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The effect of allopurinol (50 mg/kg) on the rate of full thickness excisional wound contraction in the Hooded Lister rat was assessed by planimetric and histological examinations. Compared with control animals, those treated with allopurinol showed a significantly lower coefficient of wound area contraction for days 0-7 (p < 0.05) than those of control animals. Histologically, in the allopurinol treated wounds the granulation tissue was less cellular but appeared to contain more collagen. This inhibition by allopurinol of the contraction phase of wound healing associated with an increased quantity of granulation tissue suggests that mediation of the process may involve a complex interaction between the fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and free radicals.
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To investigate genetic association at a genome-wide level on a large sample of SJS/TEN patients.
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Eighty-five GI patients showed the potassium significantly decreased from 3.76±0.70 to 3.60±0.74, whereas the change among 355 GII patients was almost unremarkable: 4.00±0.57 to 3.96±0.06 mEq/L.
The functional success rates of pancreas grafts of groups after 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min of warm ischemia were 100%, 100%, 67.7%, 0%, respectively. There was an excellent correlation between the posttransplant viability and tissue concentration of ATP and TAN at the end of preservation.
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Two cats with Leishmania species infections were investigated. The first had been imported from Spain with a non-healing, ulcerated nodule on a hindleg. The presence of Leishmania species was detected by histopathology and pcr on samples of skin. The lesion was unresponsive to treatment with allopurinol for three months but the cat was treated successfully by removing the lesion surgically. The second cat had lived in both Spain and Switzerland, and had a history of recurrent skin lesions on its head and neck. A diagnosis of pemphigus foliaceus was made on the basis of histopathology, but Leishmania species serology (elisa) and pcr of skin were positive, leading to a diagnosis of a Leishmania species infection combined with pemphigus foliaceus.
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We have shown that 24-hour preservation by a two-layer [University of Wisconsin solution (UW)/perfluorochemical (PFC)] cold storage method at 4 degrees C allowed tissue ATP synthesis and resuscitated canine pancreases subjected to 90 minutes of warm ischemia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the two-layer (UW/PFC) mild hypothermic storage method at 20 degrees C could shorten a preservation period for recovery of ischemically damaged pancreas and clarify changes of tissue adenine nucleotide metabolism and tissue perfusions. After 90 minutes of warm ischemia, canine pancreas grafts were preserved by the two-layer method and then autotransplanted. Tissue adenine nucleotide levels at the end of preservation and tissue perfusions after reperfusion were measured. Pancreas grafts subjected to 90 minutes of warm ischemia did not survive (0 of 5), without preservation. During a 5-hour preservation by the two-layer cold storage method the grafts did not synthesize enough ATP to repair damaged cell, although tissue perfusions were maintained after reperfusion. Consequently, ischemically damaged pancreases were not resuscitated (0 of 3). However, during 5-hour preservation by the two-layer mild hypothermic storage method, the grafts supplied enough ATP for processes that repair damaged cells, and tissue perfusions were maintained after reperfusion. As a result, ischemically damaged grafts were resuscitated (5 of 5). We conclude that 5-hour preservation by the two-layer mild hypothermic storage method accelerates ATP synthesis, which is essential for repairing damaged cells and protects the vascular microcirculation. This method can resuscitate ischemically damaged pancreas faster and holds promise for pancreas-kidney transplantation from cardiac arrest donors.
In this double-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging study, 432 patients with gouty arthritis initiating allopurinol treatment were randomised 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 to receive: a single dose of canakinumab, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg subcutaneously; 4×4-weekly doses of canakinumab (50+50+25+25 mg subcutaneously); or daily colchicine 0.5 mg orally for 16 weeks. Patients recorded details of flares in diaries. The study aimed to determine the canakinumab dose having equivalent efficacy to colchicine 0.5 mg at 16 weeks.
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Twenty-four rabbit hearts were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 preservation solutions in a crystalloid-perfused Langendorff model: (1) prototype solution containing a 0.5 mmol/L concentration of pinacidil, (2) prototype solution without pinacidil as control, and (3) University of Wisconsin solution. Thirty minutes of initial perfusion preceded baseline data acquisition. Data comprised left ventricle pressure-volume curves generated by inflating an intraventricular latex balloon. After cardioplegic administration, hearts underwent 4 hours of hypothermic storage, followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion and postischemic data acquisition.
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Storage of human hepatocytes is essential for their use in research and liver cell transplantation. However, cryopreservation and thawing (C/T) procedures have detrimental effects on the viability and functionality compared with fresh cells. The aim of this study was to upgrade the standard C/T methodology to obtain better quality hepatocytes for cell transplantation to improve the overall clinical outcome.
Plasma magnesium concentrations were monitored during orthotopic liver transplantation. Magnesium supplementation was not given, although intraoperative calcium, potassium, and sodium bicarbonate were given as required. We found that there were significant falls in magnesium concentration to below our laboratory lower limit of normal, occurring chiefly during the anhepatic phase of surgery. Two patients with hypomagnesemia but normal potassium and calcium ion concentrations developed ventricular extrasystoles. Magnesium is a smooth muscle relaxant, dilating coronary arteries and peripheral vessels. It also exerts an antiarrhythmic effect and may have a permissive effect on the actions of catecholamines. Magnesium supplementation may be indicated during orthotopic liver transplantation because of the potentially beneficial effects and to avoid possible deleterious effects of hypomagnesemia. However, magnesium levels need to be monitored to avoid the unwanted side effects of hypermagnesemia.
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In a warm IR model, rat kidneys were perfused in situ with either saline, UW, or Lifor for 45 min. Renal function and histology were assessed 24 h later. In a cold IR model, kidney slices were cold-stored in saline, UW, or Lifor at 4°C. Kidney injury was assessed by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and immunoblot analysis for cleaved caspase-3.
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Using a Danish Register cohort of 86,039 adult new allopurinol users and propensity score matched controls, we found that gout requiring allopurinol prescription was associated with an increased fracture risk.
Two patients, a 47-year-old woman suffering from chronic renal failure, hyperuricemia and gout, and her 26-year-old son with hyperuricemia and chronic renal failure, are described. The father and two siblings of the woman had died of chronic renal failure. Both patients had a markedly reduced fractional excretion of urate, which was significantly increased by both benzbromarone and probenecid. A renal biopsy of the son revealed an unspecific chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. By light microscopy, many proximal tubular epithelial cells showed signs of apoptosis, which was confirmed with the specific TUNEL assay. We propose a hypothesis based on a gain-of-function mutation of the luminal anion exchanger of the proximal tubulus to explain reduced uric acid excretion, dominant inheritance and apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells in this rare disease. Treatment with a combination of allopurinol to reduce the renal urate load and benzbromarone to block the tubular anion exchanger and normalize fractional uric acid excretion is suggested.
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Anesthetized dogs underwent coronary artery occlusion (90 minutes) and reperfusion (6 hours). Oxypurinol (28 mg/kg) or amflutizole (30 mg/kg), chemically unrelated inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, or vehicle was infused intravenously 15 minutes before and 3 hours after reperfusion. Regional myocardial blood flow was determined with radiolabeled microspheres. Infarct size was determined with the tetrazolium method. Myocardial infarct size (percent of risk region) was less in oxypurinol-treated dogs, 32 +/- 16%, compared with that of the control group, 46 +/- 15%. Infarct size for the amflutizole-treated dogs, 40 +/- 21%, was not significantly different from that of the control group. There were no differences in rate-pressure product or collateral blood flow to account for differences in infarct size. Uric acid concentration in the coronary venous plasma increased after reperfusion in the dogs treated with vehicle but not in the drug-treated dogs. Xanthine oxidase inhibition was demonstrated in each of the drug treatment groups, but only oxypurinol limited the extent of myocardial injury.
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The differences and efficacy of standard preservation solutions in kidney transplantation, University of Wisconsin (UW) and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), remain a topic of debate in recent clinical studies. P-selectins represent glycoproteins expressed on endothelial cells and platelets responsible for the earliest events in ischemia/reperfusion injury in kidney transplantation. This study aimed to compare the levels of P-selectin expression between cold preserved kidney tissues in UW and HTK solutions. Thirty kidneys were procured from male Lewis rats and stored in cold (4°C) solutions for periods of 4, 12, 16, 20, and 24h. Group 1 (n=15) kidneys were stored in UW solutions, and group 2 (n=15) kidneys were submerged in HTK solutions. At the end of each time point, the kidneys underwent preparation and levels of P-selectin expression in the tissues were measured using Immunoblot analyses and adjusted volumetric quantification of Western blot signals. For all periods of cold preservation, P-selectin expression was significantly down-regulated in kidney tissues stored in UW compared with HTK solutions (P<0.001). In summary, UW demonstrated a significant benefit over HTK solution in down-regulating P-selectin expression in cold preserved kidney grafts.
Subzero nonfreezing storage (-4 degrees C) in UW solution could provide better preservability for isolated rat hepatocytes with protection against hypoxic cell injury compared with conventional hypothermic storage (4 degrees C).
Wuling San, a famous prescription in Chinese medicine, is composed of Polyporus, Poria, Alismatis rhizoma, Cinnamomi cortex and Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma, and promotes kidney function and diuresis. The main purpose of this study was to investigate its renal protective effect in high fructose-induced hyperuricemic mice.
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There is no influence of diet on pharmacokinetic parameters of allopurinol or oxypurinol.
Exposure to I/R resulted in acute gastric erosions, with the maximal increase of the area of these lesions observed 3 h after the end of I/R. This effect was accompanied by a decrease in the GBF, a significant increase in blood free radicals and plasma gastrin increments, and almost complete suppression of gastric secretion. Starting 24 h after I/R, the gastric superficial lesions progressed into deeper ulcers that healed progressively within 10 days, and this was accompanied by gradual restoration of the gastric secretion and the GBF. Treatment with SOD and allopurinol accelerated significantly the healing of I/R erosions, and this effect was accompanied by a significant increase in the GBF and the attenuation of blood free radicals. At 0, 3, and 12 h after I/R a significant decrease in SOD mRNA was observed, whereas expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and ICAM-1 showed a progressive increase starting immediately after I/R, reaching a maximum on day 3. The plasma level of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta started to increase on day 3 and peaked on day 5 after I/R, being still significantly higher at day 10 than that measured in the vehicle-treated control gastric mucosa. On day 10 the gastric ulcers were almost completely healed, and a decrease in the expression for TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and ICAM-1 mRNA and an increase in the expression of SOD mRNA were observed.
A method is described for allopurinol and oxipurinol assay within human plasma and urine in the range expected during therapy. The method is based on high-performance ion-exchange chromatography following an efficient sample purification step using Chelex-100 resin in the Cu2+-form. Linear calibration curves are produced for allopurinol over the range 0.05-10 mumole/1 (0.068-1.36 mug/ml) in plasma and 0.005-1 mmole/1 (0.68-136 mug/ml) in urine and for oxipurinol 0.5-100 mumole/1 (0.076-15.2 mug/ml) in plasma and 0.1-2 mmole/1 (15.2-304 mug/ml) in urine.
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Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an intracellular enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin endoperoxide (PGG(2)). There are two isoforms of COX, namely constitutive COX-1 and inducible COX-2. It has been reported that COX-2 plays an important role in ischemia-reperfusion injury and that COX-2 mRNA and protein expression were up-regulated during cardiac allograft rejection. FK3311 is a suppressor of COX-2 activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibiting COX-2 with FK3311 for the minimization of ischemia-reperfusion injury and for the improvement of donor heart function following transplantation in a canine model.
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CMU-1 is a new preservation solution with a low potassium concentration as well as low viscosity that is highly effective in reducing preservation injury. The purpose of this experiment is to compare the protective effect of CMU-1 solution with that of UW during cold preservation and normothermic reperfusion.