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels constitute a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration is dictated partly by the efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption. The efficacy of treatments designed to block cholesterol absorption is partially offset to the extent that the liver compensates for the interruption to the enterohepatic movement of cholesterol by increasing the rate at which it synthesizes cholesterol. Currently, the most widely-used treatment for hypercholesterolemia is based on a class of agents (statins) that partially inhibit cholesterol synthesis within the body. Recent clinical trials with a unique, potent, and selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor (ezetimibe) used in combination with lower doses of various statins showed an additive reduction in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels which equaled the reduction achieved with maximal doses of statins given alone. Combination therapy using a statin and this novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor represents an efficacious new approach to the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in the general population.
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Although abnormal liver function tests occur in 50-80% of cases with Turner syndrome, there are no previous reports of overt hepatic disease or hepatic granulomas associated with Turner's syndrome. We report three cases of Turner syndrome associated with hepatic granulomas with a wide range of liver dysfunction. Of the three patients, first patient underwent liver transplantation; second patient remained stable on immunosuppressants; and third patient died from complications of decompensated liver cirrhosis as she declined liver transplantation due to multiple comorbidities. One patient had sitosterolemia, a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol metabolism, after she ingested β-sitosterol supplement and had worsening liver function tests and lipid panel. She had remarkably abnormal lipid panel that responded to ezetimibe and by stopping the β-sitosterol supplement.
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Combination therapy may help high-risk patients achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. Impact of rosuvastatin 10 or 20 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg (RSV10/EZE10 and RSV20/EZE10) has not been fully characterized previously. GRAVITY (NCT00525824) compared efficacy, safety and effect on biomarkers of RSV10/EZE10 and RSV20/EZE10 vs. simvastatin 40 mg and 80 mg plus EZE10 (SIM40/EZE10 and SIM80/EZE10) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD risk equivalent.
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The IMPROVE-IT trial randomly assigned 18 144 patients stabilized after acute coronary syndrome to simvastatin or ezetimibe/simvastatin. LDL-C and hs-CRP were measured at baseline and 1 month after randomization. Outcomes were assessed in those achieving one or both of the prespecified targets of LDL-C<70 mg/dL and hs-CRP<2 mg/L versus achieving neither target, adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics. An exploratory analysis examined targets of LDL-C<50 mg/dL and hs-CRP<1 mg/L. Patients meeting both targets at baseline, with no 1-month values, or with end points before 1 month were excluded. Of 15 179 patients, 39% achieved the dual LDL-C (<70 mg/dL) and hs-CRP (<2 mg/L) targets at 1 month, 14% met neither target, 14% met only the hs-CRP target, and 33% met only the LDL-C target. Those achieving dual targets had lower primary end point rates than those meeting neither target (cardiovascular death, major coronary event, or stroke; 38.9% versus 28.0%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; 0.66-0.81; P<0.001). More patients treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin met dual targets than those treated with simvastatin alone (50% versus 29%, P<0.001). The association of dual-target attainment with improved outcomes was similar irrespective of treatment assignment (P-interaction=0.65). Similar findings were observed using the exploratory targets.
Ezetimibe reduced total, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values as well as apolipoprotein B concentrations. Subfractionation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins showed that the reduction in LDL-C values was due to a fall in the concentrations of all LDL subfractions. However, a more pronounced trend towards a decrease in the concentrations of dense LDL subfractions was observed. Patients with triglyceride values >1.7 mmol/L had significantly greater reductions in the concentrations of small, dense LDL particles compared with those with normal triglyceride levels (49 vs. 19%, respectively; p < 0.05). Ezetimibe decreased the concentrations of HDL-C mainly due to a fall in the concentration of dense HDL subfractions.
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NPC1L1 is the molecular target of the cholesterol lowering drug Ezetimibe and mediates the intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Inhibition or deletion of NPC1L1 reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, resulting in reduction of plasma cholesterol levels.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients are at high risk for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite the use of statins, most patients do not achieve an optimal LDL-cholesterol goal. The aims of this study are to describe baseline characteristics and to evaluate Lipid Lowering Therapy (LLT) in FH patients recruited in SAFEHEART.
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The combination of rosuvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg offers the most effective LDL-C-lowering therapy yet reported, and is helpful in achieving lipid goals and reducing C-reactive protein levels in high-risk patients with severe hypercholesterolemia, including familial hypercholesterolemia.