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In vitro preparations of human liver microsomes were used to study the inhibiting effects of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, paroxetine and fluvoxamine, on metabolism via hydroxylation of alprazolam and of desipramine. These reactions are mediated by Cytochromes P450-3A4 and P450-2D6, respectively. Paroxetine was a highly potent inhibitor of desipramine hydroxylation; the inhibition constant (Ki) value of 2.0 microM indicated greater inhibiting potency than fluoxetine or norfluoxetine. The in vitro data predicted in vivo impairment of desipramine clearance by coadministration of paroxetine which was in the same range as observed in a clinical study. Fluvoxamine, by contrast, was a much weaker inhibitor of desipramine hydroxylation, having a Ki value (16.6 microM) similar to those of sertraline and desmethylsertraline. For hydroxylation of alprazolam, paroxetine was a relatively weak inhibitor, approximately comparable to fluoxetine, whereas fluvoxamine showed inhibiting capacity similar to that of norfluoxetine. The in vitro data predicted the degree of impairment of alprazolam clearance observed in vitro model can therefore provide clinically relevant data on prediction of potential drug interactions with SSRIs.
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To assess the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and comparator antidepressants.
Bone mineral density may be negatively influenced by hyperprolactinemia, which can be caused by atypic neuroleptics and antidepressants.
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Two hundred fifty-nine patients with major depressive disorder with psychotic features (N = 117 aged 18-59 years and N = 142 aged 60 years or older).
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There were 77 timed sertraline concentrations measured in 28 patients with sertraline overdoses with a median dose of 1550 mg (250-5000 mg). SDAC was given to seven patients between 1.5 and 4 h post-overdose. A one compartment model with lag time of 1 h and first order input and elimination adequately described the data. Including BSV on both lag time and relative fraction absorbed improved the model. The population PK parameter estimates for absorption rate constant, volume of distribution and clearance were 0.895 h(-1) , 5340 l and 130 l h(-1) , respectively. The calculated half-life of sertraline following overdose was 28 h (IQR 19.4-30.6h). When given up to 4 h post-overdose, SDAC significantly increased the clearance of sertraline by a factor of 1.9, decreased the area under the curve and decreased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ).
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In this preliminary trial, nine subjects with comorbid PTSD and alcohol dependence were treated in an open-label trial with sertraline for a 12-week period. Symptoms of PTSD and depression were monitored monthly with the Impact of Event Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Alcohol consumption was monitored by a self-report instrument (Time-Line Follow-Back).
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Insufficient data inform dosing of antidepressants and clinical monitoring for major depressive disorder (MDD) during the perinatal period. The objectives were to assess the pharmacokinetics of sertraline (SER) across pregnancy and postpartum. Participants treated with SER for MDD underwent serial sampling to measure steady-state concentrations of SER and norsertraline during the second and third trimesters and postpartum (total of 3 assessments). Blood was drawn before observed SER administration and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours after administration. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of serum concentrations of SER and norsertraline was developed and validated. For each sampling period for SER, area under the serum concentration versus time curve, maximal serum concentration (Cmax), and the time at which Cmax occurred (Tmax) were determined. Of 11 women initially enrolled, 6 completed second- and third-trimester assessments, and 3 completed all 3 assessments (including the postpartum assessment). Mean changes on all pharmacokinetic parameters were nonsignificant between assessments, although there was a marked heterogeneity among individuals. Results were not significantly altered by incorporation of body weights into the analyses. The range of pharmacokinetic changes between individuals was broad, indicating heterogeneity regarding the impact of pregnancy on SER metabolism. Overall, lowest observed SER area under the curve and Cmax occurred in the third trimester (observed in 5 of 6 participants). Despite nonsignificant mean pharmacokinetic changes, the range of pharmacokinetic changes across pregnancy warrants careful monitoring of depressive symptoms in women with MDD in late pregnancy and further study.
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A total of 194 studies were found that were eligible for inclusion in our analysis. Of these, 177 focused on the treatment of MDD and 17 on the treatment of dysthymic disorder. We found that antidepressant therapy was significantly more effective than placebo in dysthymic disorder (risk ratio = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.49-2.04; P < .0001), while placebo response rates in dysthymic disorder trials were significantly lower compared to MDD trials (29.9% vs 37.9%, respectively; P = .042). Meta-regression suggested a statistically significant difference in the risk ratio of responding to antidepressants versus placebo when comparing studies either on dysthymic disorder or on MDD, suggesting a greater risk ratio for response in favor of antidepressant therapy versus placebo in patients with dysthymic disorder versus MDD (coefficient of -0.113; P = .007).
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Experimental animal study.
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A compilation of therapeutic drug monitoring data for 15 antidepressant drugs in a naturalistic routine clinical setting is presented. A substantial number of serum concentrations, at different daily doses, are outlined, and the intraindividual and overall serum concentration coefficient of variation for a respective substance is presented. Also, concentration comparisons between women and men, and patients older or younger than 65 years are made. The drugs included are amitriptyline (n = 394), citalopram (n = 5457), clomipramine (n = 400), escitalopram (n = 3066), fluoxetine (n = 793), fluvoxamine (n = 165), mianserin (n = 1063), mirtazapine (n = 1427), moclobemide (n = 200), nortriptyline (n = 206), paroxetine (n = 1677), reboxetine (n = 85), sertraline (n = 2998), trimipramine (n = 158), and venlafaxine (n = 1781). Of the 9 drugs exhibiting linear (first order) kinetics, all but reboxetine gave a significant negative dose-to-dose-normalized correlation with concentrations, that is an increased clearance with higher dose. When dose was correlated to the metabolite:parent substance ratio for drugs exhibiting linear kinetics, citalopram and mianserin gave a positive slope, contrary to a negative slope shown for sertraline and venlafaxine. The intraindividual variations of the serum concentrations were lower than the overall variations, and the intraindividual variation of the metabolite:parent substance ratio was lower than the intraindividual variation of respective parent substance (except clomipramine and mianserin). Women had significantly higher serum concentrations than men (significant for citalopram, escitalopram, mianserin, mirtazapine, and venlafaxine), and patients older than 65 years had higher serum concentrations than the younger ones for all drugs except amitriptyline, moclobemide, and trimipramine. By presenting a comprehensive compilation of therapeutic drug monitoring data for each drug, a reference tool is created, in addition to improved pharmacokinetic knowledge of antidepressant drugs.
A 24-year-old woman presented with hypopigmented papules of the abdomen that had been present for four years without a family history of similar cutaneous findings or associated medical problems. Histopathologic features confirmed the diagnosis of a connective-tissue nevus that was composed of collagen. Eruptive collagenomas are a rare form of acquired collagenomas, which are characterized by the sudden appearance of asymptomatic papules and nodules on the lower trunk and extremities; the lesions are composed of haphazardly arranged collagen fibers. The pathogenesis is unknown, lesions are persistent, and therapeutic options have not been reported.
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Sertraline is a well known antidepressant drug which belongs to a class called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Most published methods do not enable studying the stability of this drug in different stress conditions.
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Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats have been proposed as an animal model of depression because they resemble depressed humans in that they have elevated REM sleep, reduced activity, and increased immobility and anhedonia after exposure to stressors. The present paper reviews experiments on the drug treatment of FSL and control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats related to their utility as an animal model of depression, and presents new information. FSL rats exhibited exaggerated immobility in the forced swim test which is counteracted by the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and desipramine and the serotonin reuptake blocker sertraline; the low immobility exhibited by the FRL rats is generally unaffected by these compounds. In contrast to these "therapeutic" effects of well recognized antidepressants, lithium and bright light treatment did not alter the exaggerated immobility of FSL rats. Novel data indicated that neither FSL nor FRL rats exhibited alterations in swim test immobility following chronic administration of the psychomotor stimulant amphetamine (2 mg/kg) and the anticholinergic scopolamine (2 mg/kg), which typically reduce immobility after acute administration. However, it was found that the calcium channel blockers verapamil (5 and 15 mg/kg) and nicardipine (10 mg/kg) did reduce the exaggerated immobility in FSL rats following chronic administration, suggesting that these compounds need to be evaluated further in humans. Previous studies have indicated no differences between FSL and FRL rats evaluated in the elevated plus maze, either at baseline or after the administration of diazepam, suggesting that the FSL rat may not differ from controls in anxiety-related behavior. Another recently published study showed that the FSL rat also did not differ from normal Sprague-Dawley rats in startle tests, indicating that the FSL rats do not exhibit behaviors shown in animal models of schizophrenia. These findings confirm the utility of FSL rats as an animal model of depression because the FSL rats do not appear to exhibit behaviors analogous to anxiety or schizophrenia and because they respond "therapeutically" to antidepressants and not psychomotor stimulants.
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Sertraline was a generally safe treatment in children and adolescents with PTSD, but did not demonstrate efficacy when compared to placebo during 10 weeks of treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00150306.
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The discontinuation of many pharmacologic agents is associated with characteristic withdrawal symptoms. Antidepressants, particularly the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), are known to be associated with a group of common symptoms upon discontinuation. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are also taking their respective place in the literature with reports of discontinuation symptoms. This review summarizes case reports and reports that allow systematic assessment of discontinuation symptoms following SRI discontinuation.
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An individual with pedophilia and trichotillomania was treated with sertraline. Despite a longstanding history of trichotillomania, his hair-pulling behaviour stopped. In addition, pedophilic impulses also remitted. This improvement was noted not only in terms of subjective reporting but also in terms of biological and physiological testing done before and after treatment.
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Sertraline was found to inhibit weight gain and decrease food intake without affecting locomotion in rats and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. Doses of 10, 17.8, and 32 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally, (bid) significantly reduced the time rats spent in contact with their feeders and body weight in a dose-related manner. During a 5-d bid treatment regimen, vehicle-treated rats gained 37 +/- 3 g (mean +/- SEM), whereas animals treated with 32 mg sertraline/kg lost 34 +/- 4 g. The effects of sertraline on feeding and body weight in rats appeared to be specific because locomotor activity was not altered. In ob/ob mice, sertraline (44 mg/kg, ip, bid) lowered body weight relative to vehicle-treated controls for the duration of a 12-d study. There was no evidence for tolerance to the hypophagic and weight-loss effects of sertraline during either of the chronic dosing studies. These results suggest a potential role for sertraline in the treatment of human obesity.
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This multicenter trial covering three Scandinavian countries is going to be the largest CBT-study for paediatric OCD to date. It is not funded by industry and tries in the short and long-term to answer the question whether further CBT or SSRI is better in CBT non-responders.
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The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of different classes of antidepressant drugs on the carrageenan paw oedema and tail-electric stimulation assays in the rat. Drugs were intraperitoneally administered 30 min prior to carrageenan or nociceptive testing. The non-selective noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors imipramine, amitriptyline and clomipramine displayed anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan model of paw inflammation. The maximal degree of oedema inhibitions seen with these agents were 28.8, 41.5 and 46.8% for 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) amitriptyline, 26.2, 38.2 and 51.4% for 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg kg(-1) imipramine and 51.2 and 54.1% for 16 and 32 mg kg(-1) clomipramine, respectively. The heterocyclic agent trazodone significantly inhibited paw oedema by 46 and 41% at 1 and 2h after dosing at the highest dose (40 mg kg(-1)) examined. Fluoxetine, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) caused dose-related reduction of paw oedema, with 20.7% inhibition at the dose of 10 mg kg(-1). In contrast, sertraline, another SSRI caused dose-dependent enhancement of paw oedema. All antidepressant drugs in the study showed anti-nociceptive properties in the tail-electric stimulation assay with amitriptyline and trazodone being the most effective in this respect. Taken together, data in the present study confirm anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effect for some antidepressant drugs and indicate that SSRIs differently affects inflammation.