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Zocor

Zocor is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Zocor is used to reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death due to coronary heart disease. It also reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke, blood vessel blockage, or chest pain caused by angina, it lows high cholesterol and triglycerides and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good") cholesterol levels. Zocor works by reducing the production of certain fatty substances in the body, including cholesterol.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Crestor, Zetia, Tricor, Pravachol, Mevacor, Lipitor

 

Also known as:  Simvastatin.

Description

Zocor is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.

Zocor is used to: reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death due to coronary heart disease; reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, blood vessel blockage, or chest pain caused by angina; low high cholesterol and triglycerides; increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good") cholesterol levels.

Zocor is also known as Imvastatin, Simlup, Simcardis, Ranzolont, Simvador.

Zocor works by reducing the production of certain fatty substances in the body, including cholesterol.

Generic name of Zocor is Simvastatin.

Brand name of Zocor is Zocor.

Dosage

Take Zocor orally.

Take Zocor with or without food.

Do not use grapefruit or grapefruit juice while taking Zocor. Eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice may increase the amount of Zocor in blood, what may increase the serious side effects.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Zocor suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Zocor and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zocor are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Zocor if you are allergic to Zocor components.

Be careful with Zocor if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby. Do not use it if you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Zocor if you suffer from low blood pressure, kidney problems, diabetes, serious infection, metabolism problems, hormonal problems.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Zocor.

While taking Zocor, you can make laboratory tests (blood cholesterol levels, liver function tests, creatine phosphokinase blood levels) to monitor the condition of your health.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Zocor suddenly.

zocor 20mg tablets

HO-1 was induced and persistently overexpressed in the hepatocytes 24 hr after simvastatin treatment. Simvastatin preconditioning diminished the elevation of serum ALT levels 4 hr after I/R injury (69.6+/-26.3 U/L) (P<0.05 vs. other groups) when compared with control (403.8+/-261.9 U/L) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP)-pretreated (717.5+/-205.6 U/L) groups. Simvastatin preconditioning diminished the apoptosis after I/R injury as well (apoptosis index: 26.4+/-8 for Simvastatin, 78+/-7 for control, and 85.3+/-2 for ZnPP group; P<0.05). The addition of ZnPP negated the protective effects of simvastatin as evidenced in the ALT level (406.2+/-243.0 U/L) and apoptosis index (75.6+/-6). The heme oxygenase activity in treated rats correlated with these results.

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Two specialist lipid clinics in the Netherlands.

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Clarithromycin is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, the major enzyme responsible for simvastatin metabolism. The concomitant administration of macrolide antibiotics and other hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have resulted in previous reports of rhabdomyolysis. Other factors may increase the risk of this drug interaction, including the administration of other medications that are associated with myopathy, underlying renal insufficiency, and administration of high doses of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

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Both PDGF and simvastatin facilitate dentoalveolar regeneration, and sequential PDGF-simvastatin release (SP group) further accelerated the regeneration process through the enhancement of osteoblastogenesis and the promotion of bone maturation.

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Analysis of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid (c) and superficial femoral (f) arteries values revealed positive correlation between baseline cIMT and VLDL-C (p = 0.038) and TG concentration (p = 0.008), as well as positive correlation between fIMT and baseline creatinine (p = 0.04) and LDL-C serum concentration (p = 0.032) after simvastatine treatment. Number of children with significant vessels pathology (Z-score > 2.0) was small. Increased cIMT was seen at baseline in 4 patients and in 5 after simvastatin treatment, however average and Z-score values in children under simvastatin treatment have decreased. Increased fIMT values were seen at baseline in 2 and in one case after simvastatin treatment. Tolerance of simvastation was very good in all cases but one.

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To estimate approximate doses of rosuvastatin equivalent to the other hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) for a temporary substitution program.

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Andrographolide (AND) and neoandrographolide (NEO) are the diterpenoids from the Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae). It is reported the diterpenoids exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of AND and NEO in hyperlipidemic mice induced by 75% yolk emulsion and in hyperlipidemic rats induced by high fat emulsion, respectively. The results showed that the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were reduced by AND and NEO in a dose-dependent tendency in mice. Compared with the model group, the plasma TC levels of experimental groups with AND and NEO at 100 mg/kg dosage decreased by 23.9 and 20.2% in rats, respectively (P < 0.05). It was also found that the plasma aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels were significantly decreased by feeding with AND and NEO in rats, compared with positive group (simvastatin) (P < 0.01). Otherwise, AND and NEO could protect the cardiovascular due to down-regulation of iNOS expression and up-regulation of eNOS expression. In conclusion, AND and NEO have potent hypolipidemic effects and protect the cardiovascular without significant liver damage.

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New drug formulations are sought for poorly water-soluble substances because there is a risk of compromised bioavailability if such substances are administered orally. Such active pharmaceutical ingredients can be reformulated as solid dispersions with suitable water-soluble polymers. In this contribution, formulation of a novel and physically stable dispersion of Simvastatin in poly(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (pHPMA) is demonstrated. Due to the limited water sorption of pHPMA and a high Tg, the prepared dispersion is more suited for oral administration and storage compared with neat amorphous Simvastatin. Surprisingly, the rate of global reorientation and the internal motion of Simvastatin molecules were enhanced and exhibited dynamical heterogeneities when incorporated into the pHPMA matrix. As revealed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance combined with Raman spectroscopy exploiting the fluorescence phenomenon the mobility of the ester and lactone components increased considerably, whereas the naphthalene ring remained rigid. Furthermore, the solid dispersion was found to be nano-heterogeneous with nanometer-sized Simvastatin domains. The presence of these clusters had no impact on the dynamics of the rigid pHPMA chains. Thus, the diffusion of Simvastatin molecules through the glassy pHPMA walls and the subsequent transformation of the clusters into larger crystallites were prevented. No crystallization was detected for more than two years.

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Sputum eosinophil percentages were reduced significantly by the combined therapy with budesonide and simvastatin compared with budesonide alone (P = .02). Corticosteroids activated glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand, which induces activation of p52 through the noncanonical nuclear factor κB pathway, leading to the increased transcription and activation of IDO. Simvastatin enhanced corticosteroid-activated noncanonical nuclear factor κB-dependent induction of IDO by activating type I interferons and also enhanced the effect of corticosteroid on IL-10 release.

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We examined whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) improve glucose intolerance in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats or not. The fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in GK rats than those in age-matched Wistar rats. All rats were given orally once a day 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, pravastatin 8 mg/kg, simvastatin 8 mg/kg, or atorvastatin 8 mg/kg. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and 3, 6 and 12 weeks after statin treatments. The hyperglycemic response to OGTT in GK rats significantly exceeded that in Wistar rats. The plasma insulin level in GK rats increased with age until 14-week-old (treated for 6 weeks), and then decreased. Glucose intake significantly increased the plasma insulin in almost all rats. The increment of plasma insulin due to OGTT in GK rats appeared to be less than that in Wistar rats, because the basal level was already high in GK rats. Pravastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin did not modify changes in blood glucose and plasma insulin induced by glucose intake. In conclusion, long-term treatments of GK rats with statins did not improve glucose intolerance observed during OGTT.

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Patients were recruited in a six-month period as planned. Two hundred three patients (94.0%) completed the treatment program and returned for their three-month follow-up visits. No safety concerns were reported. These findings suggest a high rate of patient acceptability, a finding that is bolstered by the majority of patients completing the trial (90%) indicating that they would take the Polypill "for life" if proven to be effective in reducing CVD risk. Approximately 86% of the physicians surveyed agreed with and supported use of the Polypill for primary prevention and 93% for secondary prevention of CVD. Both the Polypill and Standard Practice resulted in marked reductions in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and 10-year risk of CVD. However, the differences between the treatment groups were not statistically significant.

zocor dosage elderly

A review was conducted of all patients with active prescriptions for both simvastatin at doses greater than 20 mg per day and amiodarone from a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center as of November 1, 2008. Data collected included demographics, duration of therapy, baseline lipid and aminotransferase values, and risk factors for myopathy (i.e., aged 80 years or older; female sex; small body frame; hypothyroidism; hepatic or renal insufficiency; diabetes; alcohol abuse; and use of medications, such as gemfibrozil and nicotinic acid, that may increase the risk of myopathy). Patients were converted to either pravastatin or rosuvastatin based on baseline simvastatin dose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, and renal function. The conversion protocol was developed to maintain LDL-C lowering with potentially safer statins. Follow-up lipid and aminotransferase values were collected as customary clinical markers of efficacy and safety, respectively, for patients converted per the protocol. Because creatine kinase values are not routinely assessed in clinical practice, they were not available as part of the current protocol.

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OM3-CA did not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin or the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA. OM3-CA did not affect platelet function when co-administered with ASA.

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In the study, 32 ICR mice were randomly divided into 4 groups,each group including 8 mice. The drug-loaded collagen scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously onto the cranium of each mouse according to the groups: (1) 1:50 (volume ratio) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution + collagen scaffold (blank control group); (2) 10⁻³ mol/L SIM solution + collagen scaffold (SIM group); (3) 200 mg/L mSDF-1 solution + collagen scaffold (mSDF-1 group); and (4) 10® mol/L SIM +200 mg/L mSDF-1 solution + collagen scaffold (SIM + mSDF-1 group). One week after implantation, the mice were treated by injecting the same drug solution mentioned above around the scaffold once a day for two days. The specimens were harvested 6 weeks after implantation and the bone formation was evaluated by soft X-ray analysis, HE staining and immunohistochemical staining. Angiogenesis of each group was checked by calculation of vessels in each tissue section.

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Hypercholesterolemia in patients after renal transplantation composes a significant risk factor of cardio-vascular disease, it may also worsen graft survival. Statins are the most potent drugs to lower blood cholesterol. They also posses numerous pleiotropic abilities. The paper presents benefits of the use of statins in patients after renal transplantation, as well as the dangers related to the side effects of these drugs. It underlines that adequate use of statins is worth considering in patients after renal transplantation, taking into account not only their ability to lower cholesterol but also their additional properties positively influencing graft survival.

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Coincubation of RMC with HG, AGE or H(2)O(2) resulted in a significant increase of the expression of TGF-β and Col IV (p < 0.05). Simvastatin significantly inhibited HG-, AGE- or H(2)O(2)-induced expression of TGF-β and Col IV (p < 0.05). Moreover, simvastatin also inhibited HG-, AGE- and H(2)O(2)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which indicated that the preventive effect of simvastatin on TGF-β and Col IV may be associated with p38.

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The statins significantly reduced total serum cholesterol levels, LDL-cholesterol levels, and aortic atherosclerosis. The MDA content was also significantly reduced in native and oxidized LDL, as well as in the arterial wall. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly greater in the treated group compared with that in the hypercholesterolemic group.

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Porcine retinal arterioles ( approximately 75 mum internal diameter) were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized (55 cmH(2)O) without flow for in vitro study. Diameter changes in response to simvastatin were recorded using videomicroscopic techniques.

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The mean number of years of life saved ranged from 3 to 3.4 years for men with diabetes versus 2.4 to 2.7 years for men with cardiovascular disease. In women, the estimated benefits were 1.6 to 2.4 years for those with diabetes versus 1.6 to 2.1 years for those with cardiovascular disease. Total population benefits were also substantial for patients with diabetes (25.4 million person-years of life saved) and those with cardiovascular disease (16.0 million person-years of life saved).

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We found that lower out-of-pocket expenses associated with the initiating statin had a positive impact on persistence with therapy. The finding does not seem to apply to persons with minor copayments towards the end of the initiation year.

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In the analysis limited to direct costs, the cost of each year of life gained ranged from $3,800 for 70-year-old men with 309 mg of cholesterol per deciliter to $27,400 for 35-year-old women with 213 mg of cholesterol per deciliter. When we included indirect costs, the results ranged from a savings in the youngest patients to a cost of $13,300 per year of life gained in 70-year-old women with 213 mg of cholesterol per deciliter.

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zocor tablet 2016-08-06

Review of the medication history indicates a temporal association between the addition of 3 drugs (simvastatin, verapamil, and buy zocor digoxin) to the medication regimen already containing cyclosporine and the episode of rhabdomyolysis. All of these drugs are cytochrome P450 3A4 and/or P-glycoprotein substrates that are known from previous pharmacokinetic studies to individually produce substantial increases in levels of simvastatin.

zocor max dosage 2016-05-03

Left atrial (LA) size is known to increase with persistently increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. We therefore hypothesized that LA volume might reflect the severity of aortic valve stenosis (AS). Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 1,758 patients with asymptomatic AS (transaortic Doppler velocity > or =2.5 and < or =4 m/s) in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. LA buy zocor volume was measured in end-systole in the apical 4-chamber view in 1,503 patients (85%), and aortic valve area (AVA) was estimated by the continuity equation and indexed by body surface area. Mean values for age and AVA were 67 +/- 10 years and 1.27 +/- 0.5 cm2, respectively, and 574 were women (38%). Mean value for LA volume indexed (LAVI) was 36 +/- 13 ml/m2. Enlargement of LA volume (> or =32 ml/m2) was found in 57% of patients. AVA indexed was significantly correlated to LAVI (r = -0.1, p = 0.0002). Multivariate analysis showed that LAVI was significantly related to AVA indexed (beta = -4.1, p = 0.007) in a model that also included mitral regurgitation (beta = 2.8, p <0.0001), history of hypertension (beta = 2.2, p = 0.002), LV end-diastolic volume (beta = 0.05, p <0.0001), presence of LV hypertrophy (beta = 3.4, p <0.0001), and restrictive LV filling pattern (beta = 3.5, p = 0.01). Gender and LV ejection fraction were eliminated from the final model. In conclusion, LA volume is often enlarged in asymptomatic patients with AS. Furthermore, LA volume is related to AVA even when adjusting for other known risk factors for increased LA volume including of measurements of diastolic function.

zocor 40 mg 2016-07-09

The literature supports the comparable safety and tolerability of all 4 currently available HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Therefore, the choice of an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor should depend on the extent of cholesterol lowering needed to meet the recommended treatment goal established by the National Cholesterol Education Program. Direct comparative studies are buy zocor needed to confirm the relative, long-term cost-effectiveness of the various HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia.

zocor dose limitations 2016-10-14

Inhibition of endothelial HMG CoA reductase upregulates ecNOS expression predominantly by posttranscriptional mechanisms. These findings suggest that HMG CoA reductase inhibitors may have beneficial effects in atherosclerosis buy zocor beyond that attributed to the lowering of serum cholesterol by increasing ecNOS activity.

zocor generic equivalent 2015-01-06

We evaluated in a single-blind randomized trial of 28 ESRD patients on hemodialysis, the dose-depending effects of both atorvastatin and simvastatin on lipids, lipoproteins, LDL particle heterogeneity, high sensitive-CRP, and markers of in buy zocor vivo LDL oxidation.

zocor drug classification 2015-02-19

Treatment with simvastatin suppresses the development of buy zocor CAs by inhibiting inflammatory reactions in aneurysmal walls. Simvastatin also has a preventive effect on the progression of preexisting CAs. Simvastatin is a promising candidate of a novel medical treatment for the prevention of CA progression.

zocor maximum dosage 2016-08-09

A review was conducted of all patients with active prescriptions for both simvastatin at doses greater than 20 mg per day and amiodarone from a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center as of November 1, 2008. Data collected included demographics, duration of therapy, baseline lipid and aminotransferase values, and risk factors for myopathy (i.e., aged 80 years or older; female sex; small body frame; hypothyroidism; hepatic or renal insufficiency; diabetes; alcohol abuse; and use of medications, such as gemfibrozil and nicotinic acid, that may increase the risk of myopathy). Patients were converted to either pravastatin or rosuvastatin based on buy zocor baseline simvastatin dose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, and renal function. The conversion protocol was developed to maintain LDL-C lowering with potentially safer statins. Follow-up lipid and aminotransferase values were collected as customary clinical markers of efficacy and safety, respectively, for patients converted per the protocol. Because creatine kinase values are not routinely assessed in clinical practice, they were not available as part of the current protocol.

buy online zocor 2016-09-24

The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), Research Foundation Flanders (FWO buy zocor -Vlaanderen), Marguerite-Marie Delacroix Foundation, and the Dutch Neurofibromatosis Association (NFVN).

zocor 100 mg 2017-01-13

Some of the statin-induced reduction in cardiac events in patients with atherosclerosis may be derived from mechanisms independent of lipid buy zocor lowering. This study tested in nonhuman primates whether statins can influence inflammation (indicated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-1beta, tissue factor, and macrophages) and features of plaque stability (indicated by collagen and smooth muscle cells) independent of their effect on plasma cholesterol level.

zocor tablets 2016-01-22

The measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries has emerged as the method of choice buy zocor for determining the anatomic extent of atherosclerosis and assessing cardiovascular progression. Statins are used in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders so as to reduce morbidity and mortality.

medication zocor 2015-11-18

Aggressive intervention to achieve lipid goals for adolescents with HeFH is recommended to buy zocor reduce risk of premature cardiovascular disease.

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The absolute risk of teratogenicity of statins, if any, appears relatively small. A large buy zocor -scale study is needed to further characterize the teratogenic potential.

zocor reviews 2017-07-07

Statins have antiproliferative and anti-tumoral effects in MCF-7 cells. We determined the effect of statins upon MCF-7 cell cycle, toxicity, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential. Fluvastatin, simvastatin and atorvastatin inhibited cell proliferation. Antiproliferation was associated with a decrease in the DNA synthesis and a cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2/M phases. A loss in the mitochondrial buy zocor membrane potential was observed with fluvastatin. Statins induced increase in ROS production that was associated with cell death, which was abrogated by the antioxidant NAC. Our results suggest that the cytotoxic effect observed is mediated by an oxidative stress.

zocor missed dose 2015-05-28

An 85-year-old man with a chief complaint of profound weakness was admitted to the hospital with a blood pressure reading of 60/32 mm Protonix Gtt Dosing Hg and a heart rate of 37 beats/min. His medical history included type 2 diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoarthritis, restless leg syndrome, benign prostatic hyperplasia, generalized anxiety disorder with depression, and severe chronic back pain for which he was receiving treatment at a pain clinic. Two days before hospital admission, he had been seen at the pain clinic and started on ti-zanidine. Additional medications included acetaminophen, chlorpromazine, citalopram, finasteride, lidocaine patch, lisinopril, metformin, pramipexole, omeprazole, simvastatin, theophylline, diclofenac topical gel, hydrocodone-acetaminophen, and ondansetron. After taking three doses of the newly prescribed tizanidine, he developed severe hypotension and bradycardia. Notable laboratory test values included a serum creatinine concentration of 1.90 mg/dL, a blood urea nitrogen concentration of 21 mg/dL, a serum potassium concentration of 5.5 meq/L, and a serum sodium concentration of 128 meq/L. Upon admission, tizanidine, lisinopril, theophylline, omeprazole, and simvastatin were withheld, and i.v. fluids were administered. The patient's vital signs began to gradually improve. Within 24 hours, the patient's blood pressure and heart rate had improved, as had the previously abnormal laboratory test values. Tizanidine was discontinued, and all of his other preadmission medications were restarted at discharge.

simvastatin zocor generic 2017-09-24

Additional health care costs per major atherosclerotic event avoided and Celexa 5 Mg per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.

zocor dosage information 2015-12-07

We studied 56 patients affected by primary hypercholesterolemia treated with placebo for 1 month and with simvastatin (20 mg/day) or pravastatin (20 mg/day) for 6 months during a double-blind clinical trial. At 1-month intervals we determined the following parameters in the serum: total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein A-1 and B. At the same time intervals we also determined the cholesterol and phospholipid concentration, the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, and the fluidity of erythrocyte membranes. Our results demonstrated the following modifications in the erythrocyte membranes during simvastatin and pravastatin treatments: (1) an initial increase in cholesterol concentration and in cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio, with a significant decrease only after 4 months; (2) a similar behavior of membrane fluidity, with an initial decrease and an elevation after 4 months; (3) an increase in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity only after 4 months. We hypothesize that simvastatin and pravastatin not only inhibit the hepatic synthesis of cholesterol Glucotrol Maximum Dosage , but also modify the cholesterol exchange between plasma and the erythrocyte membrane.

zocor cost 2017-08-17

Rehabilitation was performed in 66 patients with previous myocardial infarction treated invasively (27 CABG and 39 PTCA), who constituted group Levitra Dosage Reviews I. A control group (group II) consisted of 32 patients with previous myocardial infarction also treated invasively (24 CABG and 8 PTCA), but not subjected to rehabilitation. The two analyzed groups did not differ significantly from each other as to age, applied drug regimen, current clinical status, echocardiographic parameters and BMI values. Group I was subjected to 6-month cardiac rehabilitation program, comprising 45-minute training on cycle ergometer (three times per week) and generally improving exercises (2 times per week). Blood concentration of lipidogram fractions was assessed: total cholesterol (TC), HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and triglicerides (TG) at the onset and upon completion of the rehabilitation cycle.

zocor 500 mg 2017-03-17

The present study investigated the probable role of simvastatin, 3-hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, in abrogated cardioprotection in hyperhomocysteinemic (Hhcy) rat hearts. Isolated Langendorff's perfused normal and Hhcy rat hearts were subjected to 30-min global ischemia (I) followed by 120-min reperfusion (R). Assessment of myocardial damage was done by measuring infarct size and analyzing Lopressor Generic Pictures the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) in coronary effluent. In addition, the oxidative stress in the heart was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion generation. I/R produced myocardial injury in normal and Hhcy rat hearts by increasing myocardial infarct size, LDH and CK in coronary effluent and oxidative stress. Hhcy rat hearts showed enhanced myocardial injury and high oxidative stress as compared to normal hearts. Treatment with Simvastatin (10 μMol) afforded cardioprotection against I/R-induced myocardial injury in normal and hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts as assessed in terms of reductions in myocardial infarct size, LDH and CK levels in coronary effluent and oxidative stress. The reductions in the high degree of oxidative stress may be responsible for the observed cardioprotection afforded by simvastatin against I/R-induced myocardial injury in normal and hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts.

zocor simvastatin reviews 2015-11-24

Enhanced proliferation of smooth muscle cells contributes to airway remodeling of bronchial asthma. Recently, statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, have been shown to inhibit proliferation of both vascular and airway smooth muscle cells independently of lowering cholesterol. However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine molecular processes by which statins inhibit proliferation of human bronchial smooth muscle cells. Simvastatin (0.1-1.0 muM) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and DNA synthesis induced by FBS in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of simvastatin were antagonized by mevalonate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate, whereas the effects were not affected by squalene and farnesylpyrophosphate. The antiproliferative effects of simvastatin were mimicked by GGTI-286, a geranylgeranyltransferase-I inhibitor, C3 exoenzyme, an inhibitor of Rho, and Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, a target protein of RhoA. Western blot analysis showed that the level of membrane localization of RhoA (active Rho) was markedly increased by FBS, and that the level of active RhoA increased by FBS was reduced by simvastatin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on FBS-induced Trileptal 600mg Cost RhoA activation was also antagonized by geranylgeranylpyrophosphate, but not by farnesylpyrophosphate. Because these isoprenoids are required for prenylation of small G proteins RhoA and Ras, respectively, the present results demonstrate that an inhibition in airway smooth muscle cell proliferation by simvastatin is due to prevention of geranylgeranylation of RhoA, not farnesylation of Ras. Therefore, statins may have therapeutic potential for prohibiting airway remodeling in bronchial asthma.

zocor overdose 2016-08-24

Statins, which are commonly used drugs for hypercholesterolemia, inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. Important nonsterol compounds, such as ubiquinone, are also derived from the same synthetic pathway. Therefore it has been hypothesized that statin treatment causes ubiquinone deficiency in muscle cells, which could interfere with cellular respiration Botox Treatments Cost causing severe adverse effects. In this study we observed decreased serum levels but an enhancement in muscle tissue ubiquinone levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia after 4 weeks of simvastatin treatment. These results indicate that ubiquinone supply is not reduced during short-term statin treatment in the muscle tissue of subjects in whom myopathy did not develop.

drug zocor 2016-10-31

This article reviews the pharmacokinetic properties of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (or statins), as reported in humans. Most data presented here refer to commercially available statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin and simvastatin), although statins that have recently been withdrawn (cerivastatin) or are currently under development (glenvastatin, pitavastatin and rosuvastatin) will also be considered. All statins with the exception of pitavastatin show very low systemic bioavailability due to an extensive first pass effect at the intestinal and/or hepatic level. Such a characteristic can be advantageous, since the liver is the target organ for statins. Unlike most statins, lovastatin and simvastatin are administered as inactive lactone prodrugs. Statins differ mainly in the degree of metabolism and the number of active and inactive metabolites. All statins Vasotec Iv Dosage but pravastatin show highly active metabolites, the pharmacological activity depending on the kinetic profile of both parent compound and active metabolites. Pravastatin has the lowest protein binding (50% vs. > 90%) and is eliminated by both metabolism and renal excretion. Atorvastatin shows the longest terminal half-life (11-14 h vs. 1-3 h). Pharmacokinetic interactions with statins are very likely to occur, particularly for those statins that are CYP3A4 substrates. However, although of extreme interest in clinical practice, this subject was extensively reviewed in a previous article and therefore is not discussed here.

zocor 20 mg 2016-03-14

A total of 20,485 patients (53% male; 4099 in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group and 16,396 in the statin group) were included, with a mean age of 59.1 years. In a total of 37,388 person-years, 1100 patients developed new-onset MACE. The annual incidence rate of new-onset MACE was lower in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group (2.61%) than that in the statin group (3.02%) (p=0.0476). After Cox regression analysis, simvastatin-ezetimibe use was independently associated with a lower risk of MACE (HR, 0.77; 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.90).

zocor cold medicine 2016-07-20

The combination of Simvastatin and Ezetimibe allows dual inhibition of both cholesterol production and absorption. This treatment approach allows achieving same low serum cholesterol levels with the administration of much lower doses of statins. This should reduce side effects, compared to statin only therapy, enabling more patients to achieve their LDL cholesterol treatment goals. With ezetimibe/simvastatin therapy, reductions of about 60% from baseline in LDL cholesterol have been shown. Concomitant improvement in other lipid fractions have also been demonstrated. The ezetimibe/simvastatin combination has been well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to that of statin therapy. This article will review clinical experience with ezetimibe/simvastatin combination, commenting upon its place and potential value in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

zocor safe dosage 2017-12-28

Serum ubiquinone levels were studied during long- and short-term treatment with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors in 17 men with primary non-familial hypercholesterolaemia. The serum ubiquinone levels were determined after the patients had received simvastatin (20-40 mg per day) for 4.7 years, after a 4 week treatment pause and again after they had resumed treatment with lovastatin (20-40 mg per day) for 12 weeks. During the treatment pause the average serum ubiquinone levels increased by 32%; resumption of treatment caused a reduction of 25%. The changes in the levels of ubiquinone and serum total cholesterol as well as those of ubiquinone and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were closely parallel. This suggested that changes in serum ubiquinone reflected changes in cholesterol-containing serum lipoproteins which could serve as carrier vehicles for ubiquinone. After long-term simvastatin treatment and after short-term lovastatin treatment, average serum ubiquinone levels (1.16 and 1.22 mg.l-1, respectively) were similar to that observed in a group of apparently healthy middle-aged men (1.16 mg.l-1).

zocor with alcohol 2016-04-25

This review provides examples of the fact that different procedures for the measurement of atherosclerosis in mice may lead to interpretation of the extent of atherosclerosis having markedly different biological and clinical significance for humans: 1) aortic cholesterol measurement is highly sensitive for the detection of early and advanced atherosclerosis lesions, but misses the identification of the location and complexity of these lesions that are so critical for humans; 2) the histological analysis of the aortic root lesions in simvastatin-treated and control mice reveals similar lesion morphology in spite of the remarkable simvastatin-induced reduction of the aortic cholesteryl ester content; 3) in histological analyses, chemical fixation and inclusion may extract the tissue fat and also shrink and distort tissue structures. Thus, the method may be less sensitive for the detection of slight differences among the experimental groups, unless a more suitable procedure employing physical fixation with histological sample freezing using optimal cutting temperature and liquid nitrogen is employed. Thus, when measuring experimental atherosclerosis in mice, investigators should be aware of several previously unreported pitfalls regarding the extent, location and complexity of the arterial lesion that may not be suitable for extrapolation to human pathology.

zocor mg 2016-08-01

Subgroup analysis of the FINRISK study, a national study of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Finland. Study participants, the subgroup of patients on lipid-lowering therapy from FINRISK, completed a postal self-administered questionnaire on health/health behavioral factors. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and other clinical variables were measured using a standardized protocol. Ten-year coronary risk was computed using Framingham risk equations. The influence of certain factors on goal attainment was determined by logistic regression analysis. The main outcome measure was the proportion of subjects who were receiving lipid-lowering therapy and achieved a TC goal of <5 mmol/L (<194 mg/dL).

zocor pill identifier 2015-10-07

Although several studies have reported a lower risk of osteoporotic fracture in hypercholesterolemic patients treated with statins, so far longitudinal studies on the effects of statins on bone are lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover changes induced by 1-year simvastatin treatment on postmenopausal women. Thirty consecutive postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women (61.2 +/- 4.9 years) were treated for 12 months with 40 mg/day simvastatin and 30 normocholesterolemic age-matched postmenopausal women provided control data. In all subjects, at baseline and at 3-month intervals, serum lipids, calcium, phosphate, total and bone alkaline phosphatase (Bone-ALP), and carboxy-terminal fragment of type I collagen (CTx) were measured in a fasting blood sample. At baseline and after 6 and 12 months BMD was measured at lumbar spine (BMD-LS) and at femur (BMD-Ftot) and at femoral neck (BMD-Fn) by DXA. In the simvastatin-treated group Bone-ALP showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) with respect to baseline from the sixth month, whereas serum CTx showed a weak and nonsignificant increase over the study period. In treated women BMD-LS, BMD-Fn, and BMD-Ftot increased respectively by 1.1, 0.9, and 0.4% at Month 6; and by 2.8, 1.0, and 0.8% at Month 12. In controls BMD-LS, BMD-Fn, and BMD-Ftot at the end of the study period decreased by 1.6, 1.4, and 1.2%, respectively. The difference between controls and simvastatin-treated patients was significant (P < 0.05) for both BMD-LS and BMD-Fn only at Month 12. In conclusion our results, although obtained from a small sample of postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women, suggest a probable positive effect of simvastatin on bone formation and BMD.

zocor generic cost 2017-07-26

In order to investigate the potential involvement of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) dysfunction in myotoxicity associated with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment, assessment was made of ETC activity and ubiquinone status in two patients experiencing myopathy following treatment with simvastatin (40 mg/day) and cyclosporin (patient 1) and simvastatin (40 mg/day) and itraconazole (patient 2). Analysis of skeletal muscle biopsies revealed a decreased ubiquinone status (77 and 132; reference range: 140-580 pmol/mg) and cytochrome oxidase (complex IV) activity (0.006 and 0.007 reference range: 0.014-0.034). To assess statin treatment in the absence of possible pharmacological interference from cyclosporin or itraconazole, primary astrocytes were cultured with lovastatin (100 microM). Lovastatin treatment resulted in a decrease in ubiquinone (97.9 +/- 14.9; control: 202.9 +/- 18.4 pmol/mg; p < 0.05), and complex IV activity (0.008 +/- 0.001; control: 0.011 +/- 0.001; p < 0.05) relative to control. These data, coupled with the patient findings, indicate a possible association between statin treatment, decreased ubiquinone status, and loss of complex IV activity.

zocor dosage 2017-06-06

Optimal concentration of Simvastatin can improve the osteoblastic activity of human PDL.