Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ondansetron.
Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.
Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).
Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.
Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.
Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.
Take each dose with a full glass of water.
Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Zofran are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.
Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.
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We examined the usefulness of continuous venous daily chemotherapy of 5-FU and low/I dose CDDP for patients undergoing noncurative surgery. Twelve patients with carcinoma (1 esophageal, 6 gastric, 4 colorectal carcinoma cases and 1 carcinoma case of unknown origin) underwent resection of primary lesion and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The schedule for the chemotherapy was as follows: 2-7 courses of 24-hours continuous venous infusion of CDDP (5mg/day on day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) and 5-FU (250 mg/day on day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 3, 5). Several patients received a bolus infusion of Epirubicin (10 mg/1 week or 30 mg/2 week). Mean total volumes of CDDP and 5-FU were 120 mg and 5.38 g, respectively. Nine cases could be evaluated. Results of the chemotherapy were 1 CR, 1 PR, 3 NC and 4 PD, and the overall response rate was 22%. Side effects were found in 6 cases, but were not so severe. One-year survival rate was 47%, and 50% survival time was 9 months. The prognosis of the patients seemed to be relatively good. These results suggest that continuous chemotherapy of 5-FU and low dose CDDP may be useful for patients undergoing noncurative surgery.
The two groups were similar for age, gestational age, height and weight. According to visual analogue pruritus scores, patients in group G experienced less pruritus at 8h (P=0.003) and 24h (P=0.01). Fewer patients in group G (n=8) than group O (n=18) required rescue anti-pruritic medication (P=0.03). Satisfaction scores were also higher in group G than in group O (P=0.03). There was no difference in overall incidence of pruritus, nausea and vomiting, and visual analogue pain scores between the two groups.
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Among the 4524 cases and 5859 controls included in this study, 67.1% reported first-trimester NVP, and 15.4% of them reported using at least one agent for NVP. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was not associated with CP or neural tube defects, but modest risk reductions were observed for CL/P (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.98) and hypospadias (aOR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.98). Regarding treatments for NVP in the first trimester, the following adjusted associations were observed with an increased risk: proton pump inhibitors and hypospadias (aOR = 4.36; 95% CI, 1.21-15.81), steroids and hypospadias (aOR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.03-7.97), and ondansetron and CP (aOR = 2.37; 95% CI, 1.18-4.76), whereas antacids were associated with a reduced risk for CL/P (aOR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.89).
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The mechanism of associated fluctuations in plasma motilin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) concentrations was studied in fasted conscious dogs while gastric motility was monitored. Plasma motilin and PP concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. In intact normal dogs, exogenous motilin (0.03-0.3 g/kg) stimulated dose-related release of PP, but PP did not stimulate motilin release. Motilin-induced PP release was completely inhibited by pretreatment with cholinergic blockers and a 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, and by vagotomy. The cyclic release of PP was abolished after vagotomy and duodenectomy. However, PP release stimulated by exogenous motilin was apparent after duodenectomy but not after vagotomy. In conclusion, motilin appears to stimulate PP release via vagal, cholinergic muscarinic pathways involving 5-HT3 receptors and to act as a biosignal controlling PP release by mediating the interdigestive periodic changes in the duodenum to the center of the autonomic nervous system. This represents a new role for motilin.
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To financially assess a device for the preparation of intravenous mixtures (DPIVM) --Grifill system-- such as IV gammaglobulin, salbutamol, ondansetron/dexametasone, cisplatin rehydrating solution and mesna.
Antiemetic guidelines recommend a combination of serotonin (5-HT3) with a second agent such as droperidol or dexamethasone. Physicians have been reluctant to employ these guidelines due to concerns over the black-box warning of droperidol and safety concerns with a steroid.
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Through validated risk prediction models which quantify patient risk factors, 152 patients with early-stage breast cancer scheduled to received adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy were categorized as being at low (level 0) or high-risk (level 1) for CINV. Prior to the first cycle of chemotherapy, low-risk patients received ondansetron and dexamethasone, while high-risk level 1 patients also received aprepitant. For subsequent cycles, patients who experienced CINV had their antiemetics changed in a stepwise manner to level 2 (extended-duration dexamethasone) or level 3 (extended-duration dexamethasone and low-dose olanzapine).
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The effect of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol, on pupil size in awake subjects suggests that these drugs might also alter pupillary reflex dilation and pupil size during general anesthesia. Forty-seven patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery under combined epidural/general anesthesia were randomized to receive one of the 5 following open labeled drugs: 10 mL saline, 0.13 mg/kg ondansetron, 0.25 mg/kg metoclopramide, 0.5 mg/kg metoclopramide, or 0.02 mg/kg droperidol. Three measurements of reflex dilation were taken at 5-min intervals and after the last measurement (time 0) the drug was administered. Measurements were then taken 5, 10, 20, and 40 min after I.V. drug administration. Reflex dilation was induced by intermittent noxious stimulation of the C5 dermatome with a tetanic electric current (60-70 mamp, 100 Hz, 3-s duration) after a stable level of epidural analgesia had been established with 3/8% bupivacaine and maintained with a continuous infusion. Metoclopramide produced a small decrease in pupil diameter and transiently depressed reflex dilation, whereas droperidol decreased pupil size at 10 min and depressed reflex dilation throughout the 40-min study period. Maximal change in reflex dilation was -6.6 +/- 3.3 mm-sec after droperidol. Ondansetron had no effect on pupil diameter or reflex dilation. When pupillary diameter measurements are used to gauge opioid levels during experimental conditions or during surgical anesthesia, antiemetic medication acting on the dopamine D2 receptor should be avoided.
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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. In this study we investigated comparatively the efficacy of combination therapy with ondansetron plus droperidol versus monotherapy with each agent alone in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
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Twenty-three patients with solid tumours receiving high-dose chemotherapy with APBSCT were studied. All were started on intravenous ondansetron at 24 mg/day before commencement of the conditioning regimen and continued till vomiting had ceased for 24 hours. The conditioning regimen used was dependent on the tumour type and the duration ranged from 4 to 6 days. Control of emesis was assessed by the number of vomiting episodes in each 24-hour period, monitored throughout conditioning till discharge from hospital.
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Seventy patients with brain tumors entered this study. The median number of prior chemotherapy treatments was two (range 1-3). Patients were assigned to one of four groups to receive temozolomide at daily doses of 200 (seven patients), 250 (13 patients), 300 (38 patients) and 350 mg/m(2)/day (12 patients). The absence of dose-limiting toxicity at cycle 1 led us to establish dose recommendations based on toxicity after repeated cycles. A total of 23, 72, 192 and 83 cycles were given at daily doses of 200, 250, 300 and 350 mg/m(2), respectively. Grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia was observed in 0/7, 1/13, 5/38 and 4/12 patients treated at doses of 200, 250, 300 and 350 mg/m(2)/day, respectively. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was observed in 1/7, 0/13, 3/38 and 4/12 patients treated with 200, 250, 300 and 350 mg/m(2)/day temozolomide, respectively. At a dose of 350 mg/m(2), sustained grade 2-3 thrombocytopenia did not allow treatment to be resumed at day 14 in >40% of patients, and this dose was considered to be the maximum tolerated dose. Thus, a dose of 300 mg/m(2)/day that was associated with <20% treatment delay due to sustained hematological toxicity was considered as the recommended dose. Objective responses were reported in 13 patients.
The effects of cholera toxin and heat stable Escherichia coli (E. coli) enterotoxin on intestinal fluid secretion are commonly considered to be mediated by cyclic nucleotides. It was demonstrated recently, by using the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2 receptor antagonist ketanserin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron, that 5-HT acts as an important mediator in cholera toxin- and heat stable E. coli enterotoxin-induced fluid secretion. In the present investigation ketanserin and tropisetron were compared with the newer 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ondansetron and granisetron versus 5-HT-, cholera toxin- and heat stable E. coli enterotoxin-induced fluid secretion in the rat jejunum in vivo. Both ondansetron and granisetron dose-dependently inhibited 5-HT- and enterotoxin-induced fluid secretion. Ketanserin blocked 5-HT-induced fluid secretion, but only diminished enterotoxin-induced effects even at higher doses. Tropisetron inhibited 5-HT- and cholera toxin-induced effects at high dose but only diminished heat stable E. coli enterotoxin-induced effects. We conclude that 5-HT3 receptors, located on enterochromaffin cells and nervous structures, are more important in mediating fluid secretion than 5-HT2 receptors, located on the epithelial cells.
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The groups were similar with respect to gender, age, weight, duration of surgery, numbers of patients receiving intraoperative atropine or ephedrine, number admitted overnight, and time to discharge home. Patients in Group P used lower total doses of opioids than did patients in Group OD. There were no significant differences in postoperative nausea, pain, or sedation scores, in numbers of patients requiring antiemetics (Group OD, 13 of 66; Group DM, 15 of 66; Group P, 14 of 68), or in numbers of patients vomiting, either in hospital or during the first postoperative day.
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The incidences of PONV in the immediate, early, late and first 24-h periods were significantly less in group P (20, 12, 19 and 35% respectively) than in group T (37, 29, 47 and 72%, P < 0.05). Time to achieve fast-track eligibility and duration of PACU stay were significantly shorter in group P (P < 0.001). Children in group P had superior mean (SD) parental satisfaction scores (8.2 (1.8)) compared with those in group T (6.8 (1.7), P < 0.001). The number needed to prevent PONV was 2 and the number needed to treat PONV was 9. The cost to benefit a child was more than fourfold less and the cost per PONV-free child was 35% less in group P.
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nausea oral, disintegrating buccal tablet (DBT) in the prevention of gastrointestinal reaction induced by anticancer drugs (cisplatin DDP 30 - 50 mg/m(2) or adramycin ADM >/= 40 mg/m(2)), as compared with those of kytril tablets.
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1. An investigation has been made into the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor mediating relaxation of rat oesophagus in preparations precontracted with carbachol. 2. In tissues treated with pargyline (100 microM) and in the presence of corticosterone (30 microM) and cocaine (30 microM) the potency of 5-HT and 5-methoxytyramine (5-MeOT) was not changed but the maximum response to these agonists was reduced. Thus there was no evidence of metabolism and/or uptake through an amine depleting mechanism. 3. The relaxant concentration-effect curves to 5-HT were shifted to the left in a concentration-related manner by isobutylmethylxanthine (1 and 10 microM), suggesting the involvement of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in these responses. 4. 5-HT produced concentration-related relaxations of rat oesophagus with an EC50 value of 0.24 microM. Several indole agonists were tested and the following rank order of potency of key agonists obtained: 5-HT greater than alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine = 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) greater than 5-MeOT. In contrast, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, sumatriptan and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin were weak or inactive. 5. The substituted benzamides, metoclopramide, cisapride, renzapride and R,S-zacopride acted as partial agonists, producing 60-70% of the 5-HT maximum. 6. The relaxation responses to 5-HT were neither inhibited by antagonists selective for 5-HT1 or 5-HT2 receptors nor by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, ondansetron, granisetron or MDL 72222. 7. The relaxation responses induced by 5-HT, 5-CT, 5-MeOT and renzapride were selectively inhibited by high concentrations of ICS 205-930 with pKB values of approximately 6. 8. The 5-HT receptor mediating relaxation in rat oesophagus cannot be designated 5-HT1, 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 under the current 5-HT classification, but the observed effects are consistent with stimulation of the putative 5-HT4 receptor.
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Patients undergoing palliative radiotherapy at risk for rinv were prescribed ondansetron rdf 8 mg twice daily while on treatment and were asked to complete a nausea and vomiting-specific daily diary, the Functional Living Index-Emesis (flie), and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C15 Palliative (qlq-C15-pal). Patients were categorized as receiving primary or secondary prophylaxis based on whether they had already experienced emetic episodes. "Overall control" was defined as a maximum increase of 2 episodes of nausea or vomiting from baseline. "Acute phase" was defined as the days during radiation until the first day after radiation; "delayed phase" was defined as days 2-10 after radiation.
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Single-dose palonosetron was more effective than ondansetron treatment to prevent acute and delayed nausea and vomiting following HDC before HSCT.
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After a systematic literature search in various databases, randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trials studying the preventive effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists were included. A random-effects model was applied, risk ratio (RR, binary variables) or weighted mean difference (continuous variables) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The primary outcome was the incidence of hypotension.
Tigecycline, a novel glycylcycline antibiotic, exhibits strong activity against gram-positive, gram-negative, aerobic, anaerobic, and atypical bacterial species, including many resistant pathogens, i.e., vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The safety and tolerability of tigecycline administered as single or multiple doses or at various infusion rates were explored in three phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in healthy subjects. Full pharmacokinetic profiles of tigecycline were determined in two of these studies. Subjects in the single-dose study received 12.5 to 300 mg of tigecycline, which differed with respect to the duration of infusion, subjects' feeding status, and ondansetron pretreatment. Subjects in the ascending multiple-dose study received 25 to 100-mg doses of tigecycline as a 1-h infusion every 12 h. The variable volume and infusion rate study consisted of administration of 100-mg loading dose of tigecycline, followed by 50 mg every 12 h for 5 days. Serum samples were analyzed for tigecycline by validated high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Systemic clearance ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 liters/h/kg, and the tigecycline half-life ranged from 37 to 67 h. Tigecycline had a large volume of distribution (7 to 10 liters/kg), indicating extensive distribution into the tissues. Food increased the maximum tolerated single-dose from 100 to 200 mg, but the duration of infusion did not affect tolerability. Side effects, mainly nausea and vomiting, which are common to the tetracycline class of antimicrobial agents, were seen in these studies. Tigecycline exhibits linear pharmacokinetics and is safe and well tolerated in the dose ranges examined.
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Ten RCTs, totaling 782 patients, were included in this analysis. The meta-analysis showed that: 1) compared with the control group, the ondansetron group was related to a decreasing incidence of propofol injection pain, and it was statistically significant (risk ratio [RR] = 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI, 0.34, 0.49], P < 0.00001); 2) compared with the incidence of propofol injection pain in the lidocaine group, there was no difference and no statistical significance (RR = 1.28, 95% CI [0.85, 1.93], P = 0.25); 3) no statistically significant differences were found between the ondansetron and magnesium sulfate groups in the incidence of propofol injection pain (RR = 1.20, 95% CI [0.87, 1.66], P = 0.27); and 4) the incidence of ondansetron group igniting moderate pain (RR = 0.37, 95% CI [0.26, 0.52], P < 0.00001) and severe pain (RR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.17, 0.43] P < 0.00001) was less likely to occur during the injection of propofol compared with the control group, but there was no difference between the ondansetron and control groups in the incidence of mild propofol injection pain (RR = 0.83, 95% CI [0.63, 1.10], P = 0.20).
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Both groups were evenly distributed for age, body mass index, type, and length of surgery. Cumulative incidence of vomiting at 72 h was significantly lower in group A (3%) compared to group P (15%; p = 0.021). Odds ratio for vomiting in group P compared to group A was 5.47 times. On Kaplan-Meier plot, time to first vomiting was also significantly delayed in group A (p = 0.019). A higher number of patients showed complete absence of nausea or vomiting in group A compared to group P (42.18 vs. 36.67%). On the other hand, nausea scores were unaffected by aprepitant, and no significant difference between groups was found at any of the measured time points.
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Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting(CINV)is one of the side effects causing significant psychological and physical suffering in patients receiving chemotherapy. First-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists(ondansetron, granisetron and ramosetron)are available, but some patients are still not treated adequately. Palonosetron is a second-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a prolonged duration of action and a higher receptor binding affinity than first-generation agents. In the present study, we aimed to compare the antiemetic efficacy of palonosetron vs. ramosetron in preventing acute and delayed CINV. Patients received palonosetron followed by ramosetron, and the antiemetic effects were evaluated by the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Antiemesis Tool(MAT). A total of 22 patients with colon cancer receiving chemotherapy were included in the efficacy analyses. Nine patients were observed with acute nausea, and 11 patients with delayed nausea. Relief of symptoms was observed in 3 patients with acute nausea and 4 patients with delayed nausea by switching from ramosetron to palonosetron. There was no significant difference of improvement in the acute phase, there was significantly suppressed in the delayed phase.
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In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study we have compared the antiemetic activity of the prophylactic administration of ondansetron 4 mg, tropisetron 5 mg and granisetron 3 mg with that of metoclopramide 10 mg and placebo in 132 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All study drugs and placebo were given as a short iv infusion ten minutes before the induction of anaesthesia. Perioperative anaesthetic care was standardized in all patients. Nausea and vomiting were assessed by direct questioning of the patient at 1, 4, 9, 12, 18 and 24 hr after recovery from anaesthesia. If patients experienced nausea and/or vomiting, rescue antiemetic treatment (metoclopramide 10 mg iv) was administered.
The effects of different doses of ondansetron (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg) administered intra-peritoneally were studied on amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and stereotypy in wistar rats. Ondansetron was administered 30 minutes prior to d-amphetamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.). Ondansetron in doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg significantly decreased the mean number of head dippings and crossings in the hole board test and in doses of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg significantly decreased the average stereotypic score. Since the hyperactivity and stereotypy are dopamine mediated, the effect of ondansetron to reduce these states suggests a potential role for ondansetron in conditions with dopamine excess.
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This is an analysis of fetal outcome in pregnancies exposed to ondansetron to treat Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG). In this retrospective cohort study, U.S. data on outcome were collected on 1070 pregnancies exposed to ondansetron and compared to outcomes in two control groups: 771 pregnancies in women with a history of HG with no ondansetron exposure and 1555 pregnancies with neither a history of HG nor ondansetron exposure. Ventricular septal defects were reported in 2/952 of infants in the HG/Ondansetron-exposure group and 4/1286 in the No HG/No Ondansetron-exposure group. Cleft palate was reported in 1/952 live births in the HG/Ondansetron and 2/1286 in the No HG/No Ondansetron-exposure groups. Women with a history of HG who took ondansetron reported less miscarriages and terminations, and higher live birth rates. The overall results do not support evidence of teratogenicity of ondansetron.
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Cisplatin-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) displays a biphasic pattern of emesis with both an early and delayed period. In contrast, moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) has a monophasic pattern. The objective of this analysis was to further investigate the impact of the NK1-receptor antagonist aprepitant on these patterns.
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