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HO-1 was induced and persistently overexpressed in the hepatocytes 24 hr after simvastatin treatment. Simvastatin preconditioning diminished the elevation of serum ALT levels 4 hr after I/R injury (69.6+/-26.3 U/L) (P<0.05 vs. other groups) when compared with control (403.8+/-261.9 U/L) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP)-pretreated (717.5+/-205.6 U/L) groups. Simvastatin preconditioning diminished the apoptosis after I/R injury as well (apoptosis index: 26.4+/-8 for Simvastatin, 78+/-7 for control, and 85.3+/-2 for ZnPP group; P<0.05). The addition of ZnPP negated the protective effects of simvastatin as evidenced in the ALT level (406.2+/-243.0 U/L) and apoptosis index (75.6+/-6). The heme oxygenase activity in treated rats correlated with these results.
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Two specialist lipid clinics in the Netherlands.
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Clarithromycin is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, the major enzyme responsible for simvastatin metabolism. The concomitant administration of macrolide antibiotics and other hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have resulted in previous reports of rhabdomyolysis. Other factors may increase the risk of this drug interaction, including the administration of other medications that are associated with myopathy, underlying renal insufficiency, and administration of high doses of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.
Both PDGF and simvastatin facilitate dentoalveolar regeneration, and sequential PDGF-simvastatin release (SP group) further accelerated the regeneration process through the enhancement of osteoblastogenesis and the promotion of bone maturation.
Analysis of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid (c) and superficial femoral (f) arteries values revealed positive correlation between baseline cIMT and VLDL-C (p = 0.038) and TG concentration (p = 0.008), as well as positive correlation between fIMT and baseline creatinine (p = 0.04) and LDL-C serum concentration (p = 0.032) after simvastatine treatment. Number of children with significant vessels pathology (Z-score > 2.0) was small. Increased cIMT was seen at baseline in 4 patients and in 5 after simvastatin treatment, however average and Z-score values in children under simvastatin treatment have decreased. Increased fIMT values were seen at baseline in 2 and in one case after simvastatin treatment. Tolerance of simvastation was very good in all cases but one.
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To estimate approximate doses of rosuvastatin equivalent to the other hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) for a temporary substitution program.
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Andrographolide (AND) and neoandrographolide (NEO) are the diterpenoids from the Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae). It is reported the diterpenoids exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of AND and NEO in hyperlipidemic mice induced by 75% yolk emulsion and in hyperlipidemic rats induced by high fat emulsion, respectively. The results showed that the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were reduced by AND and NEO in a dose-dependent tendency in mice. Compared with the model group, the plasma TC levels of experimental groups with AND and NEO at 100 mg/kg dosage decreased by 23.9 and 20.2% in rats, respectively (P < 0.05). It was also found that the plasma aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels were significantly decreased by feeding with AND and NEO in rats, compared with positive group (simvastatin) (P < 0.01). Otherwise, AND and NEO could protect the cardiovascular due to down-regulation of iNOS expression and up-regulation of eNOS expression. In conclusion, AND and NEO have potent hypolipidemic effects and protect the cardiovascular without significant liver damage.
New drug formulations are sought for poorly water-soluble substances because there is a risk of compromised bioavailability if such substances are administered orally. Such active pharmaceutical ingredients can be reformulated as solid dispersions with suitable water-soluble polymers. In this contribution, formulation of a novel and physically stable dispersion of Simvastatin in poly(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (pHPMA) is demonstrated. Due to the limited water sorption of pHPMA and a high Tg, the prepared dispersion is more suited for oral administration and storage compared with neat amorphous Simvastatin. Surprisingly, the rate of global reorientation and the internal motion of Simvastatin molecules were enhanced and exhibited dynamical heterogeneities when incorporated into the pHPMA matrix. As revealed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance combined with Raman spectroscopy exploiting the fluorescence phenomenon the mobility of the ester and lactone components increased considerably, whereas the naphthalene ring remained rigid. Furthermore, the solid dispersion was found to be nano-heterogeneous with nanometer-sized Simvastatin domains. The presence of these clusters had no impact on the dynamics of the rigid pHPMA chains. Thus, the diffusion of Simvastatin molecules through the glassy pHPMA walls and the subsequent transformation of the clusters into larger crystallites were prevented. No crystallization was detected for more than two years.
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Sputum eosinophil percentages were reduced significantly by the combined therapy with budesonide and simvastatin compared with budesonide alone (P = .02). Corticosteroids activated glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand, which induces activation of p52 through the noncanonical nuclear factor κB pathway, leading to the increased transcription and activation of IDO. Simvastatin enhanced corticosteroid-activated noncanonical nuclear factor κB-dependent induction of IDO by activating type I interferons and also enhanced the effect of corticosteroid on IL-10 release.
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We examined whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) improve glucose intolerance in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats or not. The fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in GK rats than those in age-matched Wistar rats. All rats were given orally once a day 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, pravastatin 8 mg/kg, simvastatin 8 mg/kg, or atorvastatin 8 mg/kg. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and 3, 6 and 12 weeks after statin treatments. The hyperglycemic response to OGTT in GK rats significantly exceeded that in Wistar rats. The plasma insulin level in GK rats increased with age until 14-week-old (treated for 6 weeks), and then decreased. Glucose intake significantly increased the plasma insulin in almost all rats. The increment of plasma insulin due to OGTT in GK rats appeared to be less than that in Wistar rats, because the basal level was already high in GK rats. Pravastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin did not modify changes in blood glucose and plasma insulin induced by glucose intake. In conclusion, long-term treatments of GK rats with statins did not improve glucose intolerance observed during OGTT.
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Patients were recruited in a six-month period as planned. Two hundred three patients (94.0%) completed the treatment program and returned for their three-month follow-up visits. No safety concerns were reported. These findings suggest a high rate of patient acceptability, a finding that is bolstered by the majority of patients completing the trial (90%) indicating that they would take the Polypill "for life" if proven to be effective in reducing CVD risk. Approximately 86% of the physicians surveyed agreed with and supported use of the Polypill for primary prevention and 93% for secondary prevention of CVD. Both the Polypill and Standard Practice resulted in marked reductions in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and 10-year risk of CVD. However, the differences between the treatment groups were not statistically significant.
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A review was conducted of all patients with active prescriptions for both simvastatin at doses greater than 20 mg per day and amiodarone from a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center as of November 1, 2008. Data collected included demographics, duration of therapy, baseline lipid and aminotransferase values, and risk factors for myopathy (i.e., aged 80 years or older; female sex; small body frame; hypothyroidism; hepatic or renal insufficiency; diabetes; alcohol abuse; and use of medications, such as gemfibrozil and nicotinic acid, that may increase the risk of myopathy). Patients were converted to either pravastatin or rosuvastatin based on baseline simvastatin dose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, and renal function. The conversion protocol was developed to maintain LDL-C lowering with potentially safer statins. Follow-up lipid and aminotransferase values were collected as customary clinical markers of efficacy and safety, respectively, for patients converted per the protocol. Because creatine kinase values are not routinely assessed in clinical practice, they were not available as part of the current protocol.
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OM3-CA did not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin or the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA. OM3-CA did not affect platelet function when co-administered with ASA.
In the study, 32 ICR mice were randomly divided into 4 groups,each group including 8 mice. The drug-loaded collagen scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously onto the cranium of each mouse according to the groups: (1) 1:50 (volume ratio) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution + collagen scaffold (blank control group); (2) 10⁻³ mol/L SIM solution + collagen scaffold (SIM group); (3) 200 mg/L mSDF-1 solution + collagen scaffold (mSDF-1 group); and (4) 10® mol/L SIM +200 mg/L mSDF-1 solution + collagen scaffold (SIM + mSDF-1 group). One week after implantation, the mice were treated by injecting the same drug solution mentioned above around the scaffold once a day for two days. The specimens were harvested 6 weeks after implantation and the bone formation was evaluated by soft X-ray analysis, HE staining and immunohistochemical staining. Angiogenesis of each group was checked by calculation of vessels in each tissue section.
Hypercholesterolemia in patients after renal transplantation composes a significant risk factor of cardio-vascular disease, it may also worsen graft survival. Statins are the most potent drugs to lower blood cholesterol. They also posses numerous pleiotropic abilities. The paper presents benefits of the use of statins in patients after renal transplantation, as well as the dangers related to the side effects of these drugs. It underlines that adequate use of statins is worth considering in patients after renal transplantation, taking into account not only their ability to lower cholesterol but also their additional properties positively influencing graft survival.
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Coincubation of RMC with HG, AGE or H(2)O(2) resulted in a significant increase of the expression of TGF-β and Col IV (p < 0.05). Simvastatin significantly inhibited HG-, AGE- or H(2)O(2)-induced expression of TGF-β and Col IV (p < 0.05). Moreover, simvastatin also inhibited HG-, AGE- and H(2)O(2)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which indicated that the preventive effect of simvastatin on TGF-β and Col IV may be associated with p38.
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The statins significantly reduced total serum cholesterol levels, LDL-cholesterol levels, and aortic atherosclerosis. The MDA content was also significantly reduced in native and oxidized LDL, as well as in the arterial wall. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly greater in the treated group compared with that in the hypercholesterolemic group.
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Porcine retinal arterioles ( approximately 75 mum internal diameter) were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized (55 cmH(2)O) without flow for in vitro study. Diameter changes in response to simvastatin were recorded using videomicroscopic techniques.
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The mean number of years of life saved ranged from 3 to 3.4 years for men with diabetes versus 2.4 to 2.7 years for men with cardiovascular disease. In women, the estimated benefits were 1.6 to 2.4 years for those with diabetes versus 1.6 to 2.1 years for those with cardiovascular disease. Total population benefits were also substantial for patients with diabetes (25.4 million person-years of life saved) and those with cardiovascular disease (16.0 million person-years of life saved).
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We found that lower out-of-pocket expenses associated with the initiating statin had a positive impact on persistence with therapy. The finding does not seem to apply to persons with minor copayments towards the end of the initiation year.
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In the analysis limited to direct costs, the cost of each year of life gained ranged from $3,800 for 70-year-old men with 309 mg of cholesterol per deciliter to $27,400 for 35-year-old women with 213 mg of cholesterol per deciliter. When we included indirect costs, the results ranged from a savings in the youngest patients to a cost of $13,300 per year of life gained in 70-year-old women with 213 mg of cholesterol per deciliter.